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Gamma-interferon exerts a critical early restriction on replication and dissemination of yellow fever virus vaccine strain 17D-204.

ABSTRACT: Live attenuated viruses are historically among the most effective viral vaccines. Development of a safe vaccine requires the virus to be less virulent, a phenotype that is historically arrived by empirical evaluation often leaving the mechanisms of attenuation unknown. The yellow fever virus 17D live attenuated vaccine strain has been developed as a delivery vector for heterologous antigens; however, the mechanisms of attenuation remain elusive. The successful and safe progress of 17D as a vaccine vector and the development of live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) to related flaviviruses requires an understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to attenuation. Using subcutaneous infection of interferon-deficient mouse models of wild type yellow fever virus (WT YFV) pathogenesis and 17D-mediated immunity, we found that, in the absence of type I IFN (IFN-?/?), type II interferon (IFN-?) restricted 17D replication, but not that of WT YFV, by 1-2 days post-infection. In this context, IFN-? responses protected 17D-infected animals from mortality, largely restricted the virus to lymphoid organs, and eliminated viscerotropic disease signs such as steatosis in the liver and inflammatory cell infiltration into the spleen. However, WT YFV caused a disseminated infection, gross liver pathology, and rapid death of the animals. In vitro, IFN-? treatment of myeloid cells suppressed the replication of 17D significantly more than that of WT YFV, suggesting a direct differential effect on 17D virus replication. Together these data indicate that an important mechanism of 17D attenuation in vivo is increased sensitivity to IFN-? stimulated responses elicited early after infection.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5780476 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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