Clinical significance of CCBE1 expression in lung cancer.
ABSTRACT: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is one of the major causes of cancer?associated morbidity and mortality in patients with lung cancer following radical pulmonary carcinoma resection. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of collagen and calcium?binding epidermal growth factor domain?containing protein 1 (CCBE1) and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) in tumor tissue with the clinical prognosis of lung cancer. The present study included 40 patients with lung cancer that underwent pulmonary carcinoma resection, including 10 patients with LNM, and 10 control patients who underwent pulmonary bullae resection. CCBE1 and LYVE1 expression was assessed in samples from normal and tumor tissue using polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. CCBE1 expression appeared to be decreased in lung tumor tissue and further downregulated in samples from patients with LNM, and was revealed to be correlated with poor clinical outcome. Conversely, LYVE1 expression appeared to be upregulated in lung cancer tissue. In conclusion, the present results suggested that CCBE1 and LYVE1 may have potential as biomarkers for the identification of lung cancer patients at a high risk of LNM.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most major mesenchymal neoplasm of the digestive tract. Up to now, imatinib mesylate has been used as a standard first-line treatment for irresectable and metastasized GIST patients or adjuvant treatment for advanced GIST patients who received surgical resection. However, secondary resistance to imatinib usually happens, resulting in a major obstacle in GIST successful therapy. In this study, we first found that collagen and calcium binding EGF domains 1 (CCBE1) expression gradually elevated along with the risk degree of NIH classification, and poor prognosis emerged in the CCBE1-positive patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CCBE1 protein can enhance angiogenesis and neutralize partial effect of imatinib on the GIST-T1 cells. In conclusion, these data indicated that CCBE1 may be served as a new predictor of prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in stimulating GIST progression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>MicroRNAs (miRs) are involved in the regulation of many processes that contribute to malignancy, including cell proliferation, radiation resistance, invasion and metastasis. The role of miR-330-3p, an miR upregulated in breast cancer, remains unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We examine the association of miR-330-3p with distant relapse-free survival in the Oxford cohort of breast cancer patients. We also study miR-330-3p function using in vitro invasion and ex ovo metastasis assays. Using in vitro luciferase assays, we validate a novel target gene for miR-330-3p, Collagen And Calcium Binding EGF Domains 1 (CCBE1). We assess functional consequences of CCBE1 loss by using siRNA-mediated knockdown followed by in vitro invasion assays. Lastly, we examine the expression profile of CCBE1 in breast carcinomas in the Curtis and TCGA Breast Cancer data sets using Oncomine Platform as well as distant relapse-free and overall survival of patients in the Helsinki University breast cancer data set according to CCBE1 expression status.<h4>Results</h4>miR-330-3p is enriched in breast cancer, and higher levels of miR-330-3p expression are associated with lower distant relapse-free survival in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of miR-330-3p in breast cancer cell lines results in greater invasiveness in vitro, and miR-330-3p-overexpressing cells also metastasise more aggressively ex ovo. We identify CCBE1 as a direct target of miR-330-3p, and show that knockdown of CCBE1 results in a greater invasive capacity. Accordingly, in breast cancer patients CCBE1 is frequently downregulated, and its loss is associated with reduced distant relapse-free and overall survival.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We show for the first time that miR-330-3p targets CCBE1 to promote invasion and metastasis. miR-330-3p and CCBE1 may represent promising biomarkers in breast cancer.
Project description:Collagen and calcium-binding EGF domain-1 (CCBE1) is essential for lymphatic vascular development as it promotes vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) proteolysis. A recent study reported that CCBE1 was overexpressed in epithelial colorectal cancer (CRC) cells; however, the role of CCBE1 in tumor lymphangiogenesis and the mechanism underlying dysregulated CCBE1 expression in CRC remain undefined. <b>Methods:</b> The role of CCBE1 in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis was investigated using human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs) model <i>in vitro</i>, and a hindfoot lymphatic metastasis model <i>in vivo</i>. Immunochemistry analysis was performed to assess CCBE1 expression, prognostic value and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics in CRC. The biochemical function and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CCBE1 were explored by western blot, qPCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. <b>Results</b>: Cancer cell-derived CCBE1 enhances VEGFC proteolysis <i>in vitro</i>, facilitates tube formation and migration of HLECs <i>in vitro</i>, and promotes tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis <i>in vivo</i>. In addition to CRC cells, tumor stroma within CRC tissue shows high CCBE1 expression, which is associated with high lymphatic vessel density, increased lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) express and secret CCBE1, thereby contributing to VEGFC maturation and tumor lymphangiogenesis in CRC. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) downregulates the transcription and lymphangiogenic function of CCBE1 in CAFs and CRC cells through direct binding of SMADs to CCBE1 gene locus. Inactivation of the TGF-? pathway correlates with increased CCBE1 expression in CRC. <b>Conclusion</b>: Our results demonstrate the protumorigenic role of CCBE1 in promoting lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in CRC, revealing a new mechanism by which loss of TGF-? signaling promotes CRC metastasis.
