Development of Kras mutant lung adenocarcinoma in mice with knockout of the airway lineage-specific gene Gprc5a.
ABSTRACT: Despite the urgency for prevention and treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), we still do not know drivers in pathogenesis of the disease. Earlier work revealed that mice with knockout of the G-protein coupled receptor Gprc5a develop late onset lung tumors including LUADs. Here, we sought to further probe the impact of Gprc5a expression on LUAD pathogenesis. We first surveyed GPRC5A expression in human tissues and found that GPRC5A was markedly elevated in human normal lung relative to other normal tissues and was consistently downregulated in LUADs. In sharp contrast to wild-type littermates, Gprc5a-/- mice treated chronically with the nicotine-specific carcinogen NNK developed LUADs by 6 months following NNK exposure. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the LUADs exhibited abundant expression of surfactant protein C and lacked the clara cell marker Ccsp, suggesting that these LUADs originated from alveolar type II cells. Next, we sought to survey genome-wide alterations in the pathogenesis of Gprc5a-/- LUADs. Using whole exome sequencing, we found that carcinogen-induced LUADs exhibited markedly higher somatic mutation burdens relative to spontaneous tumors. All LUADs were found to harbor somatic mutations in the Kras oncogene (p. G12D or p. Q61R). In contrast to spontaneous lesions, carcinogen-induced Gprc5a-/- LUADs exhibited mutations (variants and copy number gains) in additional drivers (Atm, Kmt2d, Nf1, Trp53, Met, Ezh2). Our study underscores genomic alterations that represent early events in the development of Kras mutant LUAD following Gprc5a loss and tobacco carcinogen exposure and that may constitute targets for prevention and early treatment of this disease.
Project description:Lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) with somatic mutations in the KRAS oncogene comprise the most common molecular subtype of lung cancer in smokers and present with overall dismal prognosis and resistance to most therapies. Our group recently demonstrated that tobacco carcinogen-exposed mice with knockout of the airway lineage G-protein coupled receptor, Gprc5a, develop LUADs with somatic mutations in Kras. Earlier work has suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play crucial roles in clonal evolution of tumors and in therapy resistance. To date, our understanding of CSCs in LUADs with somatic Kras mutations remains lagging. Here we derived CSCs (as spheres in 3D cultures) with self-renewal properties from a murine Kras-mutant LUAD cell line we previously established from a tobacco carcinogen-exposed Gprc5a -/- mouse. Using syngeneic Gprc5a -/- models, we found that these CSCs, compared to their parental isoforms, exhibited increased tumorigenic potential in vivo, particularly in female animals. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing coupled with pathways analysis and confirmatory PCR, we identified gene features (n = 2,600) differentially expressed in the CSCs compared to parental cells and that were enriched with functional modules associated with an augmented malignant phenotype including stemness, tumor-promoting inflammation and anti-oxidant responses. Further, based on in silico predicted activation of GSK3? in CSCs, we found that tideglusib, an irreversible inhibitor of the kinase, exhibited marked anti-growth effects in the cultured CSCs. Our study underscores molecular cues in the pathogenesis of Kras-mutant LUAD and presents new models to study the evolution, and thus high-potential targets, of this aggressive malignancy.
Project description:Improved understanding of lung cancer development and progression, including insights from studies of animal models, are needed to combat this fatal disease. Previously, we found that mice with a knockout (KO) of G-protein coupled receptor 5A (Gprc5a) develop lung tumors after a long latent period (12 to 24 months).To determine whether a tobacco carcinogen will enhance tumorigenesis in this model, we administered 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) i.p. to 2-months old Gprc5a-KO mice and sacrificed groups (n=5) of mice at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months later. Compared to control Gprc5a-KO mice, NNK-treated mice developed lung tumors at least 6 months earlier, exhibited 2- to 4-fold increased tumor incidence and multiplicity, and showed a dramatic increase in lesion size. A gene expression signature, NNK-ADC, of differentially expressed genes derived by transcriptome analysis of epithelial cell lines from normal lungs of Gprc5a-KO mice and from NNK-induced adenocarcinoma was highly similar to differential expression patterns observed between normal and tumorigenic human lung cells. The NNK-ADC expression signature also separated both mouse and human adenocarcinomas from adjacent normal lung tissues based on publicly available microarray datasets. A key feature of the signature, up-regulation of Ube2c, Mcm2, and Fen1, was validated in mouse normal lung and adenocarcinoma tissues and cells by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, respectively.Our findings demonstrate that lung tumorigenesis in the Gprc5a-KO mouse model is augmented by NNK and that gene expression changes induced by tobacco carcinogen(s) may be conserved between mouse and human lung epithelial cells. Further experimentation to prove the reliability of the Gprc5a knockout mouse model for the study of tobacco-induced lung carcinogenesis is warranted.
