Brassinosteroids regulate root growth by controlling reactive oxygen species homeostasis and dual effect on ethylene synthesis in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: The brassinosteroids (BRs) represent a class of phytohormones, which regulate numerous aspects of growth and development. Here, a det2-9 mutant defective in BR synthesis was identified from an EMS mutant screening for defects in root length, and was used to investigate the role of BR in root development in Arabidopsis. The det2-9 mutant displays a short-root phenotype, which is result from the reduced cell number in root meristem and decreased cell size in root maturation zone. Ethylene synthesis is highly increased in the det2-9 mutant compared with the wild type, resulting in the hyper-accumulation of ethylene and the consequent inhibition of root growth. The short-root phenotype of det2-9 was partially recovered in the det2-9/acs9 double mutant and det2-9/ein3/eil1-1 triple mutant which have defects either in ethylene synthesis or ethylene signaling, respectively. Exogenous application of BR showed that BRs either positively or negatively regulate ethylene biosynthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Different from the BR induced ethylene biosynthesis through stabilizing ACSs stability, we found that the BR signaling transcription factors BES1 and BZR1 directly interacted with the promoters of ACS7, ACS9 and ACS11 to repress their expression, indicating a native regulation mechanism under physiological levels of BR. In addition, the det2-9 mutant displayed over accumulated superoxide anions (O2-) compared with the wild-type control, and the increased O2- level was shown to contribute to the inhibition of root growth. The BR-modulated control over the accumulation of O2- acted via the peroxidase pathway rather than via the NADPH oxidase pathway. This study reveals an important mechanism by which the hormone cross-regulation between BRs and ethylene or/and ROS is involved in controlling root growth and development in Arabidopsis.
Project description:The phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), play important roles in regulating cell elongation and cell size, and BR-related mutants in Arabidopsis display significant dwarf phenotypes. Cellulose is a biopolymer which has a major contribution to cell wall formation during cell expansion and elongation. However, whether BRs regulate cellulose synthesis, and if so, what the underlying mechanism of cell elongation induced by BRs is, is unknown. The content of cellulose and the expression levels of the cellulose synthase genes (CESAs) was measured in BR-related mutants and their wild-type counterpart. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) experiments and genetic analysis were used to demonstrate that BRs regulate CESA genes. It was found here that the BR-deficient or BR-perceptional mutants contain less cellulose than the wild type. The expression of CESA genes, especially those related to primary cell wall synthesis, was reduced in det2-1 and bri1-301, and was only inducible by BRs in the BR-deficient mutant det2-1. CHIP experiments show that the BR-activated transcription factor BES1 can associate with upstream elements of most CESA genes particularly those related with the primary cell wall. Furthermore, over-expression of the BR receptor BRI1 in CESA1, 3, and 6 mutants can only partially rescue the dwarf phenotypes. Our findings provide potential insights into the mechanism that BRs regulate cellulose synthesis to accomplish the cell elongation process in plant development.
Project description:Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that regulate growth and development. They share structural similarities with animal steroids, which are decisive factors of sex determination. BRs are known to regulate morphogenesis and environmental stress responses, but their involvement in sex determination in plants has been only speculative. We show that BRs control sex determination in maize revealed through characterization of the classical dwarf mutant nana plant1 (na1), which also feminizes male flowers. na1 plants carry a loss-of-function mutation in a DET2 homolog--a gene in the BR biosynthetic pathway. The mutant accumulates the DET2-specific substrate (24R)-24-methylcholest-4-en-3-one with a concomitant decrease of downstream BR metabolites. Treatment of wild-type maize plants with BR biosynthesis inhibitors completely mimicked both dwarf and tasselseed phenotypes of na1 mutants. Tissue-specific na1 expression in anthers throughout their development supports the hypothesis that BRs promote masculinity of the male inflorescence. These findings suggest that, in the monoecious plant maize, BRs have been coopted to perform a sex determination function not found in plants with bisexual flowers.
Project description:Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that regulate plant growth and development. Whereas in Arabidopsis the network-like routes of BR biosynthesis have been elucidated in considerable detail, the roles of some of the biosynthetic enzymes and their participation in the different subpathways remained to be clarified. We investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP90A1/CPD, which earlier had been proposed to act as a BR C-23 hydroxylase. Our GC-MS and genetic analyses demonstrated that the cpd mutation arrests BR synthesis upstream of the DET2-mediated 5? reduction step and that overexpression of the C-23 hydroxylase CYP90C1 does not alleviate BR deficiency in the cpd mutant. In line with these results, we found that CYP90A1/CPD heterologously expressed in a baculovirus-insect cell system catalyzes C-3 oxidation of the early BR intermediates (22S)-22-hydroxycampesterol and (22R,23R)-22,23-dihydroxycampesterol, as well as of 6-deoxocathasterone and 6-deoxoteasterone. Enzyme kinetic data of CYP90A1/CPD and DET2, together with those of the earlier studied CYP90B1, CYP90C1, and CYP90D1, suggest that BR biosynthesis proceeds mainly via the campestanol-independent pathway.
