Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy.This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC models were compared using: concordance index (CI), bias-corrected concordance index (BCCI), calibration plots, the Grønnesby and Borgan test, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), generalized R2, Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI), and continuous Net Reclassification Index (cNRI) for individual risk factors and the three risk groups.Three hundred and twenty-one patients were eligible for analyses. The modified-IMDC model with NLR value of 3.6 and PLR value of 157 was selected for comparison with the IMDC model. Both models were well calibrated. All other measures favoured the modified-IMDC model over the IMDC model (CI, 0.706 vs. 0.677; BCCI, 0.699 vs. 0.671; BIC, 2,176.2 vs. 2,190.7; generalized R2, 0.238 vs. 0.202; IDI, 0.044; cNRI, 0.279 for individual risk factors; and CI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BCCI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BIC, 2,183.2 vs. 2,198.1; generalized R2, 0.163 vs. 0.123; IDI, 0.045; cNRI, 0.165 for the three risk groups).Incorporation of NLR and PLR in place of neutrophil count and platelet count improved prognostic accuracy of the IMDC model. These findings require external validation before introducing into clinical practice.
Project description:Growing evidence has indicated that some inflammatory markers, including lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), can be used as indicators in the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there is controversy concerning what is the best predictor of prognosis in CRC.A cohort of 1744 CRC patients in our institution was analyzed retrospectively. Harrell's concordance index (c-index) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off values of inflammatory markers and compare their predictive capacity. The association of inflammatory markers with overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank test, followed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.The multivariate analysis indicated that among these inflammatory markers, NLR (< 2.0 vs. ? 2.0) was the only independent prognostic factor for poor OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.758, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.598-0.960, P = 0.021)] and CSS (HR = 0.738, 95% CI = 0.573-0.950, P = 0.018). Among these inflammatory markers, the c-index and BIC value for NLR were maximum and minimum for OS, respectively. In addition, the c-index was higher and the BIC value was smaller in TNM staging combined with NLR compared with the values obtained in TNM staging alone.NLR is a superior indicator of prognosis compared with LMR, PLR, and PNI in CRC patients, and NLR may serve as an additional indicator based on the current tumor staging system.
Project description:Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease with a chronic inflammatory background. Smoking behavior is the main environmental factor responsible for the transition of this major extra thyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease (GD) from the subclinical to the overt form. Complete blood count-derived parameters are suggested to be novel inflammatory indices. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte (MLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (PLR) with selected clinical parameters and smoking status in 406 GD patients with (n = 168) and without GO (n = 238). The control group consisted of 100 healthy individuals. The activity of GO was graded according to Clinical Activity Score. Significantly higher white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil, and NLR (p < 0.05) values were observed in GD patients with GO compared with those without GO. PLR values were significantly higher in GO patients than in the controls. WBC (6.81 ± 1.56 vs. 5.70 ± 1.23) and neutrophils (3.89 ± 1.06 vs. 3.15 ± 0.95) count was higher in active GO patients than in those with inactive GO. Positive correlation (p < 0.05) between CAS score and WBC, neutrophil and monocyte count, and NLR was found. Smoking was associated with higher WBC (p = 0.040), neutrophil (p = 0.049), PLR (p = 0.032) values. Multivariate analysis revealed that WBC, NLR may be risk factors for GO development. WBC, neutrophil, NLR and PLR values seem to be useful tools in the assessment of inflammation in GD.
Project description:Background:Various biomarkers have been evaluated for understanding the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) to periodontitis. Hematological markers have been reported to be useful biomarkers in a variety of diseases, including periodontal diseases. The role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in periodontitis and their possible role in the SIR are not extensively documented. Therefore, this study assessed NLR and PLR in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients before and after periodontal treatment, which to the best of knowledge has not been reported in the literature. Materials and Methods:Sixty participants were grouped as systemically and periodontally healthy (H) (n = 30) and with CP (n = 30). Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, leukocyte counts, platelet (PLT) counts, NLR, and PLR were estimated at baseline and also after treatment in the CP group. NLR was calculated as total neutrophil count/absolute lymphocyte count, and PLR was calculated as total PLT count/absolute lymphocyte count. The data were statistically analyzed. Results:Periodontal parameters differed significantly between groups H and CP at baseline and posttreatment. A pair-wise comparison of NLR and PLR between CP patients at baseline and posttreatment was significant. Correlation analyses were not remarkable. Receiver operating characteristics analyses provided significant NLR and PLR predictive cutoff values to differentiate between CP patients at baseline and posttreatment. Conclusion:NLR and PLR may serve as potential biomarkers of the SIR to CP to bridge the association between periodontal and systemic conditions.
