Arrhythmogenic drugs can amplify spatial heterogeneities in the electrical restitution in perfused guinea-pig heart: An evidence from assessments of monophasic action potential durations and JT intervals.
ABSTRACT: Non-uniform shortening of the action potential duration (APD90) in different myocardial regions upon heart rate acceleration can set abnormal repolarization gradients and promote arrhythmia. This study examined whether spatial heterogeneities in APD90 restitution can be amplified by drugs with clinically proved proarrhythmic potential (dofetilide, quinidine, procainamide, and flecainide) and, if so, whether these effects can translate to the appropriate changes of the ECG metrics of ventricular repolarization, such as JT intervals. In isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations, monophasic action potentials and volume-conducted ECG were recorded at progressively increased pacing rates. The APD90 measured at distinct ventricular sites, as well as the JTpeak and JTend values were plotted as a function of preceding diastolic interval, and the maximum slopes of the restitution curves were determined at baseline and upon drug administration. Dofetilide, quinidine, and procainamide reverse rate-dependently prolonged APD90 and steepened the restitution curve, with effects being greater at the endocardium than epicardium, and in the right ventricular (RV) vs. the left ventricular (LV) chamber. The restitution slope was increased to a greater extent for the JTend vs. the JTpeak interval. In contrast, flecainide reduced the APD90 restitution slope at LV epicardium without producing effect at LV endocardium and RV epicardium, and reduced the JTpeak restitution slope without changing the JTend restitution. Nevertheless, with all agents, these effects translated to the amplified epicardial-to-endocardial and the LV-to-RV non-uniformities in APD90 restitution, paralleled by the increased JTend vs. JTpeak difference in the restitution slope. In summary, these findings suggest that arrhythmic drug profiles are partly attributable to the accentuated regional heterogeneities in APD90 restitution, which can be indirectly determined through ECG assessments of the JTend vs. JTpeak dynamics at variable pacing rates.
Project description:Reductions in cardiac action potential wavelength, and the consequent wavebreak, have been implicated in arrhythmogenesis. Tachyarrhythmias are more common in the Brugada syndrome, particularly following pharmacological challenge, previously modelled using Scn5a(+/-) murine hearts. Propagation latencies and action potential durations (APDs) from monophasic action potential recordings were used to assess wavelength changes with heart rate in Langendorff-perfused wild-type (WT) and Scn5a(+/-) hearts. Recordings were obtained from right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular, epicardial and endocardial surfaces during incremental pacing, before and following flecainide or quinidine challenge. Conduction velocities (?'), action potential wavelengths (?' = APD × ?'), and their corresponding alternans depended non-linearly upon diastolic interval (DI). Maximum ?' was lower in Scn5a(+/-) RV epicardium than endocardium. Flecainide further reduced ?', accentuating this RV conduction block. Quinidine reduced maximum ?' in WT and caused earlier conduction failure in the RV of both Scn5a(+/-) and WT. Use of recovery wavelengths (?'0 = DI × ?') rather than DI, provided novel ? restitution plots of ?' against ?'0, which sum to a basic cycle distance permitting feedback analysis. ?' restitution gradient better correlated with alternans magnitude than either APD or ? restitution gradient. The large differences in ?' and APD restitution contrasted with minor differences in maximum ?' between epi- and endocardia of untreated hearts, and quinidine-treated WT hearts. Strikingly, all regions and conditions converged to a common instability point, implying a conserved relationship. Flecainide or quinidine decreased the pacing rates at which this occurred, through reducing basic cycle distance, in the Scn5a(+/-) RV epicardium, directly predictive of its arrhythmic phenotype.
