'I did try and point out about his dignity': a qualitative narrative study of patients and carers' experiences and expectations of junior doctors.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:For many years, the voice of patients has been understood as a critical element for the improvement of care quality in healthcare settings. How well medical graduates are prepared for clinical practice is an important question, but one that has rarely been considered from patient and public perspectives. We aimed to fill this gap by exploring patients and carers' experiences and expectations of junior doctors. DESIGN:This comprises part of a wider study on UK medical graduates' preparedness for practice. A qualitative narrative methodology was used, comprising four individual and six group interviews. PARTICIPANTS:25 patients and carers from three UK countries. ANALYSIS:Data were transcribed, anonymised and analysed using framework analysis. MAIN RESULTS:We identified three themes pertinent to answering our research question: (1) sources of knowledge (sources of information contributing to patients and carers' perceptions of junior doctors' impacting on expectations); (2) desires for student/trainee learning (experiences and expectations of medical training); and (3) future doctors (experiences and expectations of junior doctors). We also highlight metaphorical talk and humour, where relevant, in the quotes presented to give deeper insights into participants' perspectives of the issues. Participants focused on personal and interpersonal aspects of being a doctor, such as respect and communication. There was a strong assertion that medical graduates needed to gain direct experience with a diverse range of patients to encourage individualised care. Participants narrated their experiences of having symptoms ignored and attributed to an existing diagnosis ('diagnostic overshadowing') and problems relating to confidentiality. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings support the view that patients and carers have clear expectations about junior doctors, and that patient views are important for preparing junior doctors for practice. There is a necessity for greater dialogue between patients, doctors and educators to clarify expectations and confidentiality issues around patient care.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>While previous studies have begun to explore newly graduated junior doctors' preparedness for practice, findings are largely based on simplistic survey data or perceptions of newly graduated junior doctors and their clinical supervisors alone. This study explores, in a deeper manner, multiple stakeholders' conceptualisations of what it means to be prepared for practice and their perceptions about newly graduated junior doctors' preparedness (or unpreparedness) using innovative qualitative methods.<h4>Design</h4>A multistakeholder, multicentre qualitative study including narrative interviews and longitudinal audio diaries.<h4>Setting</h4>Four UK settings: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.<h4>Participants</h4>Eight stakeholder groups comprising n=185 participants engaged in 101 narrative interviews (27 group and 84 individual). Twenty-six junior doctors in their first year postgraduation also provided audio diaries over a 3-month period.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 2186 narratives across all participants (506 classified as 'prepared', 663 as 'unprepared', 951 as 'general'). Seven themes were identified; this paper focuses on two themes pertinent to our research questions: (1) explicit conceptualisations of preparedness for practice; and (2) newly graduated junior doctors' preparedness for the General Medical Council's (GMC) <i>outcomes for graduates</i>. Stakeholders' conceptualisations of preparedness for practice included short-term (<i>hitting the ground running</i>) and long-term preparedness, alongside being prepared for practical and emotional aspects. Stakeholders' perceptions of medical graduates' preparedness for practice varied across different GMC outcomes for graduates (eg, Doctor as Scholar and Scientist, as Practitioner, as Professional) and across stakeholders (eg, newly graduated doctors sometimes perceived themselves as prepared but others did not).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our narrative findings highlight the complexities and nuances surrounding new medical graduates' preparedness for practice. We encourage stakeholders to develop a shared understanding (and realistic expectations) of new medical graduates' preparedness. We invite medical school leaders to increase the proportion of time that medical students spend participating meaningfully in multiprofessional teams during workplace learning.