ABSTRACT: The RNA exosome is an evolutionarily conserved, ribonuclease complex that is critical for both processing and degradation of a variety of RNAs. Cofactors that associate with the RNA exosome likely dictate substrate specificity for this complex. Recently, mutations in genes encoding both structural subunits of the RNA exosome and its cofactors have been linked to human disease. Mutations in the RNA exosome genes EXOSC3 and EXOSC8 cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1b (PCH1b) and type 1c (PCH1c), respectively, which are similar autosomal-recessive, neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in the RNA exosome gene EXOSC2 cause a distinct syndrome with various tissue-specific phenotypes including retinitis pigmentosa and mild intellectual disability. Mutations in genes that encode RNA exosome cofactors also cause tissue-specific diseases with complex phenotypes. How mutations in these genes give rise to distinct, tissue-specific diseases is not clear. In this review, we discuss the role of the RNA exosome complex and its cofactors in human disease, consider the amino acid changes that have been implicated in disease, and speculate on the mechanisms by which exosome gene mutations could underlie dysfunction and disease.
Project description:The RNA exosome is a ubiquitously expressed complex of nine core proteins (EXOSC1-9) and associated nucleases responsible for RNA processing and degradation. Mutations in EXOSC3, EXOSC8, EXOSC9, and the exosome cofactor RBM7 cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia and motor neuronopathy. We investigated the consequences of exosome mutations on RNA metabolism and cellular survival in zebrafish and human cell models. We observed that levels of mRNAs encoding p53 and ribosome biogenesis factors are increased in zebrafish lines with homozygous mutations of exosc8 or exosc9, respectively. Consistent with higher p53 levels, mutant zebrafish have a reduced head size, smaller brain, and cerebellum caused by an increased number of apoptotic cells during development. Down-regulation of EXOSC8 and EXOSC9 in human cells leads to p53 protein stabilisation and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Increased p53 transcript levels were also observed in muscle samples from patients with EXOSC9 mutations. Our work provides explanation for the pathogenesis of exosome-related disorders and highlights the link between exosome function, ribosome biogenesis, and p53-dependent signalling. We suggest that exosome-related disorders could be classified as ribosomopathies.
Project description:The exosome complex is the most important RNA processing machinery within the cell. Mutations in its subunits EXOSC8 and EXOSC3 cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and central nervous system demyelination. We present a patient with SMA-like phenotype carrying a homozygous mutation in RBM7-a subunit of the nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT) complex-which is known to bind and carry specific subtypes of coding and non-coding RNAs to the exosome. The NEXT complex with other protein complexes is responsible for the substrate specificity of the exosome. We performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis on primary fibroblasts of patients with mutations in EXOSC8 and RBM7 and gene knock-down experiments using zebrafish as a model system. RNA-seq analysis identified significantly altered expression of 62 transcripts shared by the two patient cell lines. Knock-down of rbm7, exosc8 and exosc3 in zebrafish showed a common pattern of defects in motor neurons and cerebellum. Our data indicate that impaired RNA metabolism may underlie the clinical phenotype by fine tuning gene expression which is essential for correct neuronal differentiation.
Project description:The RNA exosome is an evolutionarily-conserved ribonuclease complex critically important for precise processing and/or complete degradation of a variety of cellular RNAs. The recent discovery that mutations in genes encoding structural RNA exosome subunits cause tissue-specific diseases makes defining the role of this complex within specific tissues critically important. Mutations in the RNA exosome component 3 (EXOSC3) gene cause Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 1b (PCH1b), an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder. The majority of disease-linked mutations are missense mutations that alter evolutionarily-conserved regions of EXOSC3. The tissue-specific defects caused by these amino acid changes in EXOSC3 are challenging to understand based on current models of RNA exosome function with only limited analysis of the complex in any multicellular model in vivo. The goal of this study is to provide insight into how mutations in EXOSC3 impact the function of the RNA exosome. To assess the tissue-specific roles and requirements for the Drosophila ortholog of EXOSC3 termed Rrp40, we utilized tissue-specific RNAi drivers. Depletion of Rrp40 in different tissues reveals a general requirement for Rrp40 in the development of many tissues including the brain, but also highlight an age-dependent requirement for Rrp40 in neurons. To assess the functional consequences of the specific amino acid substitutions in EXOSC3 that cause PCH1b, we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to generate flies that model this RNA exosome-linked disease. These flies show reduced viability; however, the surviving animals exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and morphological phenotypes. RNA-seq analysis of these Drosophila Rrp40 mutants reveals increases in the steady-state levels of specific mRNAs and ncRNAs, some of which are central to neuronal function. In particular, Arc1 mRNA, which encodes a key regulator of synaptic plasticity, is increased in the Drosophila Rrp40 mutants. Taken together, this study defines a requirement for the RNA exosome in specific tissues/cell types and provides insight into how defects in RNA exosome function caused by specific amino acid substitutions that occur in PCH1b can contribute to neuronal dysfunction.