Project description:Peripheral blood-derived inflammation-based scores such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have recently been proposed as prognostic markers in solid tumours. Although evidence to support these markers as unfavourable prognostic factors is more compelling in gastrointestinal cancers, very little is known of their impact on breast cancer. We investigated the association between the NLR and PLR, and overall survival after breast cancer.Data from the University of Malaya Medical Centre Breast Cancer Registry was used. Of 2059 consecutive patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2008, we included 1435 patients with an available pre-treatment differential blood count (∼70%). Patients were stratified into quintiles of the NLR/PLR. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the independent prognostic significances of the NLR/PLR.Compared with the first quintile of the NLR, women in quintile 5 were younger, had bigger tumours, nodal involvement, distant metastases and higher tumour grades. Higher NLR quintiles were significantly associated with poorer survival with a 5-year relative survival ratio (RSR) of 76.4% (95% CI: 69.6-82.1%) in quintile 1, 79.4% (95% CI: 74.4-83.7%) in quintile 2, 72.1% (95% CI: 66.3-77.3%) in quintile 3, 65.6% (95% CI: 59.8-70.8%) in quintile 4 and 51.1% (95% CI: 43.3-58.5%) in quintile 5. Following adjustment for demography, tumour characteristics, treatment and the PLR, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for quintile 5 vs quintile 1 was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-1.63); Ptrend=0.004. Results were unchanged when the NLR was analysed as a dichotomous variable using different cutoff points. Although patients in PLR quintile 5 had lower survival than in quintile 1 (5-year RSR: 53.2% (95% CI: 46.9-59.2%) vs 77.0% (95% CI: 70.9-82.2%)), this association was not significant after multivariable adjustment. However, a PLR >185 was significantly associated with poorer survival; adjusted HR: 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04-1.52).Both the NLR and PLR are independently associated with an increased risk of mortality in breast cancer. Their added value in the prognostication of breast cancer in clinical practice warrants investigation.
Project description:Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are important biomarkers for disease development and progression. To gain insight into the genetic causes of variance in NLR and PLR in the general population, we conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses and estimated SNP heritability in a sample of 5901 related healthy Dutch individuals. GWA analyses identified a new genome-wide significant locus on the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region for PLR, which replicated in a sample of 2538 British twins. For platelet count, we replicated three known genome-wide significant loci in our cohort (at CCDC71L-PIK3CG, BAK1 and ARHGEF3). For neutrophil count, we replicated the PSMD3 locus. For the identified top SNPs, we found significant cis and trans expression quantitative trait loci effects for several loci involved in hematological and immunological pathways. Linkage Disequilibrium score (LD) regression analyses for PLR and NLR confirmed that both traits are heritable, with a polygenetic SNP heritability for PLR of 14.1%, and for NLR of 2.4%. Genetic correlations were present between ratios and the constituent counts, with the genetic correlation (r=0.45) of PLR with platelet count reaching statistical significance. In conclusion, we established that two important biomarkers have a significant heritable SNP component, and identified the first genome-wide locus for PLR.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Acute mesenteric ischemia is associated with high rates of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) on 30-day outcomes in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Consecutive patients who were admitted for an acute mesenteric ischemia were retrospectively included. The full white blood count at the time of admission to the hospital was recorded. The population was divided into 4 subgroups according to the quartiles of the NLR and the PLR. The 30-day outcomes including the mortality and the complications were compared among the subgroups. RESULTS:In total, 106 patients were included. A surgical treatment including revascularization and/or digestive resection was performed for 56 patients (52.8%). The 30-day all-cause mortality was 72 patients (67.9%). Patients with higher PLR value (PLR >429.3) had significantly higher rate of mortality compared to the other groups (80.8% vs 46.2%, 66.7% and 77.8%, p = 0.03). No significant difference on 30-day outcome was observed among the subgroups divided according to the NLR. CONCLUSION:The PLR, but not the NLR, is a predictive factor of 30-day mortality in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia.
Project description:An increasing number of studies outline renal function as an important risk marker for mortality in acute heart failure (AHF). However, routine estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine is imprecise.This study aims to compare the prognostic impact of CKD-EPI creatinine based equation (eGFRcr), cystatin C based equation (eGFRcyst), and creatinine-cystatin C equation (eGFRcrcyst) for the mortality stratification in AHF.A total of 354 Patients with AHF were prospectively included between January 2012 and June 2016. Creatinine and cystatin C were measured using the same blood sample tube on admission. We quantified eGFR by the eGFRcr, eGFRcyst, and eGFRcrcyst equations. The continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated to compare the discriminative prognostic value of different CKD-EPI formula.After a median follow-up of 35 months, 161 patients (45.5%) died. Reduced eGFRcyst and eGFRcrcyst remained significant association with death after adjustment. eGFRcyst showed the best area under the curve value (0.706) for the prediction of all-cause mortality. Considering mortality reclassification, both eGFRcyst (IDI?=?7.3%, P?<?.001; cNRI?=?19.6%, P?=?.012) and eGFRcrcyst (IDI?=?4.3%, P?<?.001; cNRI?=?8.7%, P?=?.138) showed its tendency in improving risk prediction compared to eGFRcr. Compared to eGFRcrcyst showed, eGFRcyst further improved mortality stratification (IDI?=?3%, P?=?.049; cNRI?=?11.1%, P?=?.036).In patients with AHF, our study demonstrates the eGFR calculated by CKD-EPI cystatin C-based equation improved the risk stratification of mortality over both creatinine-based and creatinine/cystatin C-based equations.
