Hsp70 at the membrane: driving protein translocation.
ABSTRACT: Efficient movement of proteins across membranes is required for cell health. The translocation process is particularly challenging when the channel in the membrane through which proteins must pass is narrow-such as those in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Hsp70 molecular chaperones play roles on both sides of these membranes, ensuring efficient translocation of proteins synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes into the interior of these organelles. The "import motor" in the mitochondrial matrix, which is essential for driving the movement of proteins across the mitochondrial inner membrane, is arguably the most complex Hsp70-based system in the cell.
Project description:Plant closteroviruses encode a homolog of the HSP70 (heat shock protein, 70 kDa) family of cellular proteins. To facilitate studies of the function of HSP70 homolog (HSP70h) in viral infection, the beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) was modified to express green fluorescent protein. This tagged virus was competent in cell-to-cell movement, producing multicellular infection foci similar to those formed by the wild-type BYV. Inactivation of the HSP70h gene by replacement of the start codon or by deletion of 493 codons resulted in complete arrest of BYV translocation from cell to cell. Identical movement-deficient phenotypes were observed in BYV variants possessing HSP70h that lacked the computer-predicted ATPase domain or the C-terminal domain, or that harbored point mutations in the putative catalytic site of the ATPase. These results demonstrate that the virus-specific member of the HSP70 family of molecular chaperones functions in intercellular translocation and represents an additional type of a plant viral-movement protein.
Project description:Heat shock 70 kDa proteins (HSP70s) are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that function in a myriad of biological processes, modulating polypeptide folding, degradation and translocation across membranes, and protein-protein interactions. This multitude of roles is not easily reconciled with the universality of the activity of HSP70s in ATP-dependent client protein-binding and release cycles. Much of the functional diversity of the HSP70s is driven by a diverse class of cofactors: J proteins. Often, multiple J proteins function with a single HSP70. Some target HSP70 activity to clients at precise locations in cells and others bind client proteins directly, thereby delivering specific clients to HSP70 and directly determining their fate.
Project description:Hsp70s are highly conserved ATPase molecular chaperones mediating the correct folding of de novo synthesized proteins, the translocation of proteins across membranes, the disassembly of some native protein oligomers, and the active unfolding and disassembly of stress-induced protein aggregates. Here, we bring thermodynamic arguments and biochemical evidences for a unifying mechanism named entropic pulling, based on entropy loss due to excluded-volume effects, by which Hsp70 molecules can convert the energy of ATP hydrolysis into a force capable of accelerating the local unfolding of various protein substrates and, thus, perform disparate cellular functions. By means of entropic pulling, individual Hsp70 molecules can accelerate unfolding and pulling of translocating polypeptides into mitochondria in the absence of a molecular fulcrum, thus settling former contradictions between the power-stroke and the Brownian ratchet models for Hsp70-mediated protein translocation across membranes. Moreover, in a very different context devoid of membrane and components of the import pore, the same physical principles apply to the forceful unfolding, solubilization, and assisted native refolding of stable protein aggregates by individual Hsp70 molecules, thus providing a mechanism for Hsp70-mediated protein disaggregation.
Project description:Hsp70 family proteins are folding helper proteins involved in a wide variety of cellular pathways. Members of this family interact with key factors in signal transduction, transcription, cell-cycle control, and stress response. Here, we developed the first Hsp70 low molecular weight inhibitor specifically targeting the peptide binding site of human Hsp70. After demonstrating that the inhibitor modulates the Hsp70 function in the cell, we used the inhibitor to show for the first time that the stress-inducible chaperone Hsp70 functions as molecular component for entry of a bacterial protein toxin into mammalian cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp70 protected cells from intoxication with the binary actin ADP-ribosylating iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens, the prototype of a family of enterotoxins from pathogenic Clostridia and inhibited translocation of its enzyme component across cell membranes into the cytosol. This finding offers a starting point for novel therapeutic strategies against certain bacterial toxins.