Project description:Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1b (PCH1b) is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes cerebellar hypoplasia and spinal motor neuron degeneration, leading to mortality in early childhood. PCH1b is caused by mutations in the RNA exosome subunit gene, EXOSC3 The RNA exosome is an evolutionarily conserved complex, consisting of nine different core subunits, and one or two 3'-5' exoribonuclease subunits, that mediates several RNA degradation and processing steps. The goal of this study is to assess the functional consequences of the amino acid substitutions that have been identified in EXOSC3 in PCH1b patients. To analyze these EXOSC3 substitutions, we generated the corresponding amino acid substitutions in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of EXOSC3, Rrp40 We find that the rrp40 variants corresponding to EXOSC3-G31A and -D132A do not affect yeast function when expressed as the sole copy of the essential Rrp40 protein. In contrast, the rrp40-W195R variant, corresponding to EXOSC3-W238R in PCH1b patients, impacts cell growth and RNA exosome function when expressed as the sole copy of Rrp40 The rrp40-W195R protein is unstable, and does not associate efficiently with the RNA exosome in cells that also express wild-type Rrp40 Consistent with these findings in yeast, the levels of mouse EXOSC3 variants are reduced compared to wild-type EXOSC3 in a neuronal cell line. These data suggest that cells possess a mechanism for optimal assembly of functional RNA exosome complex that can discriminate between wild-type and variant exosome subunits. Budding yeast can therefore serve as a useful tool to understand the molecular defects in the RNA exosome caused by PCH1b-associated amino acid substitutions in EXOSC3, and potentially extending to disease-associated substitutions in other exosome subunits.
Project description:The exosome is a conserved multi-protein complex that is essential for correct RNA processing. Recessive variants in exosome components EXOSC3, EXOSC8, and RBM7 cause various constellations of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and central nervous system demyelination. Here, we report on four unrelated affected individuals with recessive variants in EXOSC9 and the effect of the variants on the function of the RNA exosome in vitro in affected individuals' fibroblasts and skeletal muscle and in vivo in zebrafish. The clinical presentation was severe, early-onset, progressive SMA-like motor neuronopathy, cerebellar atrophy, and in one affected individual, congenital fractures of the long bones. Three affected individuals of different ethnicity carried the homozygous c.41T>C (p.Leu14Pro) variant, whereas one affected individual was compound heterozygous for c.41T>C (p.Leu14Pro) and c.481C>T (p.Arg161?). We detected reduced EXOSC9 in fibroblasts and skeletal muscle and observed a reduction of the whole multi-subunit exosome complex on blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RNA sequencing of fibroblasts and skeletal muscle detected significant >2-fold changes in genes involved in neuronal development and cerebellar and motor neuron degeneration, demonstrating the widespread effect of the variants. Morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of exosc9 in zebrafish recapitulated aspects of the human phenotype, as they have in other zebrafish models of exosomal disease. Specifically, portions of the cerebellum and hindbrain were absent, and motor neurons failed to develop and migrate properly. In summary, we show that variants in EXOSC9 result in a neurological syndrome combining cerebellar atrophy and spinal motoneuronopathy, thus expanding the list of human exosomopathies.
Project description:The RNA exosome is a conserved multiprotein complex that achieves a large number of processive and degradative functions in eukaryotic cells. Recently, mutations have been mapped to the gene encoding one of the subunits of the exosome, EXOSC3 (yeast Rrp40p), which results in pontocerebellar hypoplasia with motor neuron degeneration in human patients. However, the molecular impact of these mutations in the pathology of these diseases is not well understood. To investigate the molecular consequences of mutations in EXOSC3 that lead to neurological diseases, we analyzed the effect of three of the mutations that affect conserved residues of EXOSC3/Rrp40p (G31A, G191C, and W238R; G8A, G148C, and W195R, respectively, in human and yeast) in S. cerevisiae We show that the severity of the phenotypes of these mutations in yeast correlate with that of the disease in human patients, with the W195R mutant showing the strongest growth and RNA processing phenotypes. Furthermore, we show that these mutations affect more severely pre-ribosomal RNA processing functions of the exosome rather than other nuclear processing or surveillance functions. These results suggest that delayed or defective pre-rRNA processing might be the primary defect responsible for the pathologies detected in patients with mutations affecting EXOSC3 function in residues conserved throughout eukaryotes.