Project description:Upward leaf movement, called hyponastic growth, is employed by plants to cope with adverse environmental conditions. Ethylene is a key regulator of this process and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, hyponasty is induced by this phytohormone via promotion of epidermal cell expansion in a proximal zone of the abaxial side of the petiole. ROTUNDIFOLIA3/CYP90C1 encodes an enzyme which was shown to catalyse C-23 hydroxylation of several brassinosteroids (BRs) - phytohormones involved in, for example, organ growth, cell expansion, cell division, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This study tested the interaction between ethylene and BRs in regulating hyponastic growth. A mutant isolated in a forward genetic screen, with reduced hyponastic response to ethylene treatment, was allelic to rot3. The cause of the reduced hyponastic growth in this mutant was examined by studying ethylene-BR interaction during local cell expansion, pharmacological inhibition of BR synthesis and ethylene effects on transcription of BR-related genes. This work demonstrates that rot3 mutants are impaired in local cell expansion driving hyponasty. Moreover, the inhibition of BR biosynthesis reduces ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and ethylene increases sensitivity to BR in promoting cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Together, the results show that ROT3 modulates ethylene-induced petiole movement and that this function is likely BR related.
Project description:Crosstalk between phytohormone pathways is essential in plant growth, development and stress responses. Brassinosteroids (BRs) and ethylene are both pivotal plant growth regulators, and the interaction between these two phytohormones in the tomato response to salt stress is still unclear. Here, we explored the mechanism by which BRs affect ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in tomato seedlings under salt stress. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), an ethylene synthesis enzyme, and the ethylene signaling pathway were activated in plants pretreated with BRs. Scavenging of ethylene production or silencing of ethylene signaling components inhibited BR-induced salt tolerance and blocked BR-induced activities of several antioxidant enzymes. Previous studies have reported that BRs can induce plant tolerance to a variety of environmental stimuli by triggering the generation of H2O2 as a signaling molecule. We also found that H2O2 might be involved in the crosstalk between BRs and ethylene in the tomato response to salt stress. Simultaneously, BR-induced ethylene production was partially blocked by pretreated with a reactive oxygen species scavenger or synthesis inhibitor. These results strongly demonstrated that ethylene and H2O2 play important roles in BR-dependent induction of plant salt stress tolerance. Furthermore, we also investigated the relationship between BR signaling and ethylene signaling pathways in plant processes responding to salt stress.
Project description:DWARF1 (DWF1) is a sterol C-24 reductase that catalyses the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol (24-MCHR) to campesterol (CR) in Arabidopsis. A loss-of-function mutant, dwf1, showed similar phenotypic abnormalities to brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutants. These abnormalities were reversed in the wild-type phenotype by exogenous application of castasterone (CS) and brassinolide (BL), but not dolichosterone (DS). Accumulation of DS and decreased CS were found in quantitative analysis of endogenous BRs in dwf1. The enzyme solution prepared from dwf1 was unable to convert 6-deoxoDS to 6-deoxoCS and DS to CS, as seen in either wild-type or 35S:DWF1 transgenic plants. This suggests that DWF1 has enzyme activity not only for a sterol C-24 reductase, but also for a BR C-24 reductase that catalyses C-24 reduction of 6-deoxoDS to 6-deoxoCS and of DS to CS in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of DWF1 in a BR-deficient mutant (det2 35S:DWF1) clearly rescued abnormalities found in det2, indicating that DWF1 functions in biosynthesis of active BRs in Arabidopsis. Expression of DWF1 is down-regulated by application of CS and BL and in a BR-dominant mutant, bes1-D. E-boxes in the putative promoter region of DWF1 directly bind to a BR transcription factor, BES1, implying that DWF1 expression is feedback-regulated by BR signaling via BES1. Overall, biosynthesis of 24-methylene BR is an alternative route for generating CS, which is mediated and regulated by DWF1 in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential hormones for plant growth and development. Enzymes DET2 and CYP90 family are responsible for BR biosynthesis in seed plants. Yet, their roles in non-seed plants are unknown. Here, we report the first functional study of DET2 and all 4 CYP90 genes isolated from Selaginella moellendorfii. Sm89026 (SmCPD) belonged to a clade with CYP90A1 (CPD) and CYP90B1 (DWF4) while Sm182839, Sm233379 and Sm157387 formed a distinct clade with CYP90C1 (ROT3) and CYP90D1. SmDET2, SmCPD and Sm157387 were highly expressed in both leaves and strobili while Sm233379 was only highly expressed in the leaves but not strobili, implying their differential functions in a tissue-specific manner in S. moellendorfii. We showed that only SmDET2 and SmCPD completely rescued Arabidopsis det2 and cpd mutant phenotypes, respectively, suggestive of their conserved BR biosynthetic functions. However, neither SmCPD nor other CYP90 genes rescued any other cyp90 mutants. Yet overexpression of Sm233379 altered plant fertility and BR response, which means that Sm233379 is not an ortholog of any CYP90 genes in Arabidopsis but appears to have a BR function in the S. moellendorfii leaves. This function is likely turned off during the development of the strobili. Our results suggest a dramatic functional divergence of CYP90 family in the non-seed plants. While some of them are functionally similar to that of seed plants, the others may be functionally distinct from that of seed plants, shedding light for future exploration.