Project description:Mechanisms associated with right ventricular (RV) hypertension and arrhythmias are less understood than those in the left ventricle (LV). The aim of our study was to investigate whether and by what mechanisms a proarrhythmic substrate exists in a rat model of RV hypertension and hypertrophy. Rats were injected with monocrotaline (MCT; 60 mg/kg) to induce pulmonary artery hypertension or with saline (CON). Myocardial levels of mRNA for genes expressing ion channels were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) was recorded in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts. MAPD restitution was measured, and arrhythmias were induced by burst stimulation. Twenty-two to twenty-six days after treatment, MCT animals had RV hypertension, hypertrophy, and decreased ejection fractions compared with CON. A greater proportion of MCT hearts developed sustained ventricular tachycardias/fibrillation (0.83 MCT vs. 0.14 CON). MAPD was prolonged in RV and less so in the LV of MCT hearts. There were decreased levels of mRNA for K(+) channels. Restitution curves of MCT RV were steeper than CON RV or either LV. Dispersion of MAPD was greater in MCT hearts and was dependent on stimulation frequency. Computer simulations based on ion channel gene expression closely predicted experimental changes in MAPD and restitution. We have identified a proarrhythmic substrate in the hearts of MCT-treated rats. We conclude that steeper RV electrical restitution and rate-dependant RV-LV action potential duration dispersion may be contributing mechanisms and be implicated in the generation of arrhythmias associated with in RV hypertension and hypertrophy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationship between the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) T wave to intracardiac repolarization is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to examine the association between intracardiac ventricular repolarization and the T wave on the body surface ECG (SECGTW). METHODS:Ten patients with a normal heart (age 35 ± 15 years; 6 men) were studied. Decapolar electrophysiological catheters were placed in the right ventricle (RV) and lateral left ventricle (LV) to record in an apicobasal orientation and in the lateral LV branch of the coronary sinus (CS) for transmural recording. Each catheter (CS, LV, RV) was sequentially paced using an S1-S2 restitution protocol. Intracardiac repolarization time and apicobasal, RV-LV, and transmural repolarization dispersion were correlated with the SECGTW, and a total of 23,946 T waves analyzed. RESULTS:RV endocardial repolarization occurred on the upslope of lead V1, V2, and V3 SECGTW, with sensitivity of 0.89, 0.91, and 0.84 and specificity of 0.67, 0.68, and 0.65, respectively. LV basal endocardial, epicardial, and mid-endocardial repolarization occurred on the upslope of leads V6 and I, with sensitivity of 0.79 and 0.8 and specificity of 0.66 and 0.67, respectively. Differences between the end of the upslope in V1, V2, and V3 vs V6 strongly correlated with right to left dispersion of repolarization (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.81, 0.83, and 0.85, respectively; P <.001). Poor association between the T wave and apicobasal and transmural dispersion of repolarization was seen. CONCLUSION:The precordial SECGTW reflects regional repolarization differences between right and left heart. These findings have important implications for accurately identifying biomarkers of arrhythmogenic risk in disease.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Dissimilar ventricular rhythms refer to the occurrence of different ventricular tachyarrhythmias in the right and left ventricles or different rates of the same tachyarrhythmia in the two ventricles. <b>Objective:</b> We investigated the inducibility of dissimilar ventricular rhythms, their underlying mechanisms, and the impact of anti-arrhythmic drugs (lidocaine and amiodarone) on their occurrence. <b>Methods:</b> Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were induced with burst pacing in 28 Langendorff-perfused Sprague Dawley rat hearts (14 control, 8 lidocaine, 6 amiodarone) and bipolar electrograms recorded from the right and left ventricles. Fourteen (6 control, 4 lidocaine, 4 amiodarone) further hearts underwent optical mapping of transmembrane voltage to study interventricular electrophysiological differences and mechanisms of dissimilar rhythms. <b>Results:</b> In control hearts, dissimilar ventricular rhythms developed in 8/14 hearts (57%). In lidocaine treated hearts, there was a lower cycle length threshold for developing dissimilar rhythms, with 8/8 (100%) hearts developing dissimilar rhythms in comparison to 0/6 in the amiodarone group. Dissimilar ventricular tachycardia (VT) rates occurred at longer cycle lengths with lidocaine vs. control (57.1 ± 7.9 vs. 36.6 ± 8.4 ms, <i>p</i> < 0.001). The ratio of LV:RV VT rate was greater in the lidocaine group than control (1.91 ± 0.30 vs. 1.76 ± 0.36, <i>p</i> < 0.001). The gradient of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve was shallower in the RV compared with LV (Control - LV: 0.12 ± 0.03 vs RV: 0.002 ± 0.03, <i>p</i> = 0.015), leading to LV-to-RV conduction block during VT. <b>Conclusion:</b> Interventricular differences in APD restitution properties likely contribute to the occurrence of dissimilar rhythms. Sodium channel blockade with lidocaine increases the likelihood of dissimilar ventricular rhythms.