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine what activities constitute the work of Foundation doctors and understand the factors that determine how that work is constructed. DESIGN:Cross-sectional mixed methods study. Questionnaire survey of the frequency with which activities specified in curricular documents are performed. Semistructured interviews and focus groups. SETTING:Postgraduate medical training in the UK. PARTICIPANTS:Doctors in their first 2 years of postgraduate practice (Foundation Programme). Staff who work with Foundation doctors-supervisors, nurses and employers (clinical; non-clinical). RESULTS:Survey data from 3697 Foundation doctors identified curricular activities (41/103, 42%) that are carried out routinely (performed at least once or twice per week by >75% of respondents). However, another 30 activities (29%) were carried out rarely (at least once or twice per week by <25% respondents), largely because they are routinely part of nurses', and not doctors', work. Junior doctors indicated their work constituted three roles: 'support' of ward and team, 'independent practitioner' and 'learner'. The support function dominated work, but conflicted with stereotyped expectations of what 'being a doctor' would be. It was, however, valued by the other staff groups. The learner role was felt to be incidental to practice, but was couched in a limited definition of learning that related to new skills, rather than consolidation and practice. Activities and perceived role were shaped by the organisational context, medical hierarchies and through relationships with nurses, which could change unpredictably and cause tension. Training progression did not affect what activities were done, but supported greater autonomy in how they were carried out. CONCLUSIONS:New doctors must be fit for multiple roles. Strategies for transition should manage graduates' expectations of real-world work, and encourage teams and organisations to better accommodate graduates. These strategies may help ensure that new doctors can adapt to the variable demands of the evolving multiprofessional workforce.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study draws on an in-depth investigation of factors that influenced the career decisions of junior doctors. SETTING:Junior doctors in the UK can choose to enter specialty training (ST) programmes within 2 years of becoming doctors. Their specialty choices contribute to shaping the balance of the future medical workforce, with views on general practice (GP) careers of particular interest because of current recruitment difficulties. This paper examines how experiences of medical work and perceptions about specialty training shape junior doctors' career decisions. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty doctors in the second year of a Foundation Training Programme in England were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample from respondents to an online survey. RESULTS:Narrative interviewing techniques encouraged doctors to reflect on how experiences during medical school and in medical workplaces had influenced their preferences and perceptions of different specialties. They also spoke about personal aspirations, work priorities and their wider future.Junior doctors' decisions were informed by knowledge about the requirements of ST programmes and direct observation of the pressures under which ST doctors worked. When they encountered negative attitudes towards a specialty they had intended to choose, some became defensive while others kept silent. Achievement of an acceptable work-life balance was a central objective that could override other preferences.Events linked with specific specialties influenced doctors' attitudes towards them. For example, findings confirmed that while early, positive experiences of GP work could increase its attractiveness, negative experiences in GP settings had the opposite effect. CONCLUSIONS:Junior doctors' preferences and perceptions about medical work are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors and experiences. This paper highlights the importance of understanding how perceptions are formed and preferences are developed, as a basis for generating learning and working environments that nurture students and motivate their professional careers.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore factors associated with the psychological well-being of junior doctors in Australia. DESIGN:Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING:Three teaching hospitals in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. PARTICIPANTS:Fifteen junior medical officers (postgraduate year 2 doctors) employed across three hospitals in Queensland participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Fifteen de-identified interviews were analysed. Four key themes emerged-workplace issues impacting on health and well-being; experiences of bullying and harassment; strategies to improve health and well-being; and barriers to seeking healthcare. CONCLUSION:Underlying system and cultural factors affect the health of junior doctors. Self-stigma particularly affects junior doctors and impacts on their healthcare seeking behaviours.
