Structural characterization of the bacterial proteasome homolog BPH reveals a tetradecameric double-ring complex with unique inner cavity properties.
ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic and archaeal proteasomes are paradigms for self-compartmentalizing proteases. To a large extent, their function requires interplay with hexameric ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+) that act as substrate unfoldases. Bacteria have various types of self-compartmentalizing proteases; in addition to the proteasome itself, these include the proteasome homolog HslV, which functions together with the AAA+ HslU; the ClpP protease with its partner AAA+ ClpX; and Anbu, a recently characterized ancestral proteasome variant. Previous bioinformatic analysis has revealed a novel bacterial member of the proteasome family Betaproteobacteria proteasome homolog (BPH). Using cluster analysis, we here affirmed that BPH evolutionarily descends from HslV. Crystal structures of the Thiobacillus denitrificans and Cupriavidus metallidurans BPHs disclosed a homo-oligomeric double-ring architecture in which the active sites face the interior of the cylinder. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electron microscopy averaging, we found that BPH forms tetradecamers in solution, unlike the dodecamers seen in HslV. Although the highly acidic inner surface of BPH was in striking contrast to the cavity characteristics of the proteasome and HslV, a classical proteasomal reaction mechanism could be inferred from the covalent binding of the proteasome-specific inhibitor epoxomicin to BPH. A ligand-bound structure implied that the elongated BPH inner pore loop may be involved in substrate recognition. The apparent lack of a partner unfoldase and other unique features, such as Ser replacing Thr as the catalytic residue in certain BPH subfamilies, suggest a proteolytic function for BPH distinct from those of known bacterial self-compartmentalizing proteases.
Project description:In the AAA+ HslUV protease, substrates are bound and unfolded by a ring hexamer of HslU, before translocation through an axial pore and into the HslV degradation chamber. Here, we show that the N-terminal residues of an Arc substrate initially bind in the HslU axial pore, with key contacts mediated by a pore loop that is highly conserved in all AAA+ unfoldases. Disordered loops from the six intermediate domains of the HslU hexamer project into a funnel-shaped cavity above the pore and are positioned to contact protein substrates. Mutations in these I-domain loops increase K(M) and decrease V(max) for degradation, increase the mobility of bound substrates, and prevent substrate stimulation of ATP hydrolysis. HslU-?I has negligible ATPase activity. Thus, the I domain plays an active role in coordinating substrate binding, ATP hydrolysis, and protein degradation by the HslUV proteolytic machine.
Project description:The HslUV proteolytic machine consists of HslV, a double-ring self-compartmentalized peptidase, and one or two AAA+ HslU ring hexamers that hydrolyze ATP to power the unfolding of protein substrates and their translocation into the proteolytic chamber of HslV. Here, we use genetic tethering and disulfide bonding strategies to construct HslU pseudohexamers containing mixtures of ATPase active and inactive subunits at defined positions in the hexameric ring. Genetic tethering impairs HslV binding and degradation, even for pseudohexamers with six active subunits, but disulfide-linked pseudohexamers do not have these defects, indicating that the peptide tether interferes with HslV interactions. Importantly, pseudohexamers containing different patterns of hydrolytically active and inactive subunits retain the ability to unfold protein substrates and/or collaborate with HslV in their degradation, supporting a model in which ATP hydrolysis and linked mechanical function in the HslU ring operate by a probabilistic mechanism.
Project description:HslVU is a bacterial ATP-dependent protease distantly related to eukaryotic proteasomes consisting of hexameric HslU ATPase and dodecameric HslV protease. As a homolog of the 20 S proteasome beta-subunits, HslV also uses the N-terminal threonine as the active site residue. However, unlike the proteasome that has only 6 active sites among the 14 beta-subunits, HslV has 12 active sites that could potentially contribute to proteolytic activity. Here, by using a series of HslV dodecamers containing different numbers of active sites, we demonstrate that like the proteasome, HslV with only approximately 6 active sites is sufficient to support full catalytic activity. However, a further reduction of the number of active sites leads to a proportional decrease in activity. Using proteasome inhibitors, we also demonstrate that substrate-mediated stabilization of the HslV-HslU interaction remains unchanged until the number of the active sites is decreased to approximately 6 but is gradually compromised upon further reduction. These results with a mathematical model suggest HslVU utilizes no more than 6 active sites at any given time, presumably because of the action of HslU. These results also suggest that each ATP-bound HslU subunit activates one HslV subunit and that substrate bound to the HslV active site stimulates the HslU ATPase activity by stabilizing the HslV-HslU interaction. We propose this mechanism plays an important role in supporting complete degradation of substrates while preventing wasteful ATP hydrolysis in the resting state by controlling the interaction between HslV and HslU through the catalytic engagement of the proteolytic active sites.
