Substrate specificity and safener inducibility of the plant UDP-glucose-dependent family 1 glycosyltransferase super-family.
ABSTRACT: Plants contain large numbers of family 1 UDP-glucose-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), including members that conjugate xenobiotics. Arabidopsis contains 107 UGT genes with 99 family members successfully expressed as glutathione transferase (GST)-fusion proteins in E. coli. A high-throughput catalytic screen was developed based on quantification of the fusion by measuring GST activity. UGT activity using UDP-glucose as donor was then determined using 11 synthetic acceptors bearing hydroxyl, amino and thiol groups that had been shown to undergo conjugation in plant extracts. In total, 44 UGTs, largely members of the D and E groups, were active towards xenobiotics, glucosylating phenol and thiol acceptors. In contrast, N-glucosyltransferase (NGT) activity was almost exclusively restricted to a single enzyme, UGT72B1. Using DNA microarrays, the induction of UGT transcripts following treatment with the herbicide safener fenclorim was compared in Arabidopsis and rice. D and L group members were the most safener-inducible UGTs in both species. The respective Arabidopsis enzymes showed low conjugating activity towards xenobiotics. Using Genevestigator, a small group of safened D and L UGTs were consistently induced in response to biotic and abiotic stress suggestive of protective activities beyond xenobiotic detoxification in both species. The induction of other detoxifying gene families following treatment with fenclorim, namely cytochromes P450 and glutathione transferases, further confirmed the selective enhancement of related subfamily members in the two species giving new insight into the safening response in cereals, where herbicide tolerance is enhanced compared with dicots, which are unresponsive to these treatments.
Project description:The safener fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine) increases tolerance to chloroacetanilide herbicides in rice by enhancing the expression of detoxifying glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Fenclorim also enhances GSTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, and while investigating the functional significance of this induction in suspension cultures, we determined that these enzymes glutathionylated the safener. The resulting S-(fenclorim)-glutathione conjugate was sequentially processed to S-(fenclorim)-gamma-glutamyl-cysteine and S-(fenclorim)-cysteine (FC), the latter accumulating in both the cells and the medium. FC was then either catabolized to 4-chloro-6-(methylthio)-phenylpyrimidine (CMTP) or N-acylated with malonic acid. These cysteine derivatives had distinct fates, with the enzymes responsible for their formation being induced by fenclorim and FC. Fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine was formed from FC by the action of a malonyl-CoA-dependent N-malonyltransferase. A small proportion of the fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine then underwent decarboxylation to yield a putative S-fenclorim-N-acetylcysteine intermediate, which underwent a second round of GST-mediated S-glutathionylation and subsequent proteolytic processing. The formation of CMTP was catalyzed by the concerted action of a cysteine conjugate beta-lyase and an S-methyltransferase, with the two activities being coordinately regulated. Although the fenclorim conjugates tested showed little GST-inducing activity in Arabidopsis, the formation of CMTP resulted in metabolic reactivation, with the product showing good enhancing activity. In addition, CMTP induced GSTs and herbicide-safening activity in rice. The bioactivated CMTP was in turn glutathione-conjugated and processed to a malonyl cysteine derivative. These results reveal the surprisingly complex set of competing catabolic reactions acting on xenobiotics entering the S-glutathionylation pathway in plants, which can result in both detoxification and bioactivation.
Project description:Plants respond to synthetic chemicals by eliciting a xenobiotic response (XR) that enhances the expression of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione transferases (GSTs). In agrochemistry, the ability of safeners to induce an XR is used to increase herbicide detoxification in cereal crops. Based on the responsiveness of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to the rice safener fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine), a series of related derivatives was prepared and tested for the ability to induce GSTs in cell suspension cultures. The XR in Arabidopsis could be divided into rapid and slow types depending on subtle variations in the reactivity (electrophilicity) and chemical structure of the derivatives. In a comparative microarray study, Arabidopsis cultures were treated with closely related compounds that elicited rapid (fenclorim) and slow (4-chloro-6-methyl-2-phenylpyrimidine) XRs. Both chemicals induced major changes in gene expression, including a coordinated suppression in cell wall biosynthesis and an up-regulation in detoxification pathways, whereas only fenclorim selectively induced sulfur and phenolic metabolism. These transcriptome studies suggested several linkages between the XR and oxidative and oxylipin signaling. Confirming links with abiotic stress signaling, suppression of glutathione content enhanced GST induction by fenclorim, whereas fatty acid desaturase mutants, which were unable to synthesize oxylipins, showed an attenuated XR. Examining the significance of these studies to agrochemistry, only those fenclorim derivatives that elicited a rapid XR proved effective in increasing herbicide tolerance (safening) in rice.
Project description:Fenclorim is a commercial herbicide safener with fungicidal activity used for chloroacetanilide herbicides, which might be suitable as a lead compound for screening novel fungicides. However, little has been reported so far on the structure-activity relationship of fungicidal activities of fenclorim or its analogues. Here, a series of 4-chloro-6-substituted phenoxy-2-phenylpyrimidine derivatives was synthesized by a substructure splicing route using fenclorim as a lead compound. The structures of synthesized derivatives were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. Their fungicidal and herbicide safening activities were then evaluated. The results revealed that compound 11 had the best fungicidal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Thanatephorus cucumeris, which was better than that of the control pyrimethanil. Moreover, compounds 3, 5, and 25 exhibited excellent safening activities against fresh weight, plant height, and root length, respectively. Such activities were significantly improved when compared to fenclorim. In summary, these findings look promising for the preparation of new fungicides and herbicide safeners based on the structure of fenclorim.