Project description:CCBE1 is a secreted extracellular matrix protein expressed by epicardial cells but its role during epicardial development was still unknown.Using a Ccbe1 knockout (KO) mouse model, we observed that loss of CCBE1 leads to congenital heart defects including thinner and hyper-trabeculated ventricular myocardium. In addition, Ccbe1 mutant hearts displayed reduced proliferation of cardiomyocyte and epicardial cells. RNA-seq data of CCBE1 KO and WT murine hearts indicated deregulation of genes associated with development and morphogenesis including the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Project description:The secreted protein CCBE1 is required for lymphatic vessel growth in fish and mice, and mutations in the CCBE1 gene cause Hennekam syndrome, a primary human lymphedema. Here we show that loss of CCBE1 also confers severe anemia in midgestation mouse embryos due to defective definitive erythropoiesis. Fetal liver erythroid precursors of Ccbe1 null mice exhibit reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. Colony-forming assays and hematopoietic reconstitution studies suggest that CCBE1 promotes fetal liver erythropoiesis cell nonautonomously. Consistent with these findings, Ccbe1(lacZ) reporter expression is not detected in hematopoietic cells and conditional deletion of Ccbe1 in hematopoietic cells does not confer anemia. The expression of the erythropoietic factors erythropoietin and stem cell factor is preserved in CCBE1 null embryos, but erythroblastic island (EBI) formation is reduced due to abnormal macrophage function. In contrast to the profound effects on fetal liver erythropoiesis, postnatal deletion of Ccbe1 does not confer anemia, even under conditions of erythropoietic stress, and EBI formation is normal in the bone marrow of adult CCBE1 knockout mice. Our findings reveal that CCBE1 plays an essential role in regulating the fetal liver erythropoietic environment and suggest that EBI formation is regulated differently in the fetal liver and bone marrow.
Project description:Lymphatic vessels are derived from venous endothelial cells and their formation is governed by the Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VegfC)/Vegf receptor 3 (Vegfr3; Flt4) signaling pathway. Recent studies show that Collagen and Calcium Binding EGF domains 1 protein (Ccbe1) enhances VegfC-dependent lymphangiogenesis. Both Ccbe1 and Flt4 have been shown to be indispensable for lymphangiogenesis. However, how these essential players are transcriptionally regulated remains poorly understood. In the case of angiogenesis, atypical E2fs (E2f7 and E2f8) however have been recently shown to function as transcriptional activators for VegfA. Using a genome-wide approach we here identified both CCBE1 and FLT4 as direct targets of atypical E2Fs. E2F7/8 directly bind and stimulate the CCBE1 promoter, while recruitment of E2F7/8 inhibits the FLT4 promoter. Importantly, inactivation of e2f7/8 in zebrafish impaired venous sprouting and lymphangiogenesis with reduced ccbe1 expression and increased flt4 expression. Remarkably, over-expression of e2f7/8 rescued Ccbe1- and Flt4-dependent lymphangiogenesis phenotypes. Together these results identified E2f7/8 as novel in vivo transcriptional regulators of Ccbe1 and Flt4, both essential genes for venous sprouting and lymphangiogenesis.
Project description:Objective:To develop and validate a novel RNA-seq-based nomogram for preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM) for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods:RNA-seq data for 276 OSCC patients (including 157 samples with LNM and 119 without LNM) were downloaded from TCGA database. Differential expression analysis was performed between LNM and non-LNM of OSCC. These samples were divided into a training set and a test set by a ratio of 9?:?1 while the relative proportion of the non-LNM and LNM groups was kept balanced within each dataset. Based on clinical features and seven candidate RNAs, we established a prediction model of LNM for OSCC using logistic regression analysis. Tenfold crossvalidation was utilized to examine the accuracy of the nomogram. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical utility of the nomogram. Results:A total of 139 differentially expressed RNAs were identified between LNM and non-LNM of OSCC. Seven candidate RNAs were screened based on FPKM values, including NEURL1, AL162581.1 (miscRNA), AP002336.2 (lncRNA), CCBE1, CORO6, RDH12, and AC129492.6 (pseudogene). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the clinical N stage (p < 0.001) was an important factor to predict LNM. Moreover, three RNAs including RDH12 (p value < 0.05), CCBE1 (p value < 0.01), and AL162581.1 (p value < 0.05) could be predictive biomarkers for LNM in OSCC patients. The average accuracy rate of the model was 0.7661, indicating a good performance of the model. Conclusion:Our findings constructed an RNA-seq-based nomogram combined with clinicopathology, which could potentially provide clinicians with a useful tool for preoperative prediction of LNM and be tailored for individualized therapy in patients with OSCC.
Project description:Collagen and calcium-binding EGF domain-containing protein 1 (CCBE1) bi-allelic mutations have been associated with syndromes of widespread congenital lymphatic dysplasia, including Hennekam Syndrome (HS). HS is characterized by lymphedema, lymphangiectasia, and intellectual disability. CCBE1 encodes a putative extracellular matrix protein but the HS-causing mutations have not been studied biochemically. We report two HS siblings, born to consanguineous parents of Turkish ancestry, whose clinical phenotype also includes protein losing enteropathy, painful relapsing chylous ascites, and hypogammaglobulinemia. We identified by whole exome and Sanger sequencing the homozygous CCBE1 C174Y mutation in both siblings. This mutation had been previously reported in another HS kindred from the Netherlands. In over-expression studies, we found increased intracellular expression of all forms (monomers, dimers, trimers) of the CCBE1 C174Y mutant protein, by Western blot, despite mutant mRNA levels similar to wild-type (WT). In addition, we detected increased secretion of the mutant CCBE1 protein by ELISA. We further found the mutant and WT proteins to be evenly distributed in the cytoplasm, by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Finally, we found a strong decrease of lymphatic vessels, with a corresponding diminished expression of CCBE1, by immunohistochemistry of the patients' intestinal biopsies. In contrast, mucosal blood vessels and muscularis mucosae showed normal CCBE1 staining. Our findings show that the mutant CCBE1 C174Y protein is not loss-of-function by loss-of-expression.
Project description:Understanding the molecular pathways regulating cardiogenesis is crucial for the early diagnosis of heart diseases and improvement of cardiovascular disease. During normal mammalian cardiac development, collagen and calcium-binding EGF domain-1 (Ccbe1) is expressed in the first and second heart field progenitors as well as in the proepicardium, but its role in early cardiac commitment remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that during mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation Ccbe1 is upregulated upon emergence of Isl1- and Nkx2.5- positive cardiac progenitors. Ccbe1 is markedly enriched in Isl1-positive cardiac progenitors isolated from ESCs differentiating in vitro or embryonic hearts developing in vivo. Disruption of Ccbe1 activity by shRNA knockdown or blockade with a neutralizing antibody results in impaired differentiation of embryonic stem cells along the cardiac mesoderm lineage resulting in a decreased expression of mature cardiomyocyte markers. In addition, knockdown of Ccbe1 leads to smaller embryoid bodies. Collectively, our results show that CCBE1 is essential for the commitment of cardiac mesoderm and consequently, for the formation of cardiac myocytes in differentiating mouse ESCs.
Project description:Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome has been linked to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CCBE1 (collagen and calcium-binding EGF domains 1) gene. Several bioinformatics methods were used to find the most dangerous nsSNPs that could affect CCBE1 structure and function. Using state-of-the-art in silico tools, this study examined the most pathogenic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) that disrupt the CCBE1 protein and extracellular matrix remodeling and migration. Our results indicate that seven nsSNPs, rs115982879, rs149792489, rs374941368, rs121908254, rs149531418, rs121908251, and rs372499913, are deleterious in the CCBE1 gene, four (G330E, C102S, C174R, and G107D) of which are the highly deleterious, two of them (G330E and G107D) have never been seen reported in the context of Hennekam syndrome. Twelve missense SNPs, rs199902030, rs267605221, rs37517418, rs80008675, rs116596858, rs116675104, rs121908252, rs147974432, rs147681552, rs192224843, rs139059968, and rs148498685, are found to revert into stop codons. Structural homology-based methods and sequence homology-based tools revealed that 8.8% of the nsSNPs are pathogenic. SIFT, PolyPhen2, M-CAP, CADD, FATHMM-MKL, DANN, PANTHER, Mutation Taster, LRT, and SNAP2 had a significant score for identifying deleterious nsSNPs. The importance of rs374941368 and rs200149541 in the prediction of post-translation changes was highlighted because it impacts a possible phosphorylation site. Gene-gene interactions revealed CCBE1's association with other genes, showing its role in a number of pathways and coexpressions. The top 16 deleterious nsSNPs found in this research should be investigated further in the future while researching diseases caused CCBE1 gene specifically HS. The FT web server predicted amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding site of the CCBE1 protein, and two of the substitutions (R167W and T153N) were found to be involved. These highly deleterious nsSNPs can be used as marker pathogenic variants in the mutational diagnosis of the HS syndrome, and this research also offers potential insights that will aid in the development of precision medicines. CCBE1 proteins from Hennekam syndrome patients should be tested in animal models for this purpose.