The Global Acetylome of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae V52 Reveals Lysine Acetylation of Major Transcriptional Regulators.
ABSTRACT: Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, and PhoB involved in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes.
Project description:Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. By now, several global lysine acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3402 acetylation sites on 1240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, PhoB, and ToxR, involved in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In addition VAS effector proteins involved in type VI secretion were acetylated. The overall level of acetylation increased during growth and was higher in stationary phase. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification that alters the charge, conformation, and stability of proteins. A number of genome-wide characterizations of lysine-acetylated proteins, or acetylomes, in bacteria have demonstrated that lysine acetylation occurs on proteins with a wide diversity of functions, including central metabolism, transcription, chemotaxis, and cell size regulation. Bacillus subtilis is a model organism for studies of sporulation, motility, cell signaling, and multicellular development (or biofilm formation). In this work, we investigated the role of global protein lysine acetylation in multicellular development in B. subtilis. We analyzed the B. subtilis acetylome under biofilm-inducing conditions and identified acetylated proteins involved in multicellularity, specifically, swarming and biofilm formation. We constructed various single and double mutants of genes known to encode enzymes involved in global protein lysine acetylation in B. subtilis. Some of those mutants showed a defect in swarming motility while others demonstrated altered biofilm phenotypes. Lastly, we picked two acetylated proteins known to be important for biofilm formation, YmcA (also known as RicA), a regulatory protein critical for biofilm induction, and GtaB, an UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase that synthesizes a nucleotide sugar precursor for biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide, a key biofilm matrix component. We performed site-directed mutagenesis on the acetylated lysine codons in ymcA and gtaB, respectively, and assayed cells bearing those point mutants for biofilm formation. The mutant alleles of ymcA(K64R), gtaB(K89R), and gtaB(K191R) all demonstrated a severe biofilm defect. These results indicate the importance of acetylated lysine residues in both YmcA and GtaB. In summary, we propose that protein lysine acetylation plays a global regulatory role in B. subtilis multicellularity.
Project description:Increasing evidence demonstrates that lysine acetylation is involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence and pathogenesis. However, previous investigations in Mtb have only monitored acetylation at lysine residues using selected reference strains. We analyzed the global N?- and O-acetylation of three Mtb isolates: two lineage 7 clinical isolates and the lineage 4 H37Rv reference strain. Quantitative acetylome analysis resulted in identification of 2490 class-I acetylation sites, 2349 O-acetylation and 141 N?-acetylation sites, derived from 953 unique proteins. Mtb O-acetylation was thereby significantly more abundant than N?-acetylation. The acetylated proteins were found to be involved in central metabolism, translation, stress responses, and antimicrobial drug resistance. Notably, 261 acetylation sites on 165 proteins were differentially regulated between lineage 7 and lineage 4 strains. A total of 257 acetylation sites on 161 proteins were hypoacetylated in lineage 7 strains. These proteins are involved in Mtb growth, virulence, bioenergetics, host-pathogen interactions, and stress responses. This study provides the first global analysis of O-acetylated proteins in Mtb. This quantitative acetylome data expand the current understanding regarding the nature and diversity of acetylated proteins in Mtb and open a new avenue of research for exploring the role of protein acetylation in Mtb physiology.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification that plays important regulatory roles in diverse biological processes to perform various cellular functions in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, roles of lysine acetylation in plant fungal pathogens were less studied. Here, we provided the first lysine acetylome of vegetative hyphae of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. This lysine acetylome had 2,720 acetylation sites in 1,269 proteins. The lysine acetylated proteins were involved indiverse cellular functions, and located in 820 nodes and 7,709 edges among the protein-protein interaction network. Several amino acid residues nearby the lysine acetylation sites were conserved, including KacR, KacK, and KacH. Importantly, dozens of lysine acetylated proteins are found to be important to vegetative hyphal growth and fungal pathogenicity. Taken together, our results provided the first comprehensive view of lysine acetylome of M.oryzae and suggested protein lysine acetylation played important roles to fungal development and pathogenicity.
Project description:Lysine acetylation of proteins, a major post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in almost every aspects in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast, is considered as a model for bio-oil production due to its ability to accumulate a large amount of lipids. However, the function of lysine acetylation in this organism is elusive. Here, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of Y. lipolytica ACA-DC 50109. In total, 3163 lysine acetylation sites were identified in 1428 proteins, which account for 22.1% of the total proteins in the cell. Fifteen conserved acetylation motifs were detected. The acetylated proteins participate in a wide variety of biological processes. Notably, a total of 65 enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis were found to be acetylated. The acetylation sites are distributed in almost every type of conserved domains in the multi-enzymatic complexes of fatty acid synthetases. The provided dataset probably illuminates the crucial role of reversible acetylation in oleaginous microorganisms, and serves as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in eukaryotes.
Project description:Lysine acetylation has emerged as a major post-translational modification involved in diverse cellular functions. Using a combination of immunoisolation and liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry, we determined the first acetylome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during its active proliferation in erythrocytes with 421 acetylation sites identified in 230 proteins. Lysine-acetylated proteins are distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion and apicoplast. Whereas occurrence of lysine acetylation in a similarly wide range of cellular functions suggests conservation of lysine acetylation through evolution, the Plasmodium acetylome also revealed significant divergence from those of other eukaryotes and even the closely related parasite Toxoplasma. This divergence is reflected in the acetylation of a large number of Plasmodium-specific proteins and different acetylation sites in evolutionarily conserved acetylated proteins. A prominent example is the abundant acetylation of proteins in the glycolysis pathway but relatively deficient acetylation of enzymes in the citrate cycle. Using specific transgenic lines and inhibitors, we determined that the acetyltransferase PfMYST and lysine deacetylases play important roles in regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic protein acetylation. The Plasmodium acetylome provides an exciting start point for further exploration of functions of acetylation in the biology of malaria parasites.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation, a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, metabolism, enzymatic activities, and protein interactions. Brenneria nigrifluens is a pathogen of walnut trees with shallow bark canker and can cause serious disease in walnut trees. Until now, a little has been known about the roles of lysine acetylation in plant pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the lysine acetylome of B. nigrifluens was determined by high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, we identified 1,866 lysine acetylation sites distributed in 737 acetylated proteins. Bioinformatics results indicated that acetylated proteins participate in many different biological functions in B. nigrifluens. Four conserved motifs, namely, LKac , Kac *F, I*Kac , and L*Kac , were identified in this bacterium. Protein interaction network analysis indicated that all kinds of interactions are modulated by protein lysine acetylation. Overall, 12 acetylated proteins were related to the virulence of B. nigrifluens.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating diverse cellular processes. Trichinella spiralis is a foodborne parasite with a considerable socio-economic impact. However, to date, little is known regarding the role of lysine acetylation in this parasitic nematode. In this study, we utilized a proteomic approach involving anti-acetyl lysine-based enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry to identify the global acetylated proteome and investigate lysine acetylation in T. spiralis. In total, 3872 lysine modification sites were identified in 1592 proteins that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with the results of previous studies, a large number of the acetylated proteins appear to be involved in metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 29 acetylated proteins were associated with phagocytosis, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in this process. Among the identified proteins, 15 putative acetylation motifs were detected. The presence of serine downstream of the lysine acetylation site was commonly observed in the regions surrounding the sites. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis revealed that various interactions are regulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of the acetylome of T. spiralis and provide an important resource for further explorations of the role of lysine acetylation in this foodborne pathogen.