ACGME Clinical and Educational Work Hour Standards: Perspectives and Recommendations from Emergency Medicine Educators.
ABSTRACT: The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) were invited to contribute to the 2016 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME) Second Resident Duty Hours in the Learning and Working Environment Congress. We describe the joint process used by ACEP and CORD to capture the opinions of emergency medicine (EM) educators on the ACGME clinical and educational work hour standards, formulate recommendations, and inform subsequent congressional testimony.In 2016 our joint working group of experts in EM medical education conducted a consensus-based, mixed-methods process using survey data from medical education stakeholders in EM and expert iterative discussions to create organizational position statements and recommendations for revisions of work hour standards. A 19-item survey was administered to a convenience sample of 199 EM residency training programs using a national EM educational listserv.A total of 157 educational leaders responded to the survey; 92 of 157 could be linked to specific programs, yielding a targeted response rate of 46.2% (92/199) of programs. Respondents commented on the impact of clinical and educational work-hour standards on patient safety, programmatic and personnel costs, resident caseload, and educational experience. Using survey results, comments, and iterative discussions, organizational recommendations were crafted and submitted to the ACGME.EM educators believe that ACGME clinical and educational work hour standards negatively impact the learning environment and are not optimal for promoting patient safety or the development of resident professional citizenship.
Project description:To describe the views of residency program directors regarding the effect of the 2010 duty hour recommendations on the 6 core competencies of graduate medical education.US residency program directors in internal medicine, pediatrics, and general surgery were e-mailed a survey from July 8 through July 20, 2010, after the 2010 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour recommendations were published. Directors were asked to rate the implications of the new recommendations for the 6 ACGME core competencies as well as for continuity of inpatient care and resident fatigue.Of 719 eligible program directors, 464 (65%) responded. Most program directors believe that the new ACGME recommendations will decrease residents' continuity with hospitalized patients (404/464 [87%]) and will not change (303/464 [65%]) or will increase (26/464 [6%]) resident fatigue. Additionally, most program directors (249-363/464 [53%-78%]) believe that the new duty hour restrictions will decrease residents' ability to develop competency in 5 of the 6 core areas. Surgery directors were more likely than internal medicine directors to believe that the ACGME recommendations will decrease residents' competency in patient care (odds ratio [OR], 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-6.3), medical knowledge (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.2), practice-based learning and improvement (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.4), interpersonal and communication skills (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0), and professionalism (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.0).Residency program directors' reactions to ACGME duty hour recommendations demonstrate a marked degree of concern about educating a competent generation of future physicians in the face of increasing duty hour standards and regulation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented new Common Program Requirements to regulate duty hours of resident physicians, with three goals: improved patient safety, quality of resident education and quality of life for trainees. We sought to assess Internal Medicine program director (IMPD) perceptions of the 2011 Common Program Requirements in July 2012, one year following implementation of the new standards. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of all IMPDs at ACGME-accredited programs in the United States (N?=?381) was performed using a 32-question, self-administered survey. Contact information was identified for 323 IMPDs. Three individualized emails were sent to each director over a 6-week period, requesting participation in the survey. Outcomes measured included approval of duty hours regulations, as well as perceptions of changes in graduate medical education and patient care resulting from the revised ACGME standards. RESULTS: A total of 237 surveys were returned (73% response rate). More than half of the IMPDs (52%) reported "overall" approval of the 2011 duty hour regulations, with greater than 70% approval of all individual regulations except senior resident daily duty periods (49% approval) and 16-hour intern shifts (17% approval). Although a majority feel resident quality of life has improved (55%), most IMPDs believe that resident education (60%) is worse. A minority report that quality (8%) or safety (11%) of patient care has improved. CONCLUSION: One year after implementation of new ACGME duty hour requirements, IMPDs report overall approval of the standards, but strong disapproval of 16-hour shift limits for interns. Few program directors perceive that the duty hour restrictions have resulted in better care for patients or education of residents. Although resident quality of life seems improved, most IMPDs report that their own workload has increased. Based on these results, the intended benefits of duty hour regulations may not yet have been realized.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) instituted the 24+6-hour work schedule and 80-hour workweek, and in 2011, it enhanced work hour and supervision standards. INNOVATION: In response, Oregon Health & Science University's (OHSU) neurological surgery residency instituted a 3-person night float system. METHODS: We analyzed work hour records and operative experience for 1 year before and after night float implementation in a model that shortened a combined introductory research and basic clinical neurosciences rotation from 12 to 6 months. We analyzed residents' perception of the system using a confidential survey. The ACGME 2011 work hour standards were applied to both time periods. RESULTS: AFTER NIGHT FLOAT IMPLEMENTATION, THE NUMBER OF DUTY HOUR VIOLATIONS WAS REDUCED: 28-hour shift (11 versus 235), 8 hours off between shifts (2 versus 20), 80 hours per week (0 versus 17), and total violations (23 versus 275). Violations increased only for the less than 4 days off per 4-week interval rule (10 versus 3). No meaningful difference was seen in the number of operative cases performed per year at any postgraduate year (PGY) training level: PGY-2 (336 versus 351), PGY-3 (394 versus 354), PGY-4 (803 versus 802), PGY-5 (1075 versus 1040), PGY-7 (947 versus 913), and total (3555 versus 3460). Residents rated the new system favorably. CONCLUSIONS: To meet 2011 ACGME duty hour standards, the OHSU neurological surgery residency instituted a 3-person night float system. A nearly complete elimination of work hour violations did not affect overall resident operative experience.
