Reversible Reaction-Based Fluorescent Probe for Real-Time Imaging of Glutathione Dynamics in Mitochondria.
ABSTRACT: We report a mitochondria-specific glutathione (GSH) probe-designated as Mito-RealThiol (MitoRT)-that can monitor in vivo real-time mitochondrial glutathione dynamics, and apply this probe to follow mitochondrial GSH dynamic changes in living cells for the first time. MitoRT can be utilized in confocal microscopy, super-resolution fluorescence imaging, and flow cytometry systems. Using MitoRT, we demonstrate that cells have a high priority to maintain the GSH level in mitochondria compared to the cytosol not only under normal growing conditions but also upon oxidative stress.
Project description:A mitochondria-targeted ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe (Mito-MPVQ) for biological zinc ions detection was developed based on quinolone platform. Mito-MPVQ showed large red shifts (68 nm) and selective ratiometric signal upon Zn(2+) binding. The ratio of emission intensity (I488 nm/I420 nm) increases dramatically from 0.45 to 3.79 (ca. 8-fold). NMR titration and theoretical calculation confirmed the binding of Mito-MPVQ and Zn(2+). Mito-MPVQ also exhibited large two-photon absorption cross sections (150 GM) at nearly 720 nm and insensitivity to pH within the biologically relevant pH range. Cell imaging indicated that Mito-MPVQ could efficiently located in mitochondria and monitor mitochondrial Zn(2+) under two-photon excitation with low cytotoxicity.
Project description:Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in maintaining redox homeostasis inside cells. Currently, there are no methods available to quantitatively assess the GSH concentration in live cells. Live cell fluorescence imaging revolutionized the field of cell biology and has become an indispensable tool in current biological studies. In order to minimize the disturbance to the biological system in live cell imaging, the probe concentration needs to be significantly lower than the analyte concentration. Because of this, any irreversible reaction-based GSH probe can only provide qualitative results within a short reaction time and will exhibit maximum response regardless of the GSH concentration if the reaction is completed. A reversible reaction-based probe with an appropriate equilibrium constant allows measurement of an analyte at much higher concentrations and, thus, is a prerequisite for GSH quantification inside cells. In this contribution, we report the first fluorescent probe-ThiolQuant Green (TQ Green)-for quantitative imaging of GSH in live cells. Due to the reversible nature of the reaction between the probe and GSH, we are able to quantify mM concentrations of GSH with TQ Green concentrations as low as 20 nM. Furthermore, the GSH concentrations measured using TQ Green in 3T3-L1, HeLa, HepG2, PANC-1, and PANC-28 cells are reproducible and well correlated with the values obtained from cell lysates. TQ Green imaging can also resolve the changes in GSH concentration in PANC-1 cells upon diethylmaleate (DEM) treatment. In addition, TQ Green can be conveniently applied in fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to measure GSH level changes. Through this study, we not only demonstrate the importance of reaction reversibility in designing quantitative reaction-based fluorescent probes but also provide a practical tool to facilitate redox biology studies.
Project description:Glutathione (GSH) is transported into renal mitochondria by the dicarboxylate (DIC; Slc25a10) and 2-oxoglutarate carriers (OGC; Slc25a11). To determine whether these carriers function similarly in liver mitochondria, we assessed the effect of competition with specific substrates or inhibitors on GSH uptake in isolated rat liver mitochondria. GSH uptake was uniphasic, independent of ATP hydrolysis, and exhibited K(m) and V(max) values of 4.08 mM and 3.06 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. Incubation with butylmalonate and phenylsuccinate inhibited GSH uptake by 45-50%, although the individual inhibitors had no effect, suggesting in rat liver mitochondria, the DIC and OGC are only partially responsible for GSH uptake. H4IIE cells, a rat hepatoma cell line, were stably transfected with the cDNA for the OGC, and exhibited increased uptake of GSH and 2-oxoglutarate and were protected from cytotoxicity induced by H(2)O(2), methyl vinyl ketone, or cisplatin, demonstrating the protective function of increased mitochondrial GSH transport in the liver.
Project description:Mitochondria are essential in long axons to provide metabolic support and sustain neuron integrity. A healthy mitochondrial pool is maintained by biogenesis, transport, mitophagy, fission, and fusion, but how these events are regulated in axons is not well defined. Here, we show that the Drosophila glutathione S-transferase (GST) Gfzf prevents mitochondrial hyperfusion in axons. Gfzf loss altered redox balance between glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and initiated mitochondrial fusion through the coordinated action of Mfn and Opa1. Gfzf functioned epistatically with the thioredoxin peroxidase Jafrac1 and the thioredoxin reductase 1 TrxR-1 to regulate mitochondrial dynamics. Altering GSH:GSSG ratios in mouse primary neurons in vitro also induced hyperfusion. Mitochondrial changes caused deficits in trafficking, the metabolome, and neuronal physiology. Changes in GSH and oxidative state are associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's. Our demonstration that GSTs are key in vivo regulators of axonal mitochondrial length and number provides a potential mechanistic link.
