Identification of a biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyene macrolactam sceliphrolactam in a Streptomyces strain isolated from mangrove sediment.
ABSTRACT: Streptomyces are a genus of Actinobacteria capable of producing structurally diverse natural products. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a biosynthetically talented Streptomyces (Streptomyces sp. SD85) from tropical mangrove sediments. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that Streptomyces sp. SD85 harbors at least 52 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which constitute 21.2% of the 8.6-Mb genome. When cultivated under lab conditions, Streptomyces sp. SD85 produces sceliphrolactam, a 26-membered polyene macrolactam with unknown biosynthetic origin. Genome mining yielded a putative sceliphrolactam BGC (sce) that encodes a type I modular polyketide synthase (PKS) system, several ?-amino acid starter biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and transcriptional regulators. Using the CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout method, we demonstrated that the sce BGC is essential for sceliphrolactam biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, the PKS system encoded by sce is short of one module required for assembling the 26-membered macrolactam skeleton according to the collinearity rule. With experimental data disfavoring the involvement of a trans-PKS module, the biosynthesis of sceliphrolactam seems to be best rationalized by invoking a mechanism whereby the PKS system employs an iterative module to catalyze two successive chain extensions with different outcomes. The potential violation of the collinearity rule makes the mechanism distinct from those of other polyene macrolactams.
Project description:Antifungal HSAF (heat-stable antifungal factor, dihydromaltophilin) is a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam from the biocontrol agent Lysobacter enzymogenes. Its biosynthetic gene cluster contains only a single-module polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS), although two separate hexaketide chains are required to assemble the skeleton. To address the unusual biosynthetic mechanism, we expressed the biosynthetic genes in two "clean" strains of Streptomyces and showed the production of HSAF analogues and a polyene tetramate intermediate. We then expressed the PKS module in Escherichia coli and purified the enzyme. Upon incubation of the enzyme with acyl-coenzyme?A and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), a polyene was detected in the tryptic acyl carrier protein (ACP). Finally, we incubated the polyene-PKS with the NRPS module in the presence of ornithine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and we detected the same polyene tetramate as that in Streptomyces transformed with the PKS-NRPS alone. Together, our results provide evidence for an unusual iterative biosynthetic mechanism for bacterial polyketide-peptide natural products.
Project description:A new compound, designated ML-449, structurally similar to the known 20-membered macrolactam BE-14106, was isolated from a marine sediment-derived Streptomyces sp. Cloning and sequencing of the 83-kb ML-449 biosynthetic gene cluster revealed its high level of similarity to the BE-14106 gene cluster. Comparison of the respective biosynthetic pathways indicated that the difference in the compounds' structures stems from the incorporation of one extra acetate unit during the synthesis of the acyl side chain. A phylogenetic analysis of the beta-ketosynthase (KS) domains from polyketide synthases involved in the biosynthesis of macrolactams pointed to a common ancestry for the two clusters. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrated the formation of a macrolactam-specific subclade for the majority of the KS domains from several macrolactam-biosynthetic gene clusters, indicating a closer relationship between macrolactam clusters than with the macrolactone clusters included in the analysis. Some KS domains from the ML-449, BE-14106, and salinilactam gene clusters did, however, show a closer relationship with KS domains from the polyene macrolide clusters, suggesting potential acquisition rather than duplication of certain PKS genes. Comparison of the ML-449, BE-14106, vicenistatin, and salinilactam biosynthetic gene clusters indicated an evolutionary relationship between them and provided new insights into the processes governing the evolution of small-ring macrolactam biosynthesis.
Project description:Marine streptomycetes are rich sources of natural products with novel structures and interesting biological activities, and genome mining of marine streptomycetes facilitates rapid discovery of their useful products. In this study, a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. M10 was revealed to share a 99.02% 16S rDNA sequence identity with that of Streptomyces marokkonensis Ap1T, and was thus named S.?marokkonensis M10. To further evaluate its biosynthetic potential, the 7,207,169?bps of S.?marokkonensis M10 genome was sequenced. Genomic sequence analysis for potential secondary metabolite-associated gene clusters led to the identification of at least three polyketide synthases (PKSs), six non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs), one hybrid NRPS-PKS, two lantibiotic and five terpene biosynthetic gene clusters. One type I PKS gene cluster was revealed to share high nucleotide similarity with the candicidin/FR008 gene cluster, