Incidental findings in CT imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts: results from a Canadian multicenter prospective cohort.
ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence and clinical significance of incidental findings identified during computed tomography imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts.This prospective study includes 144 patients undergoing coronary graft patency assessment using computed tomography. Incidental findings were classified as significant if they were considered to need an immediate action or treatment, short-term work-up or follow-up, or minor. A total of 211 incidental findings were present in 109 (75.7%) patients. Seventy-one incidental findings (33.6%) were cardiac and 140 (66.4%) were extracardiac. Most common cardiac incidental findings were atrial dilatation [39 patients, 48 incidental findings (67.6%)] and aortic valve calcifications (7 patients, 9.9%). Among the 140 extracardiac incidental findings, the most common were lung nodules (51 patients, 54 nodules, 38.6%), and emphysema (21 patients, 15%). Thirty-six (25.7%) extracardiac incidental findings were significant and notably, 23 (63.9%) were lung nodules. Follow-up was recommended in 37 cases, among which all patients with significant lung nodules (23 patients, 62.2%). In conclusion, most common computed tomography incidental findings in patients with coronary grafts were lung nodules and emphysema.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many clinical guidelines recommend FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of pulmonary nodules ?8?mm detected during low dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening. However, its added value in this setting requires confirmation. We evaluated the clinical utility of FDG PET/CT, including incidental findings, during the evaluation of lung nodules detected on LDCT screening. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was performed among 75 patients who completed FDG PET/CT between January 2010 and December 2017, after lung nodules >?8?mm had been detected on LDCT lung cancer screening. We report demographic variables, characteristics of the initial nodules on LDCT and FDG PET/CT, incidental findings on FDG PET/CT, as well as further work up performed and the influence of FDG PET/CT findings on management. RESULTS:Nodules were reported to be benign on FDG PET/CT in 38/75 (50.6%) patients. Physicians chose either radiological follow-up or no further work up in all 38. FDG PET/CT was indeterminate or suggested malignancy in 37 (49.3%) patients. Biopsy was performed in 32 (86%) of these patients. Incidental findings on FDG PET/CT were reported in 37/75 (49%) patients. Further work-up of incidental findings was performed in 21/75 (28%) of patients. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, for majority of individuals with lung nodules identified during LDCT lung cancer screening, FDG PET/CT results were able to guide physicians in choosing between routine follow up or invasive biopsies. Conversely, 28% of these patients required additional investigations to address incidental findings.
Project description:To validate the feasibility of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung prior to computed tomography angiography (CTA) in assessing incidental thoracic findings during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) planning or follow-up.We conducted a retrospective study among 181 patients (143 men, mean age 71 years, range 50-94) referred to our centre for CTA EVAR planning or follow-up. HRCT and CTA were performed before or after 1 or 12 mo respectively to EVAR in all patients. All HRCT examinations were reviewed by two radiologists with 15 and 8 years' experience in thoracic imaging. The results were compared with histology, bronchoscopy or follow-up HRCT in 12, 8 and 82 nodules respectively.There were a total of 102 suspected nodules in 92 HRCT examinations, with a mean of 1.79 nodules per patient and an average diameter of 9.2 mm (range 4-56 mm). Eighty-nine out of 181 HRCTs resulted negative for the presence of suspected nodules with a mean smoking history of 10 pack-years (p-y, range 5-18 p-y). Eighty-two out of 102 (76.4%) of the nodules met criteria for computed tomography follow-up, to exclude the malignant evolution. Of the remaining 20 nodules, 10 out of 20 (50%) nodules, suspected for malignancy, underwent biopsy and then surgical intervention that confirmed the neoplastic nature: 4 (20%) adenocarcinomas, 4 (20%) squamous cell carcinomas, 1 (5%) small cell lung cancer and 1 (5%) breast cancer metastasis); 8 out of 20 (40%) underwent bronchoscopy (8 pneumonia) and 2 out of 20 (10%) underwent biopsy with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.HRCT in EVAR planning and follow-up allows to correctly identify patients requiring additional treatments, especially in case of lung cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diffuse interstitial lung disease have been described in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), but its diversity and prevalence remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of (NF1)-associated lung manifestations in a large single-center study using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to evaluate the smoking history, patients' age, genetics, and the presence of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) as potential influencing factors for lung pathologies.<h4>Methods</h4>In this retrospective study, 71 patients with NF1 were evaluated for the presence of distinctive lung manifestations like reticulations, consolidations, type of emphysema, pulmonary nodules and cysts. All patients underwent F-18-FDG PET/CT scans, which were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus. Patients' subgroups were formed based on their smoking history (current smokers/previous smokers/never smokers), age (<?12 years, 12-18 years, >?18 years), and presence of MPNST (MPNST/no MPNST). In 57 patients (80%), genetic analysis of sequences coding for the neurofibromin on chromosome 17 was performed, which was correlated with different lung pathologies.<h4>Results</h4>Among all NF1 patients (33?±?14 years, 56% females), 17 patients (24%) were current smokers and 62 patients (87%) were?>?18 years old. Pulmonary cysts, nodules, and paraseptal emphysema were the most common pulmonary findings (35%, 32%, 30%). The presence of pulmonary metastases, MPNST and centrilobular emphysema was associated with smoking. Cysts were observed only in adults, whereas no significant correlation between age and all other pulmonary findings was found (p?>?0.05). Presence of MPNST was accompanied by higher rates of intrapulmonary nodules and pulmonary metastasis. Neither the presence nor absence of any of the specific gene mutations was associated with any particular lung pathology (p?>?0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>All pulmonary findings in NF1 patients occurred independently from specific mutation subtypes, suggesting that many NF1 mutations can cause various pulmonary pathologies. The presence of pulmonary metastases, MPNST and centrilobular emphysema was associated with smoking, indicating the value of smoking secession or the advice not to start smoking in NF1 patients as preventive strategy for clinicians. For screening of pulmonary manifestations in NF1 patients, an MDCT besides medical history and physical examination is mandatory in clinical routine.