Project description:Lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) lead to the majority of deaths attributable to lung cancer. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and immune profiling analyses of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUADs to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify clinically relevant molecular markers.We performed WES of 108 paired stage I-III LUADs and normal lung tissues using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Ten immune markers (PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45ro, CD57, CD68, FOXP3 and Granzyme B) were profiled by imaging-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a subset of LUADs (n?=?92). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for multivariate analysis of clinical outcome.LUADs in this cohort exhibited an average of 243 coding mutations. We identified 28 genes with significant enrichment for mutation. SETD2-mutated LUADs exhibited relatively poor recurrence- free survival (RFS) and mutations in STK11 and ATM were associated with poor RFS among KRAS-mutant tumors. EGFR, KEAP1 and PIK3CA mutations were predictive of poor response to adjuvant therapy. Immune marker analysis revealed that LUADs in smokers and with relatively high mutation burdens exhibited increased levels of immune markers. Analysis of immunophenotypes revealed that LUADs with STK11 mutations exhibited relatively low levels of infiltrating CD4+/CD8+?T-cells indicative of a muted immune response. Tumoral PD-L1 was significantly elevated in TP53 mutant LUADs whereas PIK3CA mutant LUADs exhibited markedly down-regulated PD-L1 expression. LUADs with TP53 or KEAP1 mutations displayed relatively increased CD57 and Granzyme B levels indicative of augmented natural killer (NK) cell infiltration.Our study highlights molecular and immune phenotypes that warrant further analysis for their roles in clinical outcomes and personalized immune-based therapy of LUAD.
Project description:Precision medicine relies on targeting specific somatic alterations present in a patient's tumor. However, the extent to which germline ancestry may influence the somatic burden of disease has received little attention. We estimated the genetic ancestry of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and performed an in-depth analysis of the influence of genetic ancestry on the evolutionary disease course. Compared with European Americans (EA), African Americans (AA) with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) were found to be significantly younger and smoke significantly less. However, LUADs from AAs exhibited a significantly higher somatic mutation burden, with a more pronounced tobacco carcinogen footprint and increased frequencies of alterations affecting cancer genes. Conversely, no significant differences were observed between lung squamous cell carcinomas (LUSC) from EAs and AAs. Our results suggest germline ancestry influences the somatic evolution of LUAD but not LUSC.
Project description:Mutations to KRAS are recurrent in lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD) and are daunting to treat due to the difficulties in KRAS oncoprotein inhibition. A possible resolution to this problem may lie with co-mutations to other genes that also occur in KRAS¬-driven LUAD, that may provide alternative therapeutic vulnerabilities. Approximately 3% of KRAS-mutant LUADs carry functional mutations in NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin-1, a negative regulator of focal adhesion kinase 1 (FAK1). We evaluated the impact of Nf1 loss on LUAD development using a CRISPR/Cas9 platform in a murine model of Kras-mutant LUAD. We discovered that Nf1 deactivation is associated with Fak1 hyperactivation and phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (Psat1) upregulation in mice. Nf1 loss also accelerates murine Kras-driven LUAD tumorigenesis. Analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome reveals that LUAD cells with mutation to Nf1 are addicted to glutamine metabolism. We also reveal that this metabolic vulnerability can be leveraged as a treatment option by pharmacologically inhibiting glutaminase and/or Psat1. Lastly, the findings advocate that tumor stratification by co-mutations to KRAS/NF1 highlights the LAUD patient population expected to be susceptible to inhibiting PSAT1.