Project description:The transition from medical student to junior doctor in postgraduate training is a critical stage in career progression. We report junior doctors' views about the extent to which their medical school prepared them for their work in clinical practice.Postal questionnaires were used to survey the medical graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation, and graduates of 2000, 2002 and 2005 three years after graduation. Summary statistics, chi-squared tests, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the results. The main outcome measure was the level of agreement that medical school had prepared the responder well for work.Response rate was 63.7% (11610/18216) in year one and 60.2% (8427/13997) in year three. One year after graduation, 36.3% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.0) of 1999/2000 graduates, 50.3% (48.5, 52.2) of 2002 graduates, and 58.2% (56.5, 59.9) of 2005 graduates agreed their medical school had prepared them well. Conversely, in year three agreement fell from 48.9% (47.1, 50.7) to 38.0% (36.0, 40.0) to 28.0% (26.2, 29.7). Combining cohorts at year one, percentages who agreed that they had been well prepared ranged from 82% (95% CI: 79-87) at the medical school with the highest level of agreement to 30% (25-35) at the lowest. At year three the range was 70% to 27%. Ethnicity and sex were partial predictors of doctors' level of agreement; following adjustment for them, substantial differences between schools remained. In years one and three, 30% and 34% of doctors specified that feeling unprepared had been a serious or medium-sized problem for them (only 3% in each year regarded it as serious).The vast knowledge base of clinical practice makes full preparation impossible. Our statement about feeling prepared is simple yet discriminating and identified some substantial differences between medical schools. Medical schools need feedback from graduates about elements of training that could be improved.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) has been proposed as an appropriate model for creating a theory-driven approach to teaching medical professionalism. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence into its efficacy. This study explores if the TPB can assess UK medical doctors' professional behaviours and explores if there are differences in the TPB's efficacy depending on doctors' primary medical qualification (UK or outside).<h4>Methods</h4>Three hundred fourteen doctors in England at 21 NHS Trusts completed a questionnaire about reflective practice, using the General Medical Council's confidentiality guidance, and raising a patient safety concern. The majority of participants were male (52%), white (68%), consultants (62%), and UK medical graduates (UKGs) (71%).<h4>Results</h4>The TPB variables of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control were predictive of intention to engage in raising concerns (R<sup>2</sup> =?35%), reflection (R<sup>2</sup> =?52%), and use of confidentiality guidance (R<sup>2</sup> =?45%). Perceived behavioural control was the strongest predictor of intentions to raise a concern (??=?0.44), while attitude was the strongest predictor of intentions to engage in reflective practice (??=?0.61) and using confidentiality guidance (??=?0.38). The TBP constructs predicted intention for raising concerns and reflecting for both UKGs and non-UKGs (Fs???2.3; ps???.023, ?s???0.12). However, only perceived behaviour control was predictive of intentions to use guidance for both UKGs and non-UKGs (??=?0.24) while attitudes and norms were just predictive for UKGs (?s???0.26).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study demonstrates the efficacy of the TPB for three professional behaviours. The implications for medical educators are to use the variables of the TPB (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control) in the education of professionalism, and for medical education researchers to further our understanding by employing the TPB in more empirical studies of non-clinical behaviours.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the structure and demographic of medical teams working in Rural General Hospitals (RGHs) in Scotland, and to gain insight into their experiences and determine their opinions on a remote and rural medical training pathway. DESIGN:Structured face-to-face interviews. Interviews were partially anonymised, and underwent thematic analysis. SETTING:Medical departments of the six RGHs in Scotland 2018-2019. PARTICIPANTS:14 medical consultants and 23 junior doctors working in RGHs in Scotland. Inclusion criteria: Present at time of site visit, medical consultant in an RGH or junior doctor working in an RGH who provides care for medical patients. Exclusion criteria: Doctors on leave or off shift. Medical consultants with less than one month of experience in post. Non-medical specialty consultants e.g. surgical or anaesthetic consultants. RESULTS:Of 21 consultant posts in the RGHs, only eight are filled with resident consultants, the remainder rely on locums. Consultants found working as generalists rewarding and challenging, and juniors found it to be a good training experience. Consultants feel little professional isolation due to modern connectivity. The majority of consultants (12/14) and all junior doctors favour a remote and rural medicine training pathway encompassing a mandatory paediatrics component, and feel this would help with consultant recruitment and retention. CONCLUSION:RGHs medical departments are reliant on locum consultants. The development of a remote and rural training medical training pathway is endorsed by the current medical teams of RGHs and has the potential to improve medical consultant staffing in RGHs.