Project description:Background:Many hospitals have or will be opening an observation unit (OU), the majority managed by the emergency department (ED). Graduating emergency medicine (EM) residents will be expected to have the knowledge and skills necessary to appropriately identify and manage patients in this setting. Our objective is to examine the current state of observation medicine (OM) education and prevalence in EM training. Methods:In a follow-up to the 2019 Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) OM Interest Group meeting, we convened an expert panel of OM physicians who are members of both the SAEM OM Interest Group and the American College of Emergency Physicians Section of OM. The panel of six emergency physicians representing geographic diversity was formed. A structured literature review was performed yielding 16 educational publications and sources pertaining to OM education and training across all specialties. Report on the Existing Literature:Only a small number of EM residencies have a required or elective OM rotation in an OU. An OM rotation in a protocol-driven ED OU gives residents experience managing patients in this setting and improves skills integral to EM and part of the EM milestones and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies: reassessment, disposition decision making, risk stratification, team management, and practicing cost-appropriate care. Even without a formal rotation, multiple OM educational resources can be incorporated into EM resident education and didactics. Education research opportunity exists. Conclusions:This panel believes that OM is an important component of EM that should be incorporated into EM residency as the knowledge and skills learned such as risk stratification, disposition decision making, and team management augment those needed for the practice of EM. There is a distinct opportunity for EM educators to better equip their trainees for a career in EM by including OM education and experience in EM residency training.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Professionalism is a vital component of quality patient care. While competency in professionalism is Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-mandated, the methods used to evaluate professionalism are not standardized, calling into question the validity of reported measurements. We aimed to determine the type and frequency of methods used by United States (US) -based emergency medicine (EM) residencies to assess accountability (Acc) and professional values (PV), as well as how often graduating residents achieve competency in these areas. METHODS:We created a cross-sectional survey exploring assessment and perceived competency in Acc and PV, and then modified the survey for content and clarity through feedback from emergency physicians not involved in the study. The final survey was sent to the clinical competency committee (CCC) chair or program director (PD) of the 185 US-based ACGME-accredited EM residencies. We summarized results using descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact testing. RESULTS:A total of 121 programs (65.4%) completed the survey. The most frequently used methods of assessment were faculty shift evaluation (89.7%), CCC opinion (86.8%), and faculty summative evaluation (76.4%). Overall, 37% and 42% of residency programs stated that nearly all (greater than 95%) of their graduating residents achieve mastery of Acc and PV non-technical skills, respectively. Only 11.2% of respondents felt their programs were very effective at determining mastery of non-technical skills. CONCLUSION:EM residency programs relied heavily on faculty shift evaluations and summative opinions to determine resident competency in professionalism, with feedback from peers, administrators, and other staff less frequently incorporated. Few residency programs felt their current methods of evaluating professionalism were very effective.
Project description:Vague quantifiers used in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-International (ACGME-I) resident survey are open to interpretation, raising concerns about the validity of survey scores. Residency programs may be unduly cited if survey responses are affected by differing judgments of vague quantifiers.Through investigating frequency judgment overlap, we assessed the validity of vague quantifiers by quantifying variation in residents' frequency judgment of the following response options: never, rarely, sometimes, very often, and extremely often.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of residents in 2 ACGME-I accredited institutions in Singapore. Participants assigned a frequency judgment to response options in 8 questions in the ACGME-I Resident Survey. Overlap in frequency judgment was computed using the minimum and maximum frequency judgment for each response option. This was ascertained to have occurred when the maximum frequency of the preceding category exceeded the minimum frequency of the downstream categories. The percentage of participants whose frequency judgment overlapped was computed.Of 652 residents, 289 (44%) responded; after exclusions of incomplete and careless responses, 119 responses (18%) were included in the study. Frequency judgment overlap was more frequent for vague quantifiers that are adjacent, ranging from 11% to 50% for questions in faculty, evaluation, and resources domains. The percentage of frequency judgment overlap was greatest for duty hour questions, with an overlap between 21% and 47% for adjacent categories.Residents demonstrated wide variation in frequency judgment of vague quantifiers, especially on the duty hour questions in the ACGME-I resident survey.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sleepiness is a significant problem among residents due to chronic sleep deprivation. Recent studies have highlighted medical errors due to resident sleep deprivation. We hypothesized residents routinely use pharmacologic sleep aids to manage their sleep deprivation and reduce sleepiness.<h4>Methods</h4>A web-based survey of US allopathic Emergency Medicine (EM) residents was conducted during September 2004. All EM residency program directors were asked to invite their residents to participate. E-mail with reminders was used to solicit participation. Direct questions about use of alcohol and medications to facilitate sleep, and questions requesting details of sleep aids were included.<h4>Results</h4>Of 3,971 EM residents, 602 (16%) replied to the survey. Respondents were 71% male, 78% white, and mean (SD) age was 30 (4) years, which is similar to the entire EM resident population reported by the ACGME. There were 32% 1st year, 32% 2nd year, 28% 3rd year, and 8% 4th year residents. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) showed 38% of residents were excessively sleepy (ESS 11-16) and 7% were severely sleepy (ESS>16). 46% (95 CI 42%-50%) regularly used alcohol, antihistamines, sleep adjuncts, benzodiazepines, or muscle relaxants to help them fall or stay asleep. Study limitations include low response and self-report.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Even with a low response rate, sleep aid use among EM residents may be common. How this affects performance, well-being, and health remains unknown.