Project description:Imaging-based assessment of cardiovascular structure and function provides clinically relevant information in smokers. Non-cardiac-gated thoracic computed tomographic (CT) scanning is increasingly leveraged for clinical care and lung cancer screening. We sought to determine if more comprehensive measures of ventricular geometry could be obtained from CT using an atlas-based surface model of the heart.Subcohorts of 24 subjects with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 262 subjects with echocardiography were identified from COPDGene, a longitudinal observational study of smokers. A surface model of the heart was manually initialized, and then automatically optimized to fit the epicardium for each CT. Estimates of right and left ventricular (RV and LV) volume and free-wall curvature were then calculated and compared to structural and functional metrics obtained from MRI and echocardiograms.CT measures of RV dimension and curvature correlated with similar measures obtained using MRI. RV and LV volume obtained from CT inversely correlated with echocardiogram-based estimates of RV systolic pressure using tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity and LV ejection fraction respectively. Patients with evidence of RV or LV dysfunction on echocardiogram had larger RV and LV dimensions on CT. Logistic regression models based on demographics and ventricular measures from CT had an area under the curve of >0.7 for the prediction of elevated right ventricular systolic pressure and ventricular failure.These data suggest that non-cardiac-gated, non-contrast-enhanced thoracic CT scanning may provide insight into cardiac structure and function in smokers.
Project description:Right ventricular failure (RVF) in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased incidence of sudden death by a poorly explored mechanism. We test the hypothesis that PH promotes spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (VF) during a critical post-PH onset period characterized by a sudden increase in mortality.Rats received either a single subcutaneous dose of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) to induce PH-associated RVF (PH, n=24) or saline (control, n=17). Activation pattern of the RV-epicardial surface was mapped using voltage-sensitive dye in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts along with single glass-microelectrode and ECG-recordings. MCT-injected rats developed severe PH by day 21 and progressed to RVF by approximately day 30. Rats manifested increased mortality, and ?30% rats died suddenly and precipitously during 23-32 days after MCT. This fatal period was associated with the initiation of spontaneous VF by a focal mechanism in the RV, which was subsequently maintained by both focal and incomplete reentrant wave fronts. Microelectrode recordings from the RV-epicardium at the onset of focal activity showed early afterdepolarization-mediated triggered activity that led to VF. The onset of the RV cellular triggered beats preceded left ventricular depolarizations by 23±8 ms. The RV but not the left ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated during this fatal period manifested significant action potential duration prolongation, dispersion, and an increased susceptibility to depolarization-induced repetitive activity. No spontaneous VF was observed in any of the control hearts. RVF was associated with significantly reduced RV ejection fraction (P<0.001), RV hypertrophy (P<0.001), and RV fibrosis (P<0.01). The hemodynamic function of the LV and its structure were preserved.PH-induced RVF is associated with a distinct phase of increased mortality characterized by spontaneous VF arising from the RV by an early afterdepolarization-mediated triggered activity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cardiac injury has been reported in up to 30% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, cardiac injury is defined mainly by troponin elevation without description of associated structural abnormalities and its time course has not been studied.<h4>Research question</h4>What are the ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities as well as their time course in critically ill COVID-19 patients?<h4>Study design and methods</h4>The cardiac function of 43 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to two ICUs was assessed prospectively and repeatedly, combining ECG, cardiac biomarker, and transthoracic echocardiographic analyses from ICU admission to ICU discharge or death or to a maximum follow-up of 14 days. Cardiac injury was defined by troponin elevation and newly diagnosed ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities, or both.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, 49% of patients demonstrated a cardiac injury, and 70% of patients experienced cardiac injury within the first 14 days of ICU stay, with a median time of occurrence of 3 days (range, 0-7 days). The most frequent abnormalities were ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of left ventricular (LV) abnormalities (87% of patients with cardiac injury), right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction (47%), pericardial effusion (43%), new-onset atrial arrhythmias (33%), LV relaxation impairment (33%), and LV systolic dysfunction (13%). Between baseline and day 14, the incidence of pericardial effusion and of new-onset atrial arrhythmias increased and the incidence of ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities as well as the incidence of LV relaxation impairment remained stable, whereas the incidence of RV and LV systolic dysfunction decreased.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Cardiac injury is common and early in critically ill COVID-19 patients. ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities were the most frequent abnormalities, and patients with cardiac injury experienced more RV than LV systolic dysfunction.