Project description:In the title compound, C10H6Cl2N2 (systematic name: 4,6-di-chloro-2-phenyl-pyrimidine), which is used commercially as the herbicide safener, fenclorim, the dihedral angle between the di-chloro-pyrimidyl and phenyl rings is 9.45?(10)°. In the crystal, C-H?N hydrogen bonds link adjacent mol-ecules, forming chains along the c-axis direction. In addition, weak inter-molecular C-Cl?? [3.6185?(10)?Å] and ?-? [3.8796?(11)?Å] inter-actions are present, forming a three-dimensional network.
Project description:The herbicide safener fenclorim is used to protect rice from damage by the herbicide pretilachlor, whilst the structural analogue 4-chloro-6-methyl-2-phenylpyrimidine (CMP) is unable safen rice. Fenclorim and CMP were applied to rice cultures to determine differences in the transcriptional response to a safener and a non-active analogue at four and 24 hours. Rice N1 cell suspension cultures were treated with fenclorim or 4-chloro-6-methyl-2-phenylpyrimidine (CMP) dissolved in acetone to achieve a final concentration of 100uM. The final acetone concentration of 0.1% was replicated in control cell suspension cultures. Samples were taken at four and twenty-four hours post addition in biological triplicate. Suspension cultures were routinely maintained at 25 C in the dark.
Project description:Herbicide safeners protect cereal crops from herbicide injury by inducing genes and proteins involved in detoxification reactions, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s (P450s). Only a few studies have characterized gene or protein expression profiles for investigating plant responses to safener treatment in cereal crops, and most transcriptome analyses in response to safener treatments have been conducted in dicot model species that are not protected by safener from herbicide injury. In this study, three different approaches were utilized in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to investigate mechanisms involved in safener-regulated signaling pathways. An initial transcriptome analysis was performed to examine global gene expression in etiolated shoot tissues of hybrid grain sorghum following treatment with the sorghum safener, fluxofenim. Most upregulated transcripts encoded detoxification enzymes, including P450s, GSTs, and UDP-dependent glucosyltransferases (UGTs). Interestingly, several of these upregulated transcripts are similar to genes involved with the biosynthesis and recycling/catabolism of dhurrin, an important chemical defense compound, in these seedling tissues. Secondly, 761 diverse sorghum inbred lines were evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to determine key molecular-genetic factors governing safener-mediated signaling mechanisms and/or herbicide detoxification. GWAS revealed a significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with safener-induced response on chromosome 9, located within a phi-class SbGST gene and about 15-kb from a different phi-class SbGST. Lastly, the expression of these two candidate SbGSTs was quantified in etiolated shoot tissues of sorghum inbred BTx623 in response to fluxofenim treatment. SbGSTF1 and SbGSTF2 transcripts increased within 12-hr after fluxofenim treatment but the level of safener-induced expression differed between the two genes. In addition to identifying specific GSTs potentially involved in the safener-mediated detoxification pathway, this research elucidates a new direction for studying both constitutive and inducible mechanisms for chemical defense in cereal crop seedlings.
Project description:UDP-glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.x; UGTs) are enzymes coded by an important gene family of higher plants. They are involved in the modification of secondary metabolites, phytohormones, and xenobiotics by transfer of sugar moieties from an activated nucleotide molecule to a wide range of acceptors. This modification regulates various functions like detoxification of xenobiotics, hormone homeostasis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Here, we describe the identification of 96 UGT genes in Cicer arietinum (CaUGT) and report their tissue-specific differential expression based on publically available RNA-seq and expressed sequence tag data. This analysis has established medium to high expression of 84 CaUGTs and low expression of 12 CaUGTs. We identified several closely related orthologs of CaUGTs in other genomes and compared their exon-intron arrangement. An attempt was made to assign functional specificity to chickpea UGTs by comparing substrate binding sites with experimentally determined specificity. These findings will assist in precise selection of candidate genes for various applications and understanding functional genomics of chickpea.
Project description:Increased levels of bile acids (BAs) due to the various hepatic diseases could interfere with the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs, and endobiotics including steroid hormones. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are involved in the conjugation and elimination of many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The present study sought to investigate the potential for inhibition of UGT enzymes by BAs. The results showed that taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) exhibited the strongest inhibition toward UGTs, followed by lithocholic acid. Structure-UGT inhibition relationships of BAs were examined and in vitro-in vivo extrapolation performed by using in vitro inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) in combination with calculated in vivo levels of TLCA. Substitution of a hydrogen with a hydroxyl group in the R1, R3, R4, R5 sites of BAs significantly weakens their inhibition ability toward most UGTs. The in vivo inhibition by TLCA toward UGT forms was determined with following orders of potency: UGT1A4 > UGT2B7 > UGT1A3 > UGT1A1 ? UGT1A7 ? UGT1A10 ? UGT2B15. In conclusion, these studies suggest that disrupted homeostasis of BAs, notably taurolithocholic acid, found in various diseases such as cholestasis, could lead to altered metabolism of xenobiotics and endobiotics through inhibition of UGT enzymes.
Project description:SUMMARY:Uridine diphosphate (UDP) glycosyltransferases (UGTs) mediate the transfer of glycosyl residues from activated nucleotide sugars to acceptor molecules (aglycones), thus regulating properties of the acceptors such as their bioactivity, solubility and transport within the cell and throughout the organism. A superfamily of over 100 genes encoding UGTs, each containing a 42 amino acid consensus sequence, has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A phylogenetic analysis of the conserved amino acids encoded by these Arabidopsis genes reveals the presence of 14 distinct groups of UGTs in this organism. Genes encoding UGTs have also been identified in several other higher plant species. Very little is yet known about the regulation of plant UGT genes or the localization of the enzymes they encode at the cellular and subcellular levels. The substrate specificities of these UGTs are now beginning to be established and will provide a foundation for further analysis of this large enzyme superfamily as well as a platform for future biotechnological applications.