Project description:The proper transition between the skotomorphogenic and photomorphogenic developmental programs is key for seedling survival and it is therefore tightly regulated. Besides light, which is the major cue that triggers this transition, several hormone pathways participate in this control, mainly antagonizing the light effect. Two of these hormones are gibberellins (GA) and brassinosteroids (BR). Both hormones promote the skotomorphogenesis and prevent photomorphogenesis, as evidenced by the partially de-etiolated phenotype caused by GA or BR deficiency, or by a blockage in the respective signaling pathways. We have previously shown that BR mediate GA activity in the control of this transition. For instance, treatment of dark-grown, GA-deficient seedlings with BRs was able to partially restore morphological phenotypes such as hypocotyl growth, and importantly to restore completely the molecular phenotype of CAB2 and RbcS gene expression. On the contrary, GA-treatment did not alter the same phenotypes in the BR deficient det2 mutant. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent BRs mediate GA activity in dark-grown seedlings, and for that purpose we have the examined global changes in gene expression caused by treatment with GA and BRs in BR- and GA-deficient seedlings, respectively. Overall design: We performed two sets of experiments, each one including three different samples. The first experiment included dark-grown, WT Col-0 mock-treated seedlings, or seedlings treated with either the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) or with PAC+epibrassinolide (EBR). In this experiment, PAC samples were labelled with Cy3 and compared to WT and PAC+EBR samples, which were labelled with Cy5. Two biological repeast were performed. The second experiment included dark-grown, WT Col-0 seedlings and the det2-1 mutant, which was either mock-treated or treated with GA3. Two biological replicates were performed, in the first one the WT and det2-1+GA3 were labelled with Cy3 and the det2-1 sample with Cy5. The reverse labelling was used in the second replicate.
Project description:Melatonin functions as a plant hormone/regulator in the regulation of growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we found that a high dose of melatonin inhibited hypocotyl elongation in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. An expression profile analysis showed that hypocotyl growth inhibition by melatonin was involved in reprograming the expression of cell elongation genes and brassinosteroid (BRs) biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, similar to BR biosynthetic inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ), a high concentration of melatonin upregulated BR-biosynthetic genes and downregulated BR-induced genes involved in cell elongation, while melatonin was inefficient in brassinazole-resistant mutants like the bzr1-1D and bes1-D in hypocotyl inhibition. The comparative expression profile analysis showed an opposite expression mode in the co-regulated genes between melatonin and BZR1 or melatonin and brassinolide (BL). Additionally, exogenous BL rescued the repressive phenotype of BR biosynthesis-deficient mutant like det2-1 even in the presence of high-dose melatonin, but not BR receptor mutant bri1-5 or signal transduction mutant bin2-1. A biochemical analysis further confirmed that melatonin reduced endogenous BR levels in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results indicate that melatonin inhibits BR biosynthesis but does not block BR signaling in the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and extends insights on the role of melatonin in cross-talking with plant hormone signaling.
Project description:We have recently discovered that brassinosteroids (BRs) can inhibit the growth of etiolated pea seedlings dose-dependently in a similar manner to the 'triple response' induced by ethylene. We demonstrate here that the growth inhibition of etiolated pea shoots strongly correlates with increases in ethylene production, which also responds dose-dependently to applied BRs. We assessed the biological activities of two natural BRs on pea seedlings, which are excellent material as they grow rapidly, and respond both linearly and uni-phasically to applied BRs. We then compared the BRs' inhibitory effects on growth, and induction of ethylene and ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) production, to those of representatives of other phytohormone classes (cytokinins, auxins, and gibberellins). Auxin induced ca. 50-fold weaker responses in etiolated pea seedlings than brassinolide, and the other phytohormones induced much weaker (or opposite) responses. Following the optimization of conditions for determining ethylene production after BR treatment, we found a positive correlation between BR bioactivity and ethylene production. Finally, we optimized conditions for pea growth responses and developed a new, highly sensitive, and convenient bioassay for BR activity.