The effects of Antibody Engineering CH and CL in Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab recombinant models: Impact on antibody production and antigen-binding.
ABSTRACT: Current therapeutic antibodies such as Trastuzumab, are typically of the blood circulatory IgG1 class (Cκ/ CHγ1). Due to the binding to Her2 also present on normal cell surfaces, side effects such as cardiac failure can sometimes be associated with such targeted therapy. Using antibody isotype swapping, it may be possible to reduce systemic circulation through increased tissue localization, thereby minimising unwanted side effects. However, the effects of such modifications have yet to be fully characterized, particularly with regards to their biophysical properties in antigen binding. To do this, we produced all light and heavy chain human isotypes/subtypes recombinant versions of Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab, and studied them with respect to recombinant production and Her2 binding. Our findings show that while the light chain constant region changes have no major effects on production or Her2 binding, some heavy chain isotypes, in particularly, IgM and IgD isotypes, can modulate antigen binding. This study thus provides the groundwork for such isotype modifications to be performed in the future to yield therapeutics of higher efficacy and efficiency.
Project description:The therapeutic potential of immunoglobulin M (IgM) is of considerable interest in immunotherapy due to its complement-activating and cell-agglutinating abilities. Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab are monoclonal antibodies used to treat human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer but exhibit significantly different binding affinities as IgM when compared to its IgG isotype. Using integrative multiscale modelling and simulations of complete antibody assemblies, we show that Pertuzumab IgM is able to utilize all of its V-regions to bind multiple HER2 receptors simultaneously, while similar binding in Trastuzumab IgM is prohibited by steric clashes caused by the large globular domain of HER2. This is subsequently validated by confirming that Pertuzumab IgM inhibits proliferation in HER2 over-expressing live cells more effectively than its IgG counterpart and Trastuzumab IgM. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the molecular details of antibody-antigen interactions for the design and isotype selection of therapeutic antibodies.
Project description:Monomeric IgA has been proposed as an alternative antibody format for cancer therapy. Here, we present our studies on the production, purification and functional evaluation of anti-HER2 IgA antibodies as anti-cancer agents in comparison to the anti-HER2 IgG1 trastuzumab. MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed profound differences in glycosylation traits across the IgA isotypes and cell lines used for production, including sialylation and linkage thereof, fucosylation (both core and antennary) and the abundance of high-mannose type species. Increases in sialylation proved to positively correlate with in vivo plasma half-lives. The polymerization propensity of anti-HER2 IgA2m2 could be suppressed by an 18-aa deletion of the heavy chain tailpiece - coinciding with the loss of high-mannose type N-glycan species - as well as by 2 cysteine to serine mutations at positions 320 and 480. The HER2 F(ab')2-mediated anti-proliferative effect of the IgA2m1 and IgA2m2 subtypes was similar to IgG1, whereas the IgA1 isotype displayed considerably lower potency and efficacy. The Fc-mediated induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) using human whole blood ADCC assays did not demonstrate such clear differences between the IgA isotypes. However, the potency of the anti-HER2 IgA antibodies in these ADCC assays was found to be significantly lower than that of trastuzumab. In vivo anti-tumor activity of the anti-HER2 IgA antibodies was compared to that of trastuzumab in a BT-474 breast cancer xenograft model. Multiple dosing and sialylation of the IgA antibodies compensated for the short in vivo half-life of native IgA antibodies in mice compared to a single dose of IgG1. In the case of the IgA2m2 antibody, the resulting high plasma exposure levels were sufficient to cause clear tumor stasis comparable to that observed for trastuzumab at much lower plasma exposure levels.
Project description:Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a humanized IgG1 antibody raised against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), is the main antibody in clinical use against breast cancer. Pre-clinical evidence and clinical studies indicate that trastuzumab employs several anti-tumour mechanisms that most likely contribute to enhanced survival of patients with HER2/neu-positive breast carcinomas. New strategies are aimed at improving antibody-based therapeutics like trastuzumab, e.g. by enhancing antibody-mediated effector function mechanisms. Based on our previous findings that a chimaeric ovarian tumour antigen-specific IgE antibody showed greater efficacy in tumour cell killing, compared to the corresponding IgG1 antibody, we have produced an IgE homologue of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab IgE was engineered with the same light- and heavy-chain variable-regions as trastuzumab, but with an epsilon in place of the gamma-1 heavy-chain constant region. We describe the physical characterisation and ligand binding properties of the trastuzumab IgE and elucidate its potential anti-tumour activities in functional assays. Both trastuzumab and trastuzumab IgE can activate monocytic cells to kill tumour cells, but they operate by different mechanisms: trastuzumab functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), whereas trastuzumab IgE functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Trastuzumab IgE, incubated with mast cells and HER2/neu-expressing tumour cells, triggers mast cell degranulation, recruiting against cancer cells a potent immune response, characteristic of allergic reactions. Finally, in viability assays both antibodies mediate comparable levels of tumour cell growth arrest. These functional characteristics of trastuzumab IgE, some distinct from those of trastuzumab, indicate its potential to complement or improve upon the existing clinical benefits of trastuzumab.
