The piloting of a culturally centered American Indian family prevention program: a CBPR partnership between Mescalero Apache and the University of New Mexico.
ABSTRACT: The Mescalero Apache Family Listening Program (MAFLP) is a culturally centered family prevention program with third, fourth, and fifth graders; a parent/caregiver; and a family elder. The program follows a positive youth development model to develop stronger communication and shared cultural practices between elders, parents, and youth in the tribe to reduce substance initiation of use among the youth. The MAFLP was created using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in partnership with the University of New Mexico. The research focus of MAFLP is centered on the adaptation of a family curriculum from a Navajo and Pueblo version of the Family Listening Program to an Apache version, the establishment of a (Apache) Tribal Research Team, and the piloting of the curriculum with Apache families. MAFLP was piloted twice, and evaluation measures were collected focused on formative and impact evaluation. This article provides a background on Mescalero Apache then introduces the Navajo and Pueblo version of a Family Listening and Family Circle Program, respectively, next, the CBPR research partnership between Mescalero Apache and the University of New Mexico and the creation of a Mescalero Apache Tribal Research Team followed by the development and adaptation of a Mescalero Apache Family Listening Program including implementation and evaluation, and concluding with preliminary findings.
Project description:We assessed the impact of Launching Native Health Leaders (LNHL), a peer-mentoring and networking program that introduced American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) undergraduates to health and research careers and concepts of community-based participatory research (CBPR).We conducted 15 interviews and 1 focus group with students who had attended 1 or more LNHL meetings, which took place during 9 professional health research conferences in 2006 to 2009. We completed data collection in 2010, within 1 to 4 years of LNHL participant engagement in program activities.Participants described identity and cultural challenges they encountered in academic institutions and how their views shifted from perceiving research as an enterprise conducted by community outsiders who were not to be trusted toward an understanding of CBPR as contributing to AI/AN health.LNHL provided a safe environment for AI/AN students to openly explore their place in the health and research arenas. Programs such as LNHL support AI/AN student development as leaders in building trust for academic-tribal partnerships.
Project description:Despite declines over recent years, youth tobacco and other substance use rates remain high. Latino youth are at equal or increased risk for lifetime tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use compared with their white peers. Family plays an important and influential role in the lives of youth, and longitudinal research suggests that improving parenting skills may reduce youth substance use. However, few interventions are oriented towards immigrant Latino families, and none have been developed and evaluated using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process that may increase the effectiveness and sustainability of such projects. Therefore, using CBPR principles, we developed a randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy of a family-skills training intervention to prevent tobacco and other substance use intentions in Latino youth.In collaboration with seven Latino community-serving agencies, we will recruit and randomize 336 immigrant families, into intervention or delayed treatment conditions. The primary outcome is youth intention to smoke 6 months post intervention. The intervention consists of eight parent and four youth sessions targeting parenting skills and parent-youth relational factors associated with lower smoking and other substance use in youth.We present the study protocol for a family intervention using a CBPR randomized clinical trial to prevent smoking among Latino youth. The results of this trial will contribute to the limited information on effective and sustainable primary prevention programs for tobacco and other substance use directed at the growing US Latino communities.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01442753.
Project description:One expectation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is participant access to study results. However, reporting experimental data produced by studies involving biological measurements in the absence of clinical relevance can be challenging to scientists and participants. We applied best practices in data sharing to report the results of a study designed to explore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons absorption, metabolism, and excretion following consumption of traditionally smoked salmon by members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). A dietary exposure study was developed, in which nine Tribal members consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon and provided repeated urine samples over 24 hours. During recruitment, participants requested access to their data following analysis. Disclosing data is an important element of CBPR and must be treated with the same rigor as that given to the data analysis. The field of data disclosure is relatively new, but when handled correctly can improve education within the community, reduce distrust, and enhance environmental health literacy. Using the results from this study, we suggest mechanisms for sharing data with a Tribal community.