Project description:The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been presented to be a prognostic indicator in several types of cancer. However, these issues have not been concluded yet. The present study was therefore performed to determine the prognostic value of NLR and PLR in gastric cancer (GC).A total of 182 GC patients, diagnosed between January 2011 and January 2014, were enrolled in the study. The clinicopathological parameters, laboratory analyses, and outcomes were collected. The association between NLR, PLR, and clinicopathological characters was analyzed with univariate and multivariate analyses.NLR was significantly related to age (P?=?.026), surgery (P?=?.006), node status (P?=?.004), and clinical stage (P?=?.009). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were poor in the High-NLR group (OS: 36.0 vs 20.5 months, P?<?.001, PFS: 33.0 vs 12.0 months, P?<?.001) and High-PLR group (OS: 31.5 vs 18.5 months, P?=?.003, PFS: 26.0 vs 11.0 months, P?=?.01). Multivariate analyses indicated both surgery [for OS hazard ratio (HR)?=?2.092, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.345-3.253, P?=?.001; for PFS HR?=?1.939, 95% CI: 1.259-2.988, P?=?.003] and NLR (for OS HR?=?1.585, 95% CI: 1.011-2.485, P?=?.045) were independent prognostic factors.Elevated NLR and PLR were related with poor prognosis in GC patients before treatment. The NLR was an independent prognostic factor for OS. More studies should be conducted to address the potential prognostic value of NLR and PLR in GC.
Project description:Neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR) and platelets to lymphocytes ratio (PLR) are both inflammatory ratios that can be easily calculated from a simple blood count. They are frequently reported and tested as prognostic factors in several medical disciplines. Pregnancy involves special reference values for laboratory assays.The aim of this study was to define pregnancy-related reference values for NLR and PLR according to trimester, background morbidity and according to the patient's age.A retrospective analysis of a large cohort undergoing community-based pregnancy surveillance between the years 2011-2016. Data were analyzed according to high-risk patient versus normal-risk patient.A total of 11,415 patients were included. Mean PLR and NLR values were 136.3±44.3, 2.6±1, respectively during the first trimester, 144.6±47.1, 4.0±1.4 respectively during the second trimester and 118.1±42.0, 3.5±1.2 respectively during the third trimester. No difference was detected between the high-risk and the normal population (P-values 0.3, 0.5 and 0.4 for PLR in each trimester respectively and 0.3, 0.4, 0.6 for NLR in each trimester, respectively). No differences were detected among parity categories. The correlation between patient's age and either PLR and NLR was a weak positive correlation (though statistically significant). Both PLR and NLR reached a maximum value during the second trimester. The differences between mean NLR and PLR between trimesters were significant (P <0.01 for all differences tested). PLR rises in the presence of anemia, reaching statistical significance (P-value for PLR in each trimester was <0.01). NLR showed an opposite trend (P-values for NLR were 0.4, 0.005 and 0.06 in each trimester, respectively).In our cohort, there were generally no differences between the high-risk and the normal population, excluding patients with a fibroid uterus or inflammatory bowel disease who presented a significantly elevated PLR through all trimesters. Both PLR and NLR reached a maximum value during the second trimester and were positively correlated with age. We anticipate that the population-based data will assist in providing accurate reference values for future research testing NLR and PLR measures during pregnancy.
Project description:Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and platelet count (PC) were shown to be prognostic in several solid malignancies. We analysed 603 R0 resected patients to assess whether NLR, PLR and PC correlate with other well-known prognostic factors and survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to define cut-off values for high and low ratios of these indices. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the prognostic value of NLR, PLR and PC for overall and cancer-related survival. The distribution of NLR, PLR and PC in CRC patients was compared with 5270 healthy blood donors. The distribution of NLR, PLR and PC was significantly different between CRC patients and controls (all p?<?0.05). A significant but heterogeneous association was found between the main CRC prognostic factors and high values of NLR, PLR and PC. Survival appeared to be worse in patients with high NLR with cancers in AJCC/UICC TNM Stages I-IV; nonetheless its prognostic value was not confirmed for cancer-related survival in multivariate analysis. After stratification of patients according to AJCC/UICC TNM stages, high PC value was significantly correlated with overall and cancer-related survival in TNM stage IV patients.