Kinin-B1 Receptor Stimulation Promotes Invasion and is Involved in Cell-Cell Interaction of Co-Cultured Glioblastoma and Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most lethal brain tumour, and these tumours have very limited treatment options. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are considered as candidates for advanced cell therapies, due to their tropism towards GBM, possibly affecting their malignancy, thus also representing a potential therapeutic vector. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of bone-marrow-derived versus adipose-tissue-derived MSC (BM-/AT-MSC) on heterogeneous populations of tumour cells. This cells' interplay was addressed by the in-vitro two-dimensional (monolayer) and three-dimensional (spheroid) co-culture models, using U87 and U373 GBM cell lines, expressing genotypically different mesenchymal transcriptome profiles. U87 cell low mesenchymal profile expressed high levels of kinin receptor 1 (B1R) and their invasion was greatly enhanced by the B1R agonist des-Arg9-bradykinin upon BM-MSC co-culturing in 3D co-cultures. This correlated to significantly higher cell-cell interactions in U87/BM-MSC mixed spheroids. This was not observed with the U373 cells and not in AT-MSC co-cultures. Altogether, these data support the on-going exploration of B1R as target for adjuvant approach in GBM therapy. Secondly, the results emphasize the need for further careful exploration of the selectivity regarding the origin of MSC as potential candidates for cell therapies, particular in cancer, where they may adversely affect heterogeneous tumour cell populations.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme are an aggressive form of brain tumors that are characterized by distinct invasion of single glioblastoma cells, which infiltrate the brain parenchyma. This appears to be stimulated by the communication between cancer and stromal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are part of the glioblastoma microenvironment, and their 'cross-talk' with glioblastoma cells is still poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of bone marrow-derived MSCs on two different established glioblastoma cell lines U87 and U373. We focused on mutual effects of direct MSC/glioblastoma contact on cellular invasion in three-dimensional invasion assays in vitro and in a zebrafish embryo model in vivo. This is the first demonstration of glioblastoma cell-type-specific responses to MSCs in direct glioblastoma co-cultures, where MSCs inhibited the invasion of U87 cells and enhanced the invasion of U373. Inversely, direct cross-talk between MSCs and both of glioblastoma cell lines enhanced MSC motility. MSC-enhanced invasion of U373 cells was assisted by overexpression of proteases cathepsin B, calpain1, uPA/uPAR, MMP-2, -9 and -14, and increased activities of some of these proteases, as determined by the effects of their selective inhibitors on invasion. In contrast, these proteases had no effect on U87 cell invasion under MSC co-culturing. Finally, we identified differentially expressed genes, in U87 and U373 cells that could explain different response of these cell lines to MSCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MSC/glioblastoma cross-talk is different in the two glioblastoma cell phenotypes, which contributes to tumor heterogeneity.
Project description:Four human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) clones (MSC-1, MSC-2, MSC-3, MSC-4) and three different glioblastoma multiformae (GBM) cell lines (U87-MG, U251, U373) were used to study their mutual paracrine interactions in the indirect co-cultures compared to their monocultures, which were grown under the same experimental conditions. The effects on cell growth, proliferation and invasion in matrigel were quantified. Further on, bioinformatic tools were used to relate these results to the data obtained from cytokine macroarrays and DNA microarrays that revealed proteins and genes significantly involved in the interaction. We showed that hMSC are responsible for the impairment of GBM cell invasion and growth, possibly via induction of their senescence. On the other hand, U87-MG cells even more strongly inversely affected some of these characteristics in hMSCs. We found several chemokines that may account for changed co-cultured cells’ phenotype, affecting genes associated with proliferation and senescence. CCL2/MCP-1 was collectively identified as the most significantly regulated chemokine during hMSC and U87-MG paracrine signalling. Its role in U87-MG cell invasion was also functionally confirmed. Microarray data deposited here contain gene expression data from three biological replicates of monocultures and indirect co-cultures of MSC-4 and U87-MG cells, representing 12 microarrays. Three biological replicates of four cell set-ups were performed: MSC-4 monoculture, U87-MG monoculture, MSC-4 co-cultured with U87-MG (in Boyden chambers) and U87-MG co-cultured with MSC-4 (in Boyden chambers).