Project description:The development of hypertension is associated with mitochondrial redox balance disruptions. NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) plays an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial redox balance by producing mitochondrial NADPH, which is an essential cofactor in the reduction of glutathione (from GSSG to GSH) to reduced form of glutathione (GSH). We investigated the association of IDH2 between the development of prolonged high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertension. Idh2 gene-deleted (Idh2-/-) male mice and wild-type (Idh2+/+) littermates were fed either HFD or low-fat diet (LFD). Some mice were administrated with Mito-TEMPO, a mitochondria-specific antioxidant. HFD feeding increased blood pressure (BP) in both Idh2-/- mice and Idh2+/+ mice. HFD-induced BP increase was greater in Idh2-/- than Idh2+/+ mice. HFD intake decreased IDH2 activity, NADPH levels, and the GSH/(GSH + GSSG) ratio in the renal mitochondria. However, HFD intake increased mitochondrial ROS levels, along with the accompanying oxidative stress and damage. HFD intake increased angiotensin II receptor 1 type 1 mRNA levels in the kidneys and plasma renin and angiotensin II concentrations. These HFD-induced changes were more prominent in Idh2-/- mice than Idh2+/+ mice. Mito-TEMPO mitigated the HFD-induced changes in both Idh2-/- and Idh2+/+ mice, with greater effects in Idh2-/- mice than Idh2+/+ mice. These results indicate that prolonged HFD intake disrupts the IDH2-NADPH-GSH-associated antioxidant system and activates the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney, leading to increased BP, suggesting that IDH2 is a critical enzyme in the development of hypertension and that the IDH2-associated antioxidant system could serve as a potential hypertension treatment target.
Project description:Cryptocyanine-based probes exhibit highly efficient photothermal conversion and represent a new class of photothermal agents for use in photothermal therapy (PTT). With the thermal susceptibility of mitochondria in mind, we have prepared a mitochondria-targeted, NIR-absorbing cryptocyanine probe (Mito-CCy) and evaluated its photophysical properties, photothermal conversion efficiency, biological compatibility, cytotoxicity, and mitochondrial localization in HeLa cells. Upon subjecting 0.5 mL of a PBS buffer solution (10 mM, pH 7.4, containing 50% DMSO) of Mito-CCy (0.5 mM) to 730 nm laser irradiation at 2.3 W/cm2, the temperature of the solution increased by 13.5 °C within 5 min. In contrast, the corresponding cryptocyanine (CCy) lacking the triarylphosphonium group gave rise to only an ?3.4 °C increase in solution temperature under otherwise identical conditions. Mito-CCy also exhibited high cytotoxicity in HeLa cells when subject to photoirradiation. This light-induced cytotoxicity is attributed to the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced under conditions of local heating. ROS are known to interfere with the mitochondrial defense system and to trigger apoptosis. By targeting the mitochondria, the present sensitizer-based photothermogenic approach is rendered more effective. As such, the system reported here represents the vanguard of what might be a new generation of organelle-targeted photothermal therapeutics.
Project description:Real-time imaging of fluctuations in intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations is critical to understanding the mechanism of GSH-related cisplatin-resistance. Here, we describe a ratiometric fluorescence probe based on a reversible Michael addition reaction of GSH with the vinyl-functionalized boron-dipyrromethene (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3<i>a</i>,4<i>a</i>-diaza-<i>s</i>-indacene or BODIPY) <b>1</b>. The probe was applied for real-time monitoring of the fluctuations in GSH levels in cells under cisplatin treatment. Notably, in cellular cisplatin-sensitive A549 cells, GSH concentrations rose until cell death, while in cisplatin-resistant cell lines, GSH levels first rose to the maximum then fell back to the initial concentration without significant apoptosis. These results indicate that different trends in GSH fluctuation can help distinguish cisplatin-resistant from cisplatin-sensitive cells. As such, this study has shown that probe <b>1</b> may potentially be used for real-time monitoring of intracellular GSH levels in response to therapeutics.
Project description:The transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) mediates adaptive responses to oxidative stress by nuclear translocation and regulation of gene expression. Mitochondrial changes are critical for the adaptive response to oxidative stress. However, the transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms by which HIF-1? regulates mitochondria in response to oxidative stress are poorly understood. Here, we examined the subcellular localization of HIF-1? in human cells and identified a small fraction of HIF-1? that translocated to the mitochondria after exposure to hypoxia or H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treatment. Moreover, the livers of mice with CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced fibrosis showed a progressive increase in HIF-1? association with the mitochondria, indicating the clinical relevance of this finding. To probe the function of this HIF-1? population, we ectopically expressed a mitochondrial-targeted form of HIF-1? (mito-HIF-1?). Expression of mito-HIF-1? was sufficient to attenuate apoptosis induced by exposure to hypoxia or H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, mito-HIF-1? expression reduced the production of reactive oxygen species, the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded mRNA in response to hypoxia or H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treatment independently of nuclear pathways. These data suggested that mitochondrial HIF-1? protects against oxidative stress induced-apoptosis independently of its well-known role as a transcription factor.
Project description:The major proportion of rat liver glutathione S-transferase is cytosolic. Carefully washed mitochondria contain 0.25-0.47% of the cytosolic activity. Subfractionation of washed mitochondria using digitonin treatment revealed that glutathione S-transferase release did not parallel that of any of the mitochondrial marker enzymes. Glutathione S-transferase release paralleled that of lactate dehydrogenase, suggesting that these 'mitochondrial' activities are due to loosely bound cytoplasmic forms.
Project description:Glutathione (GSH) is the main component of the mitochondrial thiol pool and plays key roles in the biological processes. Many evidences have suggested that cysteine and homocysteine also exist in mitochondria and are interrelated with GSH in biological systems. The fluctuation of the levels of mitochondrial thiols has been linked to many diseases and cells' dysfunction. Therefore, the monitoring of mitochondrial thiol status is of great significance for clinical studies. We report here a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer based two-photon probe MT-1 for mitochondrial thiols detection. MT-1 was constructed by integrating the naphthalimide moiety (donor) and rhodamine B (accepter and targeting group) through a newly designed linker. MT-1 shows a fast response, high selectivity, and sensitivity to thiols, as well as a low limit of detection. The two-photon property of MT-1 allows the direct visualization of thiols in live cells and tissues by two-photon microscopy. MT-1 can serve as an effective tool to unravel the diverse biological functions of mitochondrial thiols in living systems.