Project description:Lung cancer screening may benefit HIV-infected (HIV) smokers because of an elevated risk of lung cancer, but may have unique harms because of HIV-specific risk factors for false-positive screens. This study seeks to understand whether inflammatory biomarkers and markers of chronic lung disease are associated with noncalcified nodules at least 4?mm (NCN) in HIV compared with uninfected patients.This is a cohort study of Examinations of HIV-Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE), including 158 HIV and 133 HIV-uninfected participants.Participants underwent a laboratory assessment [including measurement of D-dimer, interleukin 6, and soluble CD14 (sCD14)], chest computed tomography (CT), and pulmonary function testing. We created multivariable logistic regression models to determine predictors of NCN in the participants stratified by HIV status, with attention to semiqualitative scoring of radiographic emphysema, markers of pulmonary function, and inflammatory biomarkers.Of the 291 participants, 69 had NCN on chest CT. As previously reported, there was no difference in prevalence of these nodules by HIV status. Emphysema and elevated sCD14 demonstrated an association with NCN in HIV participants independent of smoking status, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and pulmonary function.Emphysema and sCD14, a marker of immune activation, was associated with a higher prevalence of NCN on chest CT in HIV participants. Patients with chronic immune activation and emphysema may be at higher risk for both false-positive findings and incident lung cancer, thus screening in this group requires further study to understand the balance of benefits and harms.
Project description:The numbers of abnormal findings incidentally detected in adjacent regions are increasing with advances in imaging modalities. The present study aimed to examine the prevalence and characteristics of incidental findings in the thyroid gland on computed tomography (CT) images of the oral and maxillofacial region. CT scans of the oral and maxillofacial region in patients obtained between January 2012 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Images that revealed incidental findings in the thyroid gland, including nodules, were recorded, together with the sizes and characteristics of the findings. The Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) guidelines were used for classification. The rate of descriptions of these findings in the radiographic interpretation reports were also examined. Of the 1,135 patients examined, 326 (28.7%) had several types of incidental findings. In particular, 169 (14.9%) of the 1,135 patients had nodules >5 mm in diameter, for which further careful examination is recommended in the JABTS guideline. The description rate for nodules >5 mm in diameter in the radiographic interpretation reports was 30.8% (52/169 patients), of whom 17.3% (9/52 patients) were referred to the endocrinology department for further careful examination. Incidental findings in the thyroid gland were relatively common on CT images of the oral and maxillofacial region. Oral radiologists tend to focus specifically on the oral and maxillofacial region during diagnosis on oral and maxillofacial CT images, but should pay the same careful attention to observe adjacent regions, such as the thyroid gland.
Project description:The prevalence of incidental nonneoplastic lung disease in patients undergoing resection for mass lesions is unknown. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of parenchymal findings in patients with lung nodules, aiming to increase awareness of findings that could potentially impact patient management. A total of 397 patients with benign or malignant mass lesions with available presurgical chest computed tomography scans resected between January 2001 and July 2015 were included. Retrospective histologic assessment of parenchymal abnormalities in at least 1 section of grossly normal lung was performed for each case by 2 pulmonary pathologists and correlated with original pathology reports, clinical history, and radiologic findings. A total of 233 women and 164 men underwent resections for carcinomas (78%) or benign nodules (22%). One hundred one (25%) patients showed parenchymal abnormalities, including 14 patients with multiple findings. The most common abnormal findings were fibrotic interstitial changes (10%), including usual interstitial pneumonia (1%), followed by granulomatous processes (8%). Other findings included aspiration (4%), intravascular thrombi (2%), Langerhans cell histiocytosis (1.5%), constrictive bronchiolitis (1%), atypical lymphoid infiltrates (1%), and amyloidosis (0.5%). Abnormalities were more likely to have been documented in the original pathology report by pulmonary pathologists (68%) than by general pathologists (15%) (P?<?.0001). Cases with histologic parenchymal abnormalities were more likely to show radiologic interstitial lung abnormalities than those without (16% versus 5%; P?=?.001). Evaluation of background lung parenchyma may yield valuable and unanticipated information in patients undergoing surgical resections for lung masses that may correlate with radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities and influence clinical management.