Project description:Introduction:Community-based participatory research [CBPR] is an emerging approach to collaborative research aimed at creating locally effective and sustainable interventions. The 2040 Partners for Health student program was developed as a unique model of longitudinal CBPR. Analysis of this program and its components illuminates both the challenges and the opportunities inherent in community engagement. Methods:The program rests on a foundation of a community-based, non-profit organization and a supportive academic university centre. Inter-professional health students and community members of underserved populations work together on different health projects by employing an adapted CBPR methodology. Three successful examples of sustainable CBPR projects are briefly described. Results:The three projects are presented as primary outcomes resulting from this model. Benefits and challenges of the model as an approach to community-engaged research are discussed as well as secondary benefits of student participation. Conclusion:The 2040 Partners for Health student program represents a successful model of CBPR, illuminating common challenges and reiterating the profound value of community-engaged research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Given the well-established evidence of disproportionately high rates of substance-related morbidity and mortality after release from incarceration for Indigenous Australians, access to comprehensive, effective and culturally safe residential rehabilitation treatment will likely assist in reducing recidivism to both prison and substance dependence for this population. In the absence of methodologically rigorous evidence, the delivery of Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation services vary widely, and divergent views exist regarding the appropriateness and efficacy of different potential treatment components. One way to increase the methodological quality of evaluations of Indigenous residential rehabilitation services is to develop partnerships with researchers to better align models of care with the client's, and the community's, needs. An emerging research paradigm to guide the development of high quality evidence through a number of sequential steps that equitably involves services, stakeholders and researchers is community-based participatory research (CBPR). The purpose of this study is to articulate an Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation service model of care, developed in collaboration between clients, service providers and researchers using a CBPR approach. METHODS/DESIGN:This research adopted a mixed methods CBPR approach to triangulate collected data to inform the development of a model of care for a remote Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation service. RESULTS:Four iterative CBPR steps of research activity were recorded during the 3-year research partnership. As a direct outcome of the CBPR framework, the service and researchers co-designed a Healing Model of Care that comprises six core treatment components, three core organisational components and is articulated in two program logics. The program logics were designed to specifically align each component and outcome with the mechanism of change for the client or organisation to improve data collection and program evaluation. CONCLUSION:The description of the CBPR process and the Healing Model of Care provides one possible solution about how to provide better care for the large and growing population of Indigenous people with substance misuse issues. [corrected].
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study is built on a long-standing research partnership between the Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health and the White Mountain Apache Tribe to identify effective interventions to prevent suicide and promote resilience among American Indian (AI) youth. The work is founded on a tribally-mandated, community-based suicide surveillance system with case management by local community mental health specialists (CMHSs) who strive to connect at-risk youth to treatment and brief, adjunctive interventions piloted in past research. METHODS:Our primary aim is to evaluate which brief interventions, alone or in combination, have the greater effect on suicide ideation (primary outcome) and resilience (secondary outcome) among AI youth ages 10-24 ascertained for suicide-related behaviors by the tribal surveillance system. We are using a Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial with stratified assignment based on age and suicidal-behavior type, and randomizing N?= 304 youth. Brief interventions are delivered by AI CMHSs, or by Elders with CMHS support, and include: 1) New Hope, an evidence-based intervention to reduce immediate suicide risk through safety planning, emotion regulation skills, and facilitated care connections; and 2) Elders' Resilience, a culturally-grounded intervention to promote resilience through connectedness, self-esteem and cultural identity/values. The control condition is Optimized Case Management, which all study participants receive. We hypothesize that youth who receive: a) New Hope vs. Optimized Case Management will have significant reductions in suicide ideation; b) Elders' Resilience vs. Optimized Case Management will have significant gains in resilience; c) New Hope followed by Elders' Resilience will have the largest improvements on suicide ideation and resilience; and d) Optimized Case Management will have the weakest effects of all groups. Our secondary aim will examine mediators and moderators of treatment effectiveness and sequencing. DISCUSSION:Due to heterogeneity of suicide risk/protective factors among AI youth, not all youth require the same types of interventions. Generating evidence for what works, when it works, and for whom is paramount to AI youth suicide prevention efforts, where rates are currently high and resources are limited. Employing Native paraprofessionals is a means of task-shifting psychoeducation, culturally competent patient support and continuity of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials NCT03543865, June 1, 2018.
Project description:The Community Research Fellows Training (CRFT) Program promotes the role of underserved populations in research by enhancing the capacity for community-based participatory research (CBPR). CRFT consists of 12 didactic training sessions and 3 experiential workshops intended to train community members in research methods and evidence-based public health. The training (a) promotes partnerships between community members and academic researchers, (b) enhances community knowledge of public health research, and (c) trains community members to become critical consumers of research. Fifty community members participated in training sessions taught by multidisciplinary faculty. Forty-five (90%) participants completed the program. Findings demonstrate that the training increased awareness of health disparities, research knowledge, and the capacity to use CBPR as a tool to address disparities.