Project description:Four human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) clones (MSC-1, MSC-2, MSC-3, MSC-4) and three different glioblastoma multiformae (GBM) cell lines (U87-MG, U251, U373) were used to study their mutual paracrine interactions in the indirect co-cultures compared to their monocultures, which were grown under the same experimental conditions. The effects on cell growth, proliferation and invasion in matrigel were quantified. Further on, bioinformatic tools were used to relate these results to the data obtained from cytokine macroarrays and DNA microarrays that revealed proteins and genes significantly involved in the interaction. We showed that hMSC are responsible for the impairment of GBM cell invasion and growth, possibly via induction of their senescence. On the other hand, U87-MG cells even more strongly inversely affected some of these characteristics in hMSCs. We found several chemokines that may account for changed co-cultured cells’ phenotype, affecting genes associated with proliferation and senescence. CCL2/MCP-1 was collectively identified as the most significantly regulated chemokine during hMSC and U87-MG paracrine signalling. Its role in U87-MG cell invasion was also functionally confirmed. Microarray data deposited here contain gene expression data from three biological replicates of monocultures and indirect co-cultures of MSC-4 and U87-MG cells, representing 12 microarrays. Overall design: Three biological replicates of four cell set-ups were performed: MSC-4 monoculture, U87-MG monoculture, MSC-4 co-cultured with U87-MG (in Boyden chambers) and U87-MG co-cultured with MSC-4 (in Boyden chambers).
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme is the most lethal of brain cancer, and it comprises a heterogeneous mixture of functionally distinct cancer cells that affect tumor progression. We examined the U87, U251, and U373 malignant cell lines as in vitro models to determine the impact of cellular cross-talk on their phenotypic alterations in co-cultures. These cells were also studied at the transcriptome level, to define the mechanisms of their observed mutually affected genomic stability, proliferation, invasion and resistance to temozolomide. This is the first direct demonstration of the neural and mesenchymal molecular fingerprints of U87 and U373 cells, respectively. U87-cell conditioned medium lowered the genomic stability of U373 (U251) cells, without affecting cell proliferation. In contrast, upon exposure of U87 cells to U373 (U251) conditioned medium, U87 cells showed increased genomic stability, decreased proliferation rates and increased invasion, due to a plethora of produced cytokines identified in the co-culture media. This cross talk altered the expression 264 genes in U87 cells that are associated with proliferation, inflammation, migration, and adhesion, and 221 genes in U373 cells that are associated with apoptosis, the cell cycle, cell differentiation and migration. Indirect and direct co-culturing of U87 and U373 cells showed mutually opposite effects on temozolomide resistance. In conclusion, definition of transcriptional alterations of distinct glioblastoma cells upon co-culturing provides better understanding of the mechanisms of glioblastoma heterogeneity, which will provide the basis for more informed glioma treatment in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Radiotherapy remains one of the cornerstones to improve the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Radiotherapy of the CRC not only help to destroy cancer cells but also remodel the tumour microenvironment by enhancing tumour-specific tropism of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) from the peripheral circulation. However, the role of local MSCs and recruited BM-MSC under radiation were not well defined. Indeed, the functions of BM-MSC without irradiation intervention remained controversial in tumour progression: BM-MSC was previously shown to modulate the immune function of major immune cells, resulting in an impaired immunological sensitivity and to induce an increased risk of tumour recurrence. In contrast, it could also secrete various cytokines and possess anticancer effect. METHODS:Three co-cultivation modules, 3D culture modules, and cancer organoids were established. The induction of cytokines secretion in hBM-MSCs after irradiation was analysed by ELISA array and flow cytometry. AutoMac separator was used to separate hBM-MSC and CRC automatically. Cells from the co-cultured group and the control group were then irradiated by UV-C lamp and X-ray. Proliferation assay and viability assay were performed. RESULTS:In this study, we show that BM-MSCs can induce the EMT progression of CRC cells in vitro. When irradiated with low doses of ultraviolet radiation and X-rays, BM-MSCs show an anti-tumour effect by secreting certain cytokine (TNF-?, IFN-?) that lead to the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis of CRC cells. This was further verified in a 3D culture model of a CRC cell in vitro. Furthermore, irradiation on the co-culture system induced the cleavage of caspase3, and attenuated the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in cancer cells. The signal pathways above might contribute to the cancer cell death. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, we show that BM-MSC can potentially promote the effect of radiotherapy in CRC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are progenitor cells shown to migrate to the tumour and participate in the tumour microenvironment. BM-MSCs play important roles in tumour processes through the release of cytokines or exosomes; however, how BM-MSCs influence the stemness of CSCs in colon cancer cells remains poorly understood. METHODS:We isolated exosomes from BM-MSCs and used these exosomes to treat colon cancer cells (HCT-116, HT-29 and SW-480). We compared stemness traits of colon CSCs by cell surface marker (CD133 and Lgr5) and functional assays, such as chemoresistance, colony formation, cell adhesion, invasion and tumour-formation assay. We performed a microRNA array to investigate the differences in exosomal microRNA expression between colon cancer cells, BM-MSCs and co-cultured cells and performed functional and molecular analysis of the gene targets. RESULTS:In this study, we found that BM-MSC-derived exosomes contained distinct microRNAs, including miR-142-3p, which in turn increased the population of CSCs in colon cancer cells. Depriving miR-142-3p from BM-MSC-derived exosomes clearly decreased the population of colon CSCs. Mechanistically, Numb was found to be the target gene of miR-142-3p, and miR-142-3p promoted the Notch signalling pathway by downregulating Numb. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that BM-MSC-derived exosomes promote colon cancer stem cell-like traits via miR-142-3p.