Project description:Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus for the medical education community, especially among learners in graduate medical education. In 2017 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) updated the Common Program Requirements to focus more on resident wellbeing. To address this issue, one working group from the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS) focused on wellness program innovations and initiatives in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs.Over a seven-month period leading up to the RWCS event, the Programmatic Initiatives workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online, resident community consisting of 142 residents from 100 EM residencies in North America. A 15-person subgroup (13 residents, two faculty facilitators) met at the RWCS to develop a public, central repository of initiatives for programs, as well as tools to assist programs in identifying gaps in their overarching wellness programs.An online submission form and central database of wellness initiatives were created and accessible to the public. Wellness Think Tank members collected an initial 36 submissions for the database by the time of the RWCS event. Based on general workplace, needs-assessment tools on employee wellbeing and Kern's model for curriculum development, a resident-based needs-assessment survey and an implementation worksheet were created to assist residency programs in wellness program development.The Programmatic Initiatives workgroup from the resident-driven RWCS event created tools to assist EM residency programs in identifying existing initiatives and gaps in their wellness programs to meet the ACGME's expanded focus on resident wellbeing.
Project description:PURPOSE:The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires all residency programs to provide increasing autonomy as residents progress through training, known as graded responsibility. However, there is little guidance on how to implement graded responsibility in practice and a paucity of literature on how it is currently implemented in emergency medicine (EM). We sought to determine how emergency medicine (EM) residency programs apply graded responsibility across a variety of activities and to identify which considerations are important in affording additional responsibilities to trainees. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of EM residency programs using a 23-question survey that was distributed by email to 162 ACGME-accredited EM program directors. Seven different domains of practice were queried. RESULTS:We received 91 responses (56.2% response rate) to the survey. Among all domains of practice except for managing critically ill medical patients, the use of graded responsibility exceeded 50% of surveyed programs. When graded responsibility was applied, post-graduate year (PGY) level was ranked an "extremely important" or "very important" consideration between 80.9% and 100.0% of the time. CONCLUSION:The majority of EM residency programs are implementing graded responsibility within most domains of practice. When decisions are made surrounding graded responsibility, programs still rely heavily on the time-based model of PGY level to determine advancement.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced milestones for Emergency Medicine (EM) in 2012. Clinical Competency Committees (CCC) are tasked with assessing residents on milestones and reporting them to the ACGME. Appropriate workflows for CCCs are not well defined.<h4>Objective</h4>Our objective was to compare different approaches to milestone assessment by a CCC, quantify resource requirements for each and to identify the most efficient workflow.<h4>Design</h4>Three distinct processes for rendering milestone assessments were compared: Full milestone assessments (FMA) utilizing all available resident assessment data, Ad-hoc milestone assessments (AMA) created by multiple expert educators using their personal assessment of resident performance, Self-assessments (SMA) completed by residents. FMA were selected as the theoretical gold standard. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to analyze for agreement between different assessment methods. Kendall's coefficient was used to assess the inter-rater agreement for the AMA.<h4>Results</h4>All 13 second-year residents and 7 educational faculty of an urban EM Residency Program participated in the study in 2013. Substantial or better agreement between FMA and AMA was seen for 8 of the 23 total subcompetencies (PC4, PC8, PC9, PC11, MK, PROF2, ICS2, SBP2), and for 1 subcompetency (SBP1) between FMA and SMA. Multiple AMA for individual residents demonstrated substantial or better interobserver agreement in 3 subcompetencies (PC1, PC2, and PROF2). FMA took longer to complete compared to AMA (80.9 vs. 5.3 min, p < 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Using AMA to evaluate residents on the milestones takes significantly less time than FMA. However, AMA and SMA agree with FMA on only 8 and 1 subcompetencies, respectively. An estimated 23.5 h of faculty time are required each month to fulfill the requirement for semiannual reporting for a residency with 42 trainees.