Project description:Pertuzumab (Perjeta) is an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody that is used for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancers in combination with trastuzumab (Herceptin) and docetaxel and showed promising clinical outcomes. Pertuzumab is suggested to block heterodimerization of HER2 with EGFR and HER3 that abolishes canonical function of HER2. However, evidence on the exact mode of action of pertuzumab in homodimerization of HER2 are limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of pertuzumab and its combination with trastuzumab on HER2 homodimerization, phosphorylation and whole gene expression profile in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably overexpressing human HER2 (CHO-K6). CHO-K6 cells were treated with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and their combination, and then HER2 homodimerization and phosphorylation at seven pY sites were investigated. The effects of the monoclonal antibodies on whole gene expression and the expression of cell cycle stages, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis were studied by cDNA microarray. Results showed that pertuzumab had no significant effect on HER2 homodimerization, however, trastuzumab increased HER2 homodimerization. Interestingly, pertuzumab increased HER2 phosphorylation at Y1127, Y1139, and Y1196 residues, while trastuzumab increased HER2 phosphorylation at Y1196. More surprisingly, combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab blocked the phosphorylation of Y1005 and Y1127 of HER2. Our results also showed that pertuzumab, but not trastuzumab, abrogated the effect of HER2 overexpression on cell cycle in particular G1/S transition, G2/M transition, and M phase, whereas trastuzumab abolished the inhibitory effect of HER2 on apoptosis. Our findings confirm that pertuzumab is unable to inhibit HER2 homodimerization but induces HER2 phosphorylation at some pY sites that abolishes HER2 effects on cell cycle progress. These data suggest that the clinical effects of pertuzumab may mostly through the inhibition of HER2 heterodimers, rather than HER2 homodimers and that pertuzumab binding to HER2 may inhibit non-canonical HER2 activation and function in non-HER-mediated and dimerization-independent pathway(s).
Project description:Antibody research has traditionally focused on heavy chains, often neglecting the important complementary role of light chains in antibody formation and secretion. In the light chain, the complementarity-determining region 3 (VL-CDR3) is specifically implicated in disease states. By modulating VL-CDR3 exposure on the scaffold through deletions in the framework region 3 (VL-FWR3), we further investigated the effects on secretion in recombinant production and antigen binding kinetics. Our random deletions of two residues in the VL-FWR3 of a Trastuzumab model showed that the single deletions could impact recombinant production without significant effect on Her2 binding. When both the selected residues were deleted, antibody secretion was additively decreased, and so was Her2 binding kinetics. Interestingly, we also found allosteric effects on the Protein L binding site at VL-FWR1 elicited by these deletions in VL- FWR3. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of light chain FWR3 in antigen binding, recombinant production, and antibody purification using Protein L.
Project description:Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are monoclonal antibodies that bind to distinct subdomains of the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Adding these monoclonal antibodies to the treatment regimen of HER2-positive breast cancer has changed the paradigm for treatment in that form of cancer. Synergistic activity has been observed with the combination of these two antibodies leading to hypotheses regarding the mechanism(s) and to the development of bispecific antibodies to maximize the clinical effect further. Although the individual crystal structures of HER2-trastuzumab and HER2-pertuzumab revealed the distinct binding sites and provided the structural basis for their anti-tumor activities, detailed structural information on the HER2-trastuzumab-pertuzumab complex has been elusive. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of HER2-trastuzumab-pertuzumab at 4.36 Å resolution. Comparison with the binary complexes reveals no cooperative interaction between trastuzumab and pertuzumab, and provides key insights into the design of novel, high-avidity bispecific molecules with potentially greater clinical efficacy.