Project description:Hsp70 molecular chaperones are implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes, including protein biogenesis, protection of the proteome from stress, recovery of proteins from aggregates, facilitation of protein translocation across membranes, and more specialized roles such as disassembly of particular protein complexes. It is a fascinating question to ask how the mechanism of these deceptively simple molecular machines is matched to their roles in these wide-ranging processes. The key is a combination of the nature of the recognition and binding of Hsp70 substrates and the impact of Hsp70 action on their substrates. In many cases, the binding, which relies on interaction with an extended, accessible short hydrophobic sequence, favors more unfolded states of client proteins. The ATP-mediated dissociation of the substrate thus releases it in a relatively less folded state for downstream folding, membrane translocation, or hand-off to another chaperone. There are cases, such as regulation of the heat shock response or disassembly of clathrin coats, however, where binding of a short hydrophobic sequence selects conformational states of clients to favor their productive participation in a subsequent step. This Perspective discusses current understanding of how Hsp70 molecular chaperones recognize and act on their substrates and the relationships between these fundamental processes and the functional roles played by these molecular machines.
Project description:Membrane proteins are aggregation-prone in aqueous environments, and their biogenesis poses acute challenges to cellular protein homeostasis. How the chaperone network effectively protects integral membrane proteins during their post-translational targeting is not well understood. Here, biochemical reconstitutions showed that the yeast cytosolic Hsp70 is responsible for capturing newly synthesized tail-anchored membrane proteins (TAs) in the soluble form. Moreover, direct interaction of Hsp70 with the cochaperone Sgt2 initiates a sequential series of TA relays to the dedicated TA targeting factor Get3. In contrast to direct loading of TAs to downstream chaperones, stepwise substrate loading via Hsp70 maintains the solubility and targeting competence of TAs, ensuring their efficient delivery to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inactivation of cytosolic Hsp70 severely impairs TA translocation in vivo Our results demonstrate a new role of cytosolic Hsp70 in directly assisting the targeting of an essential class of integral membrane proteins and provide a paradigm for how "substrate funneling" through a chaperone cascade preserves the conformational quality of nascent membrane proteins during their biogenesis.
Project description:The role of mitochondrial 70-kD heat shock protein (mt-hsp70) in protein translocation across both the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes was studied using two temperature-sensitive yeast mutants. The degree of polypeptide translocation into the matrix of mutant mitochondria was analyzed using a matrix-targeted preprotein that was cleaved twice by the processing peptidase. A short amino-terminal segment of the preprotein (40-60 amino acids) was driven into the matrix by the membrane potential, independent of hsp70 function, allowing a single cleavage of the presequence. Artificial unfolding of the preprotein allowed complete translocation into the matrix in the case where mutant mt-hsp70 had detectable binding activity. However, in the mutant mitochondria in which binding to mt-hsp70 could not be detected the mature part of the preprotein was only translocated to the intermembrane space. We propose that mt-hsp70 fulfills a dual role in membrane translocation of preproteins. (a) Mt-hsp70 facilitates unfolding of the polypeptide chain for translocation across the mitochondrial membranes. (b) Binding of mt-hsp70 to the polypeptide chain is essential for driving the completion of transport of a matrix-targeted preprotein across the inner membrane. This second role is independent of the folding state of the preprotein, thus identifying mt-hsp70 as a genuine component of the inner membrane translocation machinery. Furthermore we determined the sites of the mutations and show that both a functional ATPase domain and ATP are needed for mt-hsp70 to bind to the polypeptide chain and drive its translocation into the matrix.