Project description:Within the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene(®)) study population of cigarette smokers, 9% were found to be unclassifiable by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. This study was to identify the differences in computed tomography (CT) findings between this nonobstructed (GOLDU) group and a control group of smokers with normal lung function. This research was approved by the institutional review board of each institution. CT images of 400 participants in the COPDGene(®) study (200 GOLDU, 200 smokers with normal lung function) were retrospectively evaluated in a blinded fashion. Visual CT assessment included lobar analysis of emphysema (type, extent), presence of paraseptal emphysema, airway wall thickening, expiratory air trapping, centrilobular nodules, atelectasis, non-fibrotic and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), pleural thickening, diaphragmatic eventration, vertebral body changes and internal thoracic diameters (in mm). Univariate comparisons of groups for each CT parameter and multiple logistic regression were performed to determine the imaging features associated with GOLDU. When compared with the control group, GOLDU participants had a significantly higher prevalence of unilateral diaphragm eventration (30% vs. 16%), airway wall thickening, centrilobular nodules, reticular abnormality, paraseptal emphysema (33% vs. 17%), linear atelectasis (60% vs. 35.6%), kyphosis (12% vs. 4%), and a smaller internal transverse thoracic diameter (255 ± 22.5 [standard deviation] vs. 264.8 ± 22.4, mm) (all p<0.05). With multiple logistic regression, all of these CT parameters, except non-fibrotic ILD and kyphosis, remained significantly associated with GOLDU status (p<0.05). In cigarette smokers, chest wall abnormalities and parenchymal lung disease, which contribute to restrictive physiologic impairment, are associated with GOLD-nonobstructed status.
Project description:Airflow obstruction is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in the general population. The affected vascular bed and contribution of emphysema to cardiovascular risk are unclear. We examined whether an obstructive pattern of spirometry and quantitatively defined emphysema were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid, peripheral and coronary circulations. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants aged 45-84 yrs without clinical cardiovascular disease. Spirometry, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) were measured using standard protocols. Percentage of emphysema-like lung was measured in the lung windows of cardiac computed tomography scans among 3,642 participants. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for cardiac risk factors, including C-reactive protein. Decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity ratio were associated with greater internal carotid IMT, particularly among smokers (p=0.03 and p<0.001, respectively) whereas percentage emphysema was associated with reduced ABI regardless of smoking history (p=0.004). CAC was associated with neither lung function (prevalence ratio for the presence of CAC in severe airflow obstruction 0.99, 95% CI 0.91-1.07) nor percentage emphysema. An obstructive pattern of spirometry and emphysema were associated distinctly and independently with subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries and peripheral circulation, respectively, and were not independently related to CAC.
Project description:The Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPDGene) study, which began in 2007, is an ongoing multicenter observational cohort study of more than 10,000 current and former smokers. The study is aimed at understanding the etiology, progression, and heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition to genetic analysis, the participants have been extensively characterized by clinical questionnaires, spirometry, volumetric inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography, and longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up computed tomography at 5 years after enrollment. The purpose of this state-of-the-art review is to summarize the major advances in our understanding of COPD resulting from the imaging findings in the COPDGene study. Imaging features that are associated with adverse clinical outcomes include early interstitial lung abnormalities, visual presence and pattern of emphysema, the ratio of pulmonary artery to ascending aortic diameter, quantitative evaluation of emphysema, airway wall thickness, and expiratory gas trapping. COPD is characterized by the early involvement of the small conducting airways, and the addition of expiratory scans has enabled measurement of small airway disease. Computational advances have enabled indirect measurement of nonemphysematous gas trapping. These metrics have provided insights into the pathogenesis and prognosis of COPD and have aided early identification of disease. Important quantifiable extrapulmonary findings include coronary artery calcification, cardiac morphology, intrathoracic and extrathoracic fat, and osteoporosis. Current active research includes identification of novel quantitative measures for emphysema and airway disease, evaluation of dose reduction techniques, and use of deep learning for phenotyping COPD.
Project description:Those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and might undergo computed tomographic (CT) scans for early detection. Incidental findings on cardiac CT imaging are important components of the benefits and costs of testing. We determined the prevalence and factors associated with incidental findings on CT scans performed to screen for coronary artery calcium (CAC) among HIV-infected men. A clinically significant finding was defined as requiring additional workup or a medical referral. A total of 215 HIV-infected men were evaluated. Their median age was 43 years; 17% were current tobacco users; the median CD4 count was 580 cells/mm(3); and 83% were receiving antiretroviral medications. Also, 34% had a positive CAC score of >0. An incidental finding was noted among 93 participants (43%), with 36 (17%) having ?1 clinically significant finding. A total of 139 findings were noted, most commonly pulmonary nodules, followed by granulomas, scarring, and hilar adenopathy. Most of the incidental findings were stable on follow-up, and no malignancies were detected. The factors associated with the presence of an incidental finding in the multivariate model included increasing age (odds ratio 1.6 per 10 years, p <0.01), positive CAC score (odds ratio 2.3, p <0.01), and current tobacco use (odds ratio 2.5, p = 0.02). In conclusion, incidental findings were common among HIV-infected men undergoing screening CT imaging for CAC determination. The incidental findings were more common among older patients and those with detectable CAC.