Project description:To report on doctors' views, from all specialty backgrounds, about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and its impact on the National Health Service (NHS), senior doctors and junior doctors.All medical school graduates from 1999 to 2000 were surveyed by post and email in 2012.The UK.Among other questions, in a multipurpose survey on medical careers and career intentions, doctors were asked to respond to three statements about the EWTD on a five-point scale (from strongly agree to strongly disagree): 'The implementation of the EWTD has benefited the NHS', 'The implementation of the EWTD has benefited senior doctors' and 'The implementation of the EWTD has benefited junior doctors'.The response rate was 54.4% overall (4486/8252), 55.8% (2256/4042) of the 1999 cohort and 53% (2230/4210) of the 2000 cohort. 54.1% (2427) of all respondents were women. Only 12% (498/4136 doctors) agreed that the EWTD has benefited the NHS, 9% (377) that it has benefited senior doctors and 31% (1289) that it has benefited junior doctors. Doctors' views on EWTD differed significantly by specialty groups: 'craft' specialties such as surgery, requiring extensive experience in performing operations, were particularly critical.These cohorts have experience of working in the NHS before and after the implementation of EWTD. Their lack of support for the EWTD 4 years after its implementation should be a concern. However, it is unclear whether problems rest with the current ceiling on hours worked or with the ways in which EWTD has been implemented.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Medical ethics is not given due priority in obstetric care in many developing countries, and the extent to which patients value compliance with ethical precepts is largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To describe the expectations and experiences of obstetric patients in South East Nigeria with respect to how medical ethics principles were adhered to during their care. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study involving parturient women followed in three tertiary hospitals in South East Nigeria. RESULTS: A total of 1,112 women were studied. The mean age of respondents was 29.7 ± 4.1 years. Approximately 98% had at least secondary education. Ninety-six percent considered ethical aspects of care as important. On the average, over 75% of patients expected their doctors to comply with the different principles of medical ethics and specifically, more than 76% of respondents expected their doctors to comply with ethical principles related to information and consent during their antenatal and delivery care. There was a statistically significant difference between the proportions of women who expected compliance of doctors with ethical principles and those who did not (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that increasing levels of skilled occupation (odds ratio [OR] 9.35, P < 0.001), and residence in urban areas (OR 2.41, P < 0.001) increased the likelihood of patients expecting to be informed about their medical conditions and their opinions being sought. Although the self-reported experiences of patients concerning adherence to ethical principles by doctors were encouraging, experiences fell short of expectations, as the level of expectation of patients was significantly higher than the level of observed compliance for all the principles of medical ethics. CONCLUSION: The level of practice of medical ethics principles by doctors during obstetric care in South East Nigeria was encouraging but still fell short of the expectations of patients. It is recommended that curriculum-based training of doctors and medical students should be implemented, and hospital policy makers should do more to promote ethical aspects of care, by providing official written guidelines for adherence to medical ethical principles during obstetric care.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The proportion of junior doctors required to complete psychiatry placements in the UK has increased, due in part to vacant training posts and psychiatry career workforce shortages, as can be seen across the world. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of a Foundation Year 1 junior doctor psychiatry placement and to understand how job components influence attitudes. DESIGN:The study was conducted using a cross-sectional qualitative phenomenological approach. SETTING:Hospital and community psychiatry department settings in the North East of England, UK. PARTICIPANTS:In total, 14 Foundation Year 1 junior doctors were interviewed including seven men and seven women aged between 23 and 34 years. The majority had completed their medical degree in the UK and were White British. RESULTS:The lived experience of a junior doctor psychiatry placement was understood by three core themes: exposure to patient recovery, connectedness with others in the healthcare team and subjective interpretations of psychiatry. The experiences were moderated by instances of role definition, reaction to the specialty and the organisational fit of the junior doctor capacity in the specialty. CONCLUSIONS:The study reinforces and adds to the literature by identifying connectedness as being important for both job satisfaction and morale, which is currently damaged within the junior doctor population. The study provides in-depth insights into the lived experience of psychiatry placements and can be taken forward by educationalists to ensure the placements are meaningful experiences for junior doctors by developing role definition, belonging, structure and psychiatric care responsibility.