Project description:Background:Patient-specific left ventricular (LV) lead optimisation strategies with immediate feedback on cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) effectiveness are needed. The purpose of this study was to compare contractility surrogates derived from biventricular lead motion analysis to the peak positive time derivative of LV pressure (dP/dtmax) in patients undergoing CRT implantation. Methods:Twenty-seven patients underwent CRT implantation with continuous haemodynamic monitoring. The right ventricular (RV) lead was placed in apex and a quadripolar LV lead was placed laterally. Biplane fluoroscopy cine films facilitated construction of three-dimensional RV-LV interlead distance waveforms at baseline and under biventricular pacing (BIVP) from which the following contractility surrogates were derived; fractional shortening (FS), time to peak systolic contraction and peak shortening of the interlead distance (negative slope). Acute haemodynamic CRT response was defined as LV ∆dP/dtmax ≥ 10 %. Results:We observed a mean increase in dP/dtmax under BIVP (899±205 mm Hg/s vs 777±180 mm Hg/s, p<0.001). Based on ΔdP/dtmax, 18 patients were classified as acute CRT responders and nine as non-responders (23.3%±10.6% vs 1.9±5.3%, p<0.001). The baseline RV-LV interlead distance was associated with echocardiographic LV dimensions (end diastole: R=0.61, p=0.001 and end systole: R=0.54, p=0.004). However, none of the contractility surrogates could discriminate between the acute CRT responders and non-responders (ΔFS: -2.5±2.6% vs - 2.0±3.1%, p=0.50; Δtime to peak systolic contraction: -9.7±18.1% vs -10.8±15.1%, p=0.43 and Δpeak negative slope: -8.7±45.9% vs 12.5±54.8 %, p=0.09). Conclusion:The baseline RV-LV interlead distance was associated with echocardiographic LV dimensions. In CRT recipients, contractility surrogates derived from the RV-LV interlead distance waveform could not discriminate between acute haemodynamic responders and non-responders.
Project description:Long-duration ventricular fibrillation (LDVF) in the globally ischemic heart is a common setting of cardiac arrest. Electrical heterogeneities during LDVF may affect outcomes of defibrillation and resuscitation. Previous studies in large mammalian hearts have investigated the role of Purkinje fibers and electrophysiological gradients between the endocardium (Endo) and epicardium (Epi). Much less is known about gradients between the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) and within each chamber during LDVF. We studied the transmural distribution of the VF activation rate (VFR) in the RV and LV and at the junction of RV, LV, and septum (Sep) during LDVF using plunge needle electrodes in opened-chest dogs. We also used optical mapping to analyze the Epi distribution of VFR, action potential duration (APD), and diastolic interval (DI) during LDVF in the RV and LV of isolated hearts. Transmural VFR gradients developed in both the RV and LV, with a faster VFR in Endo. Concurrently, large VFR gradients developed in Epi, with the fastest VFR in the RV-Sep junction, intermediate in the RV, and slowest in the LV. Optical mapping revealed a progressively increasing VFR dispersion within both the LV and RV, with a mosaic presence of fully inexcitable areas after 4-8 min of LDVF. The transmural, interchamber, and intrachamber VFR heterogeneities were of similar magnitude. In both chambers, the inverse of VFR was highly correlated with DI, but not APD, at all time points of LDVF. We conclude that the complex VFR gradients during LDVF in the canine heart cannot be explained solely by the distribution of Purkinje fibers and are related to regional differences in the electrical depression secondary to LDVF.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The restitution of the action potential duration (APDR) and conduction velocity (CVR) are mechanisms whereby cardiac excitation and repolarization adapt to changes in heart rate. They modulate the vulnerability to dangerous arrhythmia, but the mechanistic link between restitution and arrhythmogenesis remains only partially understood.<h4>Methods</h4>This paper provides an experimental and theoretical study of repolarization and excitation restitution properties and their interactions in the intact human epicardium. The interdependence between excitation and repolarization dynamic is studied in 8 patients (14 restitution protocols, 1722 restitution curves) undergoing global epicardial mapping with multi-electrode socks before open heart surgery. A mathematical description of the contribution of both repolarization and conduction dynamics to the steepness of the APDR slope is proposed.<h4>Results</h4>This study demonstrates that the APDR slope is a function of both activation and repolarization dynamics. At short cycle length, conduction delay significantly increases the APDR slope by interacting with the diastolic interval. As predicted by the proposed mathematical formulation, the APDR slope was more sensitive to activation time prolongation than to the simultaneous shortening of repolarization time. A steep APDR slope was frequently identified, with 61% of all cardiac sites exhibiting an APDR slope > 1, suggesting that a slope > 1 may not necessarily promote electrical instability in the human epicardium. APDR slope did not change for different activation or repolarization times, and it was not a function of local baseline APD. However, it was affected by the spatial organization of electrical excitation, suggesting that in tissue APDR is not a unique function of local electrophysiological properties. Spatial heterogeneity in both activation and repolarization restitution contributed to the increase in the modulated dispersion of repolarization, which for short cycle length was as high as 250 ms. Heterogeneity in conduction velocity restitution can translate into both activation and repolarization dispersion and increase cardiac instability. The proposed mathematical formulation shows an excellent agreement with the experimental data (correlation coefficient r = 0.94) and provides a useful tool for the understanding of the complex interactions between activation and repolarization restitution properties as well as between their measurements.