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The mechanisms how heparin affects the tumor cell induced VEGF and chemokine release from platelets to attenuate the early metastatic niche formation.


ABSTRACT: Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer associated fatalities. Tumor cells leaving the primary tumor and entering the blood flow immediately interact with platelets. Activated platelets contribute in different ways to cancer cell survival and proliferation, e.g. in formation of the early metastatic niche by release of different growth factors and chemokines. Here we show that a direct interaction between platelets and MV3 melanoma or MCF7 breast cancer cells induces platelet activation and a VEGF release in citrated plasma that cannot be further elevated by the coagulation cascade and generated thrombin. In contrast, the release of platelet-derived chemokines CXCL5 and CXCL7 depends on both, a thrombin-mediated platelet activation and a direct interaction between tumor cells and platelets. Preincubation of platelets with therapeutic concentrations of unfractionated heparin reduces the tumor cell initiated VEGF release from platelets. In contrast, tumor cell induced CXCL5 and CXCL7 release from platelets was not impacted by heparin pretreatment in citrated plasma. In defibrinated, recalcified plasma, on the contrary, heparin is able to reduce CXCL5 and CXCL7 release from platelets by thrombin inhibition. Our data indicate that different chemokines and growth factors in diverse platelet granules are released in tightly regulated processes by various trigger mechanisms. We show for the first time that heparin is able to reduce the mediator release induced by different tumor cells both in a contact and coagulation dependent manner.

SUBMITTER: Ponert JM 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5773218 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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