Project description:Introduction: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach to health promotion, especially in relation to socially disadvantaged groups. However, the long-term implementation of CPBR-based projects on a broad scale is often challenging, and research regarding the sustainable transfer of participatory research is lacking. This limits the scaling-up and public health impact of CBPR. Therefore, this study examines the mechanisms utilized to transfer and sustain the BIG project, a multifaceted CBPR project aimed at promoting physical activity among women in difficult life situations. Materials and Methods: Borrowing from the RE-AIM framework, we analyzed project documentation and conducted a reflection workshop to investigate methods of transferring BIG to new sites as well as strategies from researchers to support project implementation and the maintenance of program activities at those sites. Moreover, we analyzed the reasons for discontinuing program activities at some former BIG sites and the costs involved in transferring BIG. Results: Since its establishment in 2005, BIG was transferred to and implemented at 17 sites. As of the winter of 2019, the program activities were maintained at eight sites. The average duration of sites that continue to offer program activities was more than 9 years. Discontinued sites maintained project activities for an average of 4 years. According to the study findings, the extent of scientific support, the provision of seed funding, and the local project coordinator, the person managing the project at the site, all have a significant impact on the sustainability of the transfer. A patchwork of funding agencies was needed to finance scientific support and seed funding in BIG. The transfer of BIG projects accrued annual costs of approximately EUR20,000 per site; however, long-term project implementation resulted in a decline in the annual transfer costs of BIG. Discussion and Conclusion: The sustainable transfer of CBPR is challenging but possible, and increased support of research and seed funding can facilitate long-term transfer. Nevertheless, other factors in the implementation setting are beyond scientific control. With scarce financial resources, researchers need to carefully balance the efforts of the sustainability and transfer of CBPR projects. To address this issue, there is a need for further research into the interrelationship of the sustainability and transfer of CBPR projects as well as increased long-term funding.
Project description:The purpose of the Community Alliance for Research Empowering Social change (CARES) training program was to (1) train community members on evidence-based public health, (2) increase their scientific literacy, and (3) develop the infrastructure for community-based participatory research (CBPR).We assessed participant knowledge and evaluated participant satisfaction of the CARES training program to identify learning needs, obtain valuable feedback about the training, and ensure learning objectives were met through mutually beneficial CBPR approaches.A baseline assessment was administered before the first training session and a follow-up assessment and evaluation was administered after the final training session. At each training session a pretest was administered before the session and a posttest and evaluation were administered at the end of the session. After training session six, a mid-training evaluation was administered. We analyze results from quantitative questions on the assessments, pre- and post-tests, and evaluations.CARES fellows knowledge increased at follow-up (75% of questions were answered correctly on average) compared with baseline (38% of questions were answered correctly on average) assessment; post-test scores were higher than pre-test scores in 9 out of 11 sessions. Fellows enjoyed the training and rated all sessions well on the evaluations.The CARES fellows training program was successful in participant satisfaction and increasing community knowledge of public health, CBPR, and research methodology. Engaging and training community members in evidence-based public health research can develop an infrastructure for community-academic research partnerships.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Process evaluation can illuminate barriers and facilitators to intervention implementation as well as the drivers of intervention outcomes. However, few obesity intervention studies have documented process evaluation methods and results. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires that process evaluation methods be developed to (a) prioritize community members' power to adapt the program to local needs over strict adherence to intervention protocols, (b) share process evaluation data with implementers to maximize benefit to participants, and (c) ensure partner organizations are not overburdened. Co-designed with low-income parents using CBPR, Communities for Healthy Living (CHL) is a family-centered intervention implemented within Head Start to prevent childhood obesity and promote family well-being. We are currently undertaking a randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of CHL in 23 Head Start centers in the greater Boston area. In this protocol paper, we outline an embedded process evaluation designed to monitor intervention adherence and adaptation, support ongoing quality improvement, and examine contextual factors that may moderate intervention implementation and/or effectiveness. METHODS:This mixed methods process evaluation was developed using the Pérez et al. framework for evaluating adaptive interventions and is reported following guidelines outlined by Grant et al. Trained research assistants will conduct structured observations of intervention sessions. Intervention facilitators and recipients, along with Head Start staff, will complete surveys and semi-structured interviews. De-identified data for all eligible children and families will be extracted from Head Start administrative records. Qualitative data will be analyzed thematically. Quantitative and qualitative data will be integrated using triangulation methods to assess intervention adherence, monitor adaptations, and identify moderators of intervention implementation and effectiveness. DISCUSSION:A diverse set of quantitative and qualitative data sources are employed to fully characterize CHL implementation. Simultaneously, CHL's process evaluation will provide a case study on strategies to address the challenges of process evaluation for CBPR interventions. Results from this process evaluation will help to explain variation in intervention implementation and outcomes across Head Start programs, support CHL sustainability and future scale-up, and provide guidance for future complex interventions developed using CBPR. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03334669 . Registered on October 10, 2017.