Project description:Cancer is a multifactorial disease not only restricted to transformed epithelium, but also involving cells of the immune system and cells of mesenchymal origin, particularly mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mesenchymal stem cells contribute to blood- and lymph- neoangiogenesis, generate myofibroblasts, with pro-invasive activity and may suppress anti-tumour immunity.In this paper, we evaluated the presence and features of MSCs isolated from human head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).Fresh specimens of HNSCC showed higher proportions of CD90+ cells compared with normal tissue; these cells co-expressed CD29, CD105, and CD73, but not CD31, CD45, CD133, and human epithelial antigen similarly to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). Adherent stromal cells isolated from tumour shared also differentiation potential with BM-MSCs, thus we named them as tumour-MSCs. Interestingly, tumour-MSCs showed a clear immunosuppressive activity on in vitro stimulated T lymphocytes, mainly mediated by indoelamine 2,3 dioxygenase activity, like BM-MSCs. To evaluate their possible role in tumour growth in vivo, we correlated tumour-MSC proportions with neoplasm size. Tumour-MSCs frequency directly correlated with tumour volume and inversely with the frequency of tumour-infiltrating leukocytes.These data support the concept that tumour-MSCs may favour tumour growth not only through their effect on stromal development, but also by inhibiting the anti-tumour immune response.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers. Despite recent advances in multimodal therapies, high-grade glioma remains fatal. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used worldwide for the clinical treatment of GBM; however, the innate and acquired resistance of GBM limits its application. Here, we found that TMZ inhibited the proliferation and induced the G2/M arrest of GBM cells. Therefore, we performed microarrays to identify the cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes affected by TMZ. Notably, GADD45A was found to be up-regulated by TMZ in both cell cycle and apoptosis arrays. Furthermore, GADD45A knockdown (GADD45Akd) enhanced the cell growth arrest and cell death induced by TMZ, even in natural (T98) and adapted (TR-U373) TMZ-resistant cells. Interestingly, GADD45Akd decreased the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in TMZ-resistant cells (T98 and TR-U373). In MGMT-deficient/TMZ-sensitive cells (U87 and U373), GADD45Akd decreased TMZ-induced TP53 expression. Thus, in this study, we investigated the genes influenced by TMZ that were important in GBM therapy, and revealed that GADD45A plays a protective role against TMZ treatment which may through TP53-dependent and MGMT-dependent pathway in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant GBM, respectively. This protective role of GADD45A against TMZ treatment may provide a new therapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.
Project description:Persistent activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling has been linked to oncogenesis and the development of chemotherapy resistance in glioblastoma and other cancers. Inhibition of the STAT3 pathway thus represents an attractive therapeutic approach for cancer. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of a small molecule compound known as LLL-3, which is a structural analogue of the earlier reported STAT3 inhibitor, STA-21, on the cell viability of human glioblastoma cells, U87, U373, and U251 expressing constitutively activated STAT3. We also investigated the inhibitory effects of LLL-3 on U87 glioblastoma cell growth in a mouse tumour model as well as the impact it had on the survival time of the treated mice. We observed that LLL-3 inhibited STAT3-dependent transcriptional and DNA binding activities. LLL-3 also inhibited viability of U87, U373, and U251 glioblastoma cells as well as induced apoptosis of these glioblastoma cell lines as evidenced by increased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavages. Furthermore, the U87 glioblastoma tumour-bearing mice treated with LLL-3 exhibited prolonged survival relative to vehicle-treated mice (28.5 vs 16 days) and had smaller intracranial tumours and no evidence of contralateral invasion. These results suggest that LLL-3 may be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of glioblastoma with constitutive STAT3 activation.
Project description:There is growing evidence to suggest that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are key players in tumour stroma. Here, we investigated the cross-talk between BM-MSCs and osteosarcoma (OS) cells. We revealed a strong tropism of BM-MSCs towards these tumour cells and identified monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-? and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 as pivotal factors for BM-MSC chemotaxis. Once in contact with OS cells, BM-MSCs trans-differentiate into cancer-associated fibroblasts, further increasing MCP-1, GRO-?, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the tumour microenvironment. These cytokines promote mesenchymal to amoeboid transition (MAT), driven by activation of the small GTPase RhoA, in OS cells, as illustrated by the in vitro assay and live imaging. The outcome is a significant increase of aggressiveness in OS cells in terms of motility, invasiveness and transendothelial migration. In keeping with their enhanced transendothelial migration abilities, OS cells stimulated by BM-MSCs also sustain migration, invasion and formation of the in vitro capillary network of endothelial cells. Thus, BM-MSC recruitment to the OS site and the consequent cytokine-induced MAT are crucial events in OS malignancy.