Project description:Mutations to KRAS are recurrent in lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD) and are daunting to treat due to the difficulties in KRAS oncoprotein inhibition. A possible resolution to this problem may lie with co-mutations to other genes that also occur in KRAS-driven LUAD that may provide alternative therapeutic vulnerabilities. Approximately 3% of KRAS-mutant LUADs carry functional mutations in NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin-1, a negative regulator of focal adhesion kinase 1 (FAK1). We evaluated the impact of Nf1 loss on LUAD development using a CRISPR/Cas9 platform in a murine model of Kras-mutant LUAD We discovered that Nf1 deactivation is associated with Fak1 hyperactivation and phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (Psat1) upregulation in mice. Nf1 loss also accelerates murine Kras-driven LUAD tumorigenesis. Analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome reveals that LUAD cells with mutation to Nf1 are addicted to glutamine metabolism. We also reveal that this metabolic vulnerability can be leveraged as a treatment option by pharmacologically inhibiting glutaminase and/or Psat1. Lastly, the findings advocate that tumor stratification by co-mutations to KRAS/NF1 highlights the LAUD patient population expected to be susceptible to inhibiting PSAT1.
Project description:Increasing the understanding of the impact of changes in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is essential for improving the management of lung cancer. Recently, we identified a new mouse lung-specific tumor suppressor - the G-protein coupled receptor 5A (Gprc5a). We sought to understand the molecular consequences of Gprc5a loss and towards this we performed microarray analysis of the transcriptomes of lung epithelial cells cultured from normal tracheas of Gprc5a knockout and wild-type mice to define a loss-of-Gprc5a gene signature. Moreover, we analyzed differential gene expression patterns between Gprc5a knockout normal lung epithelial cells as well as lung adenocarcinoma cells isolated and cultured from tumors of NNK-exposed Gprc5a knockout mice. Overall design: Gprc5a wild type cells (WT-NLE) and Gprc5a knockout cells (NULL-NLE) were isolated and cultured from trachea of three week old Gprc5a wild type and knockout mice, respectively. MDA-F471 mouse lung adenocarcinoma cells were derived de novo from an adenocarcinoma that was found in the lung of a female Gprc5a-knockout mouse sacrificed 16 months after NNK tobacco carcinogen i.p. injection based on a protocol approved by the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Following RNA extraction and purification, the transcriptome of the Gprc5a wild type and knockout cells were analyzed by microarray analysis using the Affymetrix MG-430 2.0 murine array platform.
Project description:Brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma (BM-LUAD) frequently cause patient mortality. To identify genomic alterations that promote brain metastases, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 73 BM-LUAD cases. Using case-control analyses, we discovered candidate drivers of brain metastasis by identifying genes with more frequent copy-number aberrations in BM-LUAD compared to 503 primary LUADs. We identified three regions with significantly higher amplification frequencies in BM-LUAD, including MYC (12 versus 6%), YAP1 (7 versus 0.8%) and MMP13 (10 versus 0.6%), and significantly more frequent deletions in CDKN2A/B (27 versus 13%). We confirmed that the amplification frequencies of MYC, YAP1 and MMP13 were elevated in an independent cohort of 105 patients with BM-LUAD. Functional assessment in patient-derived xenograft mouse models validated the notion that MYC, YAP1 or MMP13 overexpression increased the incidence of brain metastasis. These results demonstrate that somatic alterations contribute to brain metastases and that genomic sequencing of a sufficient number of metastatic tumors can reveal previously unknown metastatic drivers.
Project description:Somatic genomic mutations in lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) have been extensively dissected, but whether the counterpart normal lung tissues that are exposed to ambient air or tobacco smoke as the tumor tissues do, harbor genomic variations, remains unclear. Here, the genome of normal lung tissues and paired tumors of 11 patients with LUAD were sequenced, the genome sequences of counterpart normal controls (CNCs) and tumor tissues of 513 patients were downloaded from TCGA database and analyzed. In the initial screening, genomic alterations were identified in the "normal" lung tissues and verified by Sanger capillary sequencing. In CNCs of TCGA datasets, a mean of 0.2721 exonic variations/Mb and 5.2885 altered genes per sample were uncovered. The C:G?T:A transitions, a signature of tobacco carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, were the predominant nucleotide changes in CNCs. 16 genes had a variant rate of more than 2%, and CNC variations in MUC5B, ZXDB, PLIN4, CCDC144NL, CNTNAP3B, and CCDC180 were associated with poor prognosis whereas alterations in CHD3 and KRTAP5-5 were associated with favorable clinical outcome of the patients. This study identified the genomic alterations in CNC samples of LUADs, and further highlighted the DNA damage effect of tobacco on lung epithelial cells.