Project description:HslVU is a bacterial homolog of the proteasome, where HslV is the protease that is activated by HslU, an ATPase and chaperone. Structures of singly and doubly capped HslVU particles have been reported, and different binding modes have been observed. Even among HslVU structures with I-domains distal to HslV, no consensus mode of activation has emerged. A feature in the Haemophilus influenzae HslVU structure, insertion of the C termini of HslU into pockets in HslV, was not seen in all other structures of the enzyme. Here we report site-directed mutagenesis, peptide activation, and fluorescence experiments that strongly support the functional relevance of the C terminus insertion mechanism: we find that mutations in HslV that disrupt the interaction with the C termini of HslU invariably lead to inactive enzyme. Conversely, synthetic peptides derived from the C terminus of HslU bind to HslV with 10(-5) M affinity and can functionally replace full HslU particles for both peptide and casein degradation but fail to support degradation of a folded substrate. Thus, the data can be taken as evidence for separate substrate unfoldase and protease stimulation activities in HslU. Enhanced HslV proteolysis could be due to the opening of a gated channel or allosteric activation of the active sites. To distinguish between these possibilities, we have mutated a series of residues that line the entrance channel into the HslV particle. Our mutational and fluorescence experiments demonstrate that allosteric activation of the catalytic sites is required in HslV, but they do not exclude the possibility of channel opening taking place as well. The present data support the conclusion that the H. influenzae structure with I-domains distal to HslV captures the active species and point to significant differences in the activation mechanism of HslV, ClpP, and the proteasome.
Project description:The HslU-HslV complex functions as a bacterial proteasome, degrading substrate polypeptides to preserve cellular homeostasis. Here, we use methyl-Transverse Relaxation-Optimized Spectroscopy (TROSY) and highly deuterated, methyl-protonated samples to study the 230 kDa dodecameric HslV protease component that is structurally homologous to the stacked pair of ?7-rings of the proteasome. Chemical shift assignments for over 95% of the methyl groups are reported. From the pH dependence of methyl chemical shifts, a pKa of 7.7 is measured for the amine group of the catalytic residue T1, confirming that it can act as a proton acceptor during the initial step in substrate proteolysis. Analyses involving a series of single site mutants in HslV, localized to HslU binding sites or regions undergoing significant changes on HslU binding, have identified hot spots whose perturbation leads to an allosteric pathway of propagated changes in structure and ultimately, substrate proteolysis efficiency. HslV plasticity is explored through methyl-TROSY (13)C relaxation dispersion experiments that are sensitive to millisecond timescale dynamics. The data support a dynamic coupling between residues involved in both HslU and substrate binding and residues localized to the active sites of HslV that facilitate the allostery between these distal sites. An important role for dynamics has also been observed in the archaeal proteasome, suggesting a more generally conserved role of motion in the function of these barrel-like protease structures.
Project description:ATP binding and hydrolysis are critical for protein degradation by HslUV, a AAA(+) machine containing one or two HslU(6) ATPases and the HslV(12) peptidase. Although each HslU homohexamer has six potential ATP-binding sites, we show that only three or four ATP molecules bind at saturation and present evidence for three functional subunit classes. These results imply that only a subset of HslU and HslUV crystal structures represents functional enzyme conformations. Our results support an asymmetric mechanism of ATP binding and hydrolysis, and suggest that molecular contacts between HslU and HslV vary dynamically throughout the ATPase cycle. Nucleotide binding controls HslUV assembly and activity. Binding of a single ATP allows HslU to bind HslV, whereas additional ATPs must bind HslU to support substrate recognition and to activate ATP hydrolysis, which powers substrate unfolding and translocation. Thus, a simple thermodynamic hierarchy ensures that substrates bind to functional HslUV complexes, that ATP hydrolysis is efficiently coupled to protein degradation, and that working HslUV does not dissociate, allowing highly processive degradation.