Project description:Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to HER2 and is used in combination with another HER2-specific monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, for the treatment of HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Pertuzumab binds to an HER2 binding site distinct from that of trastuzumab, and its affinity is enhanced when trastuzumab is present. We aim to exploit this enhanced affinity of pertuzumab for its HER2 binding epitope and adapt this antibody as a PET imaging agent by radiolabeling with (89)Zr to increase the sensitivity of HER2 detection in vivo. Here, we investigate the biodistribution of (89)Zr-pertuzumab in HER2-expressing BT-474 and HER2-nonexpressing MDA-MB-231 xenografts to quantitatively assess HER2 expression in vivo. In vitro cell binding studies were performed resulting in retained immunoreactivity and specificity for HER2-expressing cells. In vivo evaluation of (89)Zr-pertuzumab was conducted in severely combined immunodeficient mice, subcutaneously inoculated with BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 cells. (89)Zr-pertuzumab was systemically administered and imaged at 7 days postinjection (p.i.) followed by terminal biodistribution studies. Higher tumor uptake was observed in BT-474 compared to MDA-MB-231 xenografts with 47.5 ± 32.9 and 9.5 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively at 7 days p.i (P = 0.0009) and blocking studies with excess unlabeled pertuzumab showed a 5-fold decrease in BT-474 tumor uptake (P = 0.0006), confirming the in vivo specificity of this radiotracer. Importantly, we observed that the tumor accumulation of (89)Zr-pertuzumab was increased in the presence of unlabeled trastuzumab, at 173 ± 74.5% ID/g (P = 0.01). Biodistribution studies correlate with PET imaging quantification using max SUV (r = 0.98, P = 0.01). Collectively, these results illustrate that (89)Zr-pertuzumab as a PET imaging agent may be beneficial for the quantitative and noninvasive assessment of HER2 expression in vivo especially for patients undergoing trastuzumab therapy.
Project description:Pertuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to the HER2 receptor, represents a promising new anti-HER2 agent with a novel mechanism of action targeting the inhibition of HER2 dimerization. Nonclinical and clinical data to date indicate that pertuzumab provides a broader HER2 blockade through the inhibition of HER2 heterodimerization. In preclinical experiments, pertuzumab has demonstrated superior antitumor effects when combined with other anti-HER2 treatments such as trastuzumab, compared to when used as monotherapy. Trastuzumab and pertuzumab monoclonal antibodies bind to distinct epitopes on the HER2 receptor without competing with each other, resulting in distinctive mechanisms for disrupting HER2 signaling. These mechanisms are complementary and result in augmented therapeutic efficacy when pertuzumab and trastuzumab are given in combination. Clinically, pertuzumab may have optimal therapeutic effects when given to patients with HER2-positive cancers, in combination with trastuzumab. This observation is supported by recent clinical trials in the metastatic as well as neoadjuvant setting. Intravenous pertuzumab had an acceptable tolerability profile when added to trastuzumab and chemotherapy. This overview will review recent advances in the clinical development of this HER2-targeted therapy.
Project description:The lineage leading to lungfishes is one of the few major jawed vertebrate groups in which Ig heavy chain isotype structure has not been investigated at the genetic level. In this study, we have characterized three different Ig heavy chain isotypes of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, including an IgM-type heavy chain and short and long forms of non-IgM heavy chains. Northern blot analysis as well as patterns of V(H) utilization suggest that the IgM and non-IgM isotypes are likely encoded in separate loci. The two non-IgM isotypes identified in Protopterus share structural features with the short and long forms of IgX/W/NARC (referred to hereafter as IgW), which were previously considered to be restricted to the cartilaginous fish. It seems that the IgW isotype has a far broader phylogenetic distribution than considered originally and raises questions with regard to the origin and evolutionary divergence of IgM and IgW. Moreover, its absence in other gnathostome lineages implies paradoxically that the IgW-type genes were lost from teleost and tetrapod lineages.
Project description:Antibody therapy is a validated treatment approach for several malignancies. All currently clinically applied therapeutic antibodies (Abs) are of the IgG isotype. However, not all patients respond to this therapy and relapses can occur. IgA represents an alternative isotype for antibody therapy that engages Fc?RI expressing myeloid effector cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes. IgA Abs have been shown to effectively kill tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, due to the short half-life of IgA Abs in mice, daily injections are required to reach an effect comparable to IgG Abs. The relatively long half-life of IgG Abs and serum albumin arises from their capability of interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). As IgA Abs lack a binding site for FcRn, we generated IgA Abs with the variable regions of the Her2-specific Ab trastuzumab and attached an albumin-binding domain (ABD) to the heavy or light chain (HCABD/LCABD) to extend their serum half-life. These modified Abs were able to bind albumin from different species in vitro. Furthermore, tumor cell lysis of IgA-Her2-LCABD Abs in vitro was similar to unmodified IgA-Her2 Abs. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed that the serum exposure and half-life of the modified IgA-Her2 Abs was extended. In a xenograft mouse model, the modified IgA1 Abs exhibited a slightly, but significantly, improved anti-tumor response compared to the unmodified Ab. In conclusion, empowering IgA Abs with albumin-binding capacity results in in vitro and in vivo functional Abs with an enhanced exposure and prolonged half-life.