Project description:Complex genetic networks control hematopoietic stem cell differentiation into progenitors that give rise to billions of erythrocytes daily. Previously, we described a role for the master regulator of erythropoiesis, GATA-1, in inducing genes encoding components of the autophagy machinery. In this context, the Forkhead transcription factor, Foxo3, amplified GATA-1-mediated transcriptional activation. To determine the scope of the GATA-1/Foxo3 cooperativity, and to develop functional insights, we analyzed the GATA-1/Foxo3-dependent transcriptome in erythroid cells. GATA-1/Foxo3 repressed expression of Exosc8, a pivotal component of the exosome complex, which mediates RNA surveillance and epigenetic regulation. Strikingly, downregulating Exosc8, or additional exosome complex components, in primary erythroid precursor cells induced erythroid cell maturation. Our results demonstrate a new mode of controlling erythropoiesis in which multiple components of the exosome complex are endogenous suppressors of the erythroid developmental program.
Project description:RNA exosomes are multi-subunit complexes conserved throughout evolution and are emerging as the major cellular machinery for processing, surveillance and turnover of a diverse spectrum of coding and noncoding RNA substrates essential for viability. By exome sequencing, we discovered recessive mutations in EXOSC3 (encoding exosome component 3) in four siblings with infantile spinal motor neuron disease, cerebellar atrophy, progressive microcephaly and profound global developmental delay, consistent with pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 (PCH1; MIM 607596). We identified mutations in EXOSC3 in an additional 8 of 12 families with PCH1. Morpholino knockdown of exosc3 in zebrafish embryos caused embryonic maldevelopment, resulting in small brain size and poor motility, reminiscent of human clinical features, and these defects were largely rescued by co-injection with wild-type but not mutant exosc3 mRNA. These findings represent the first example of an RNA exosome core component gene that is responsible for a human disease and further implicate dysregulation of RNA processing in cerebellar and spinal motor neuron maldevelopment and degeneration.
Project description:The RNA exosome has a key role in RNA decays and RNA quality control. In 2012, two human Mendelian diseases: syndromic diarrhea/tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) and Ponto-cerebellar hypoplasia type 1(PCH1) were linked to the RNA exosome or its cofactor's defect. SD/THE's main features are an intractable diarrhea of infancy associated with hair abnormalities, facial dysmorphism, intra uterine growth restriction and immune deficiency. SD/THE is caused by a defect of the SKI complex (TTC37 and SKIV2L), the cytoplasmic co-factor of the RNA exosome for mRNA degradation. PCH1's main features are atrophy of the pons and of the cerebellum, a progressive microcephaly with developmental delay and muscle atrophy secondary to spinal anterior horn cell loss. In 30-40% of patients, PCH1 is caused by a defect in EXOSC3 which encodes RRP40, a protein of the cap of the RNA exosome. Thanks to knowledge about other forms of PCH it could be assumed that the altered substrates are probably transfer RNA However, as there exists no patient with two null mutations, residual RNA exosome functionality is probably required to preserve viability. Thus, to date two very different human Mendelian diseases have been related to the dysfunctioning of the RNA exosome. It illustrates the versatility of the RNA exosome function and substrate.
Project description:The vast majority of the mammalian genome has the potential to express noncoding RNA (ncRNA). The 11-subunit RNA exosome complex is the main source of cellular 3'-5' exoribonucleolytic activity and potentially regulates the mammalian noncoding transcriptome. Here we generated a mouse model in which the essential subunit Exosc3 of the RNA exosome complex can be conditionally deleted. Exosc3-deficient B cells lack the ability to undergo normal levels of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, two mutagenic DNA processes used to generate antibody diversity via the B-cell mutator protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). The transcriptome of Exosc3-deficient B cells has revealed the presence of many novel RNA exosome substrate ncRNAs. RNA exosome substrate RNAs include xTSS-RNAs, transcription start site (TSS)-associated antisense transcripts that can exceed 500 base pairs in length and are transcribed divergently from cognate coding gene transcripts. xTSS-RNAs are most strongly expressed at genes that accumulate AID-mediated somatic mutations and/or are frequent translocation partners of DNA double-strand breaks generated at Igh in B cells. Strikingly, translocations near TSSs or within gene bodies occur over regions of RNA exosome substrate ncRNA expression. These RNA exosome-regulated, antisense-transcribed regions of the B-cell genome recruit AID and accumulate single-strand DNA structures containing RNA-DNA hybrids. We propose that RNA exosome regulation of ncRNA recruits AID to single-strand DNA-forming sites of antisense and divergent transcription in the B-cell genome, thereby creating a link between ncRNA transcription and overall maintenance of B-cell genomic integrity.