Project description:HslUV is a bacterial heat shock protein complex consisting of the AAA+ ATPase component HslU and the protease component HslV. HslV is a threonine (Thr) protease employing the N-terminal Thr residue in the mature protein as the catalytic residue. To date, HslUV from Gram-negative bacteria has been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms of action and activation of HslUV from Gram-positive bacteria, which have an additional N-terminal sequence before the catalytic Thr residue, remain to be revealed. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of HslV from the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with and without HslU in the crystallization conditions. The structural comparison suggested that a structural transition to the symmetric form of HslV was triggered by ATP-bound HslU. More importantly, the additional N-terminal sequence was cleaved in the presence of HslU and ATP, exposing the Thr9 residue at the N-terminus and activating the ATP-dependent protease activity. Further biochemical studies demonstrated that the exposed N-terminal Thr residue is critical for catalysis with binding to the symmetric HslU hexamer. Since eukaryotic proteasomes have a similar additional N-terminal sequence, our results will improve our understanding of the common molecular mechanisms for the activation of proteasomes.
Project description:Proteasomes are self-compartmentalizing proteases that function at the core of the cellular protein degradation machinery in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria. Although their evolutionary history is under debate, it is thought to be linked to that of the bacterial protease HslV and the hypothetical bacterial protease Anbu (ancestral beta subunit). Here, together with an extensive bioinformatic analysis, we present the first biophysical characterization of Anbu. Anbu forms a dodecameric complex with a unique architecture that was only accessible through the combination of X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering. While forming continuous helices in crystals and electron microscopy preparations, refinement of sections from the crystal structure against the scattering data revealed a helical open-ring structure in solution, contrasting the ring-shaped structures of proteasome and HslV. Based on this primordial architecture and exhaustive sequence comparisons, we propose that Anbu represents an ancestral precursor at the origin of self-compartmentalization.
Project description:The I domain of HslU sits above the AAA+ ring and forms a funnel-like entry to the axial pore, where protein substrates are engaged, unfolded, and translocated into HslV for degradation. The L199Q I-domain substitution, which was originally reported as a loss-of-function mutation, resides in a segment that appears to adopt multiple conformations as electron density is not observed in HslU and HslUV crystal structures. The L199Q sequence change does not alter the structure of the AAA+ ring or its interactions with HslV but increases I-domain susceptibility to limited endoproteolysis. Notably, the L199Q mutation increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis substantially, results in slower degradation of some proteins but faster degradation of other substrates, and markedly changes the preference of HslUV for initiating degradation at the N or C terminus of model substrates. Thus, a structurally dynamic region of the I domain plays a key role in controlling protein degradation by HslUV.
Project description:In many bacteria, heat shock locus V (HslV) functions as a protease, which is activated by heat shock locus U (HslU). The primary sequence and structure of HslV are well conserved with those of the ?-subunit of the 20 S proteasome core particle in eukaryotes. To date, the HslVU complex has only been characterized in the prokaryotic system. Recently, however, the coexistence of a 20 S proteasome with HslV protease in the same living organism has been reported. In Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoan parasite that causes human sleeping sickness in Africa, HslV is localized in the mitochondria, where it has a novel function in regulating mitochondrial DNA replication. Although the prokaryotic HslVU system has been studied extensively, little is known regarding its eukaryotic counterpart. Here, we report the biochemical characteristics of an HslVU complex from T. brucei. In contrast to the prokaryotic system, T. brucei possesses two potential HslU molecules, and we found that only one of them activates HslV. A key activating residue, Tyr(494), was identified in HslU2 by biochemical and mutational studies. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this study is the first to report the crystal structure of a eukaryotic HslV, determined at 2.4 ? resolution. Drawing on our comparison of the biochemical and structural data, we discuss herein the differences and similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic HslVs.