Project description:Unlike other Hsp70 molecular chaperones, those of the eukaryotic cytosol have four residues, EEVD, at their C-termini. EEVD(Hsp70) binds adaptor proteins of the Hsp90 chaperone system and mitochondrial membrane preprotein receptors, thereby facilitating processing of Hsp70-bound clients through protein folding and translocation pathways. Among J-protein co-chaperones functioning in these pathways, Sis1 is unique, as it also binds the EEVD(Hsp70) motif. However, little is known about the role of the Sis1:EEVD(Hsp70) interaction. We found that deletion of EEVD(Hsp70) abolished the ability of Sis1, but not the ubiquitous J-protein Ydj1, to partner with Hsp70 in in vitro protein refolding. Sis1 co-chaperone activity with Hsp70?EEVD was restored upon substitution of a glutamic acid of the J-domain. Structural analysis revealed that this key glutamic acid, which is not present in Ydj1, forms a salt bridge with an arginine of the immediately adjacent glycine-rich region. Thus, restoration of Sis1 in vitro activity suggests that intramolecular interactions between the J-domain and glycine-rich region control co-chaperone activity, which is optimal only when Sis1 interacts with the EEVD(Hsp70) motif. However, we found that disruption of the Sis1:EEVD(Hsp70) interaction enhances the ability of Sis1 to substitute for Ydj1 in vivo. Our results are consistent with the idea that interaction of Sis1 with EEVD(Hsp70) minimizes transfer of Sis1-bound clients to Hsp70s that are primed for client transfer to folding and translocation pathways by their preassociation with EEVD binding adaptor proteins. These interactions may be one means by which cells triage Ydj1- and Sis1-bound clients to productive and quality control pathways, respectively.
Project description:Recent advances have led to considerable convergence in ideas of the way topogenic sequences act to translocate proteins across various intracellular membranes (Table 2). Whereas co-translational translocation and processing were previously considered the norm at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, several instances of post-translational translocation into endoplasmic reticulum microsomes in vitro have now been described. However, it must be noted that post-translational translocation in vitro is much less efficient than when endoplasmic reticulum membranes are present during translation, and it is possible that in the intact cell translocation occurs during translation. Movement of proteins into chloroplasts and mitochondria occurs after translation. When translocation is post-translational, proteins may perhaps traverse the membrane as folded domains, and the conformational effects of topogenic sequences on these domains may be as envisaged in Wickner's 'membrane-trigger hypothesis'. Both signal and transit sequences possess amphipathic structures which are capable of interacting with phospholipid bilayers, and these interactions may disturb the bilayer sufficiently to allow entry of the following domains of protein. There is increasing evidence that GTP is required to bind ribosomes and their associated nascent chains to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Precisely how the cell's energy is applied to achieve translocation is not clear, but one possibility at the endoplasmic reticulum is that a GTP-hydrolysing transducing mechanism may exist to couple signal sequence receptor binding to movement of the nascent chain across the membrane. Electrochemical gradients are required for protein movement to the mitochondrial inner membrane and across the bacterial inner membrane. Cytoplasmic factors such as SRP, the secA gene product or a 40 kDa protein (for mitochondrial precursors) may act by binding to topogenic sequences and preventing precursor proteins as they are translated from folding into forms which cannot be translocated. Specificity in the cell may be achieved both by targetting interactions between these cytoplasmic factors and their receptors located in target membranes, and also by specific binding of the topogenic sequences to specific proteins integrated into the target membranes. Possible candidates for the latter are the protein of microsomal membranes that reacts with a photoreactive signal peptide to give a 45 kDa complex (Fig. 1), the secY gene product of the bacterial inner membrane, and receptors on the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria. Whether these aid translocation as well as recognition is not clear.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:J-domain proteins (JDPs), obligatory Hsp70 cochaperones, play critical roles in protein homeostasis. They promote key allosteric transitions that stabilize Hsp70 interaction with substrate polypeptides upon hydrolysis of its bound ATP. Although a recent crystal structure revealed the physical mode of interaction between a J-domain and an Hsp70, the structural and dynamic consequences of J-domain action once bound and how Hsp70s discriminate among its multiple JDP partners remain enigmatic. We combined free energy simulations, biochemical assays and evolutionary analyses to address these issues. Our results indicate that the invariant aspartate of the J-domain perturbs a conserved intramolecular Hsp70 network of contacts that crosses domains. This perturbation leads to destabilization of the domain-domain interface-thereby promoting the allosteric transition that triggers ATP hydrolysis. While this mechanistic step is driven by conserved residues, evolutionarily variable residues are key to initial JDP/Hsp70 recognition-via electrostatic interactions between oppositely charged surfaces. We speculate that these variable residues allow an Hsp70 to discriminate amongst JDP partners, as many of them have coevolved. Together, our data points to a two-step mode of J-domain action, a recognition stage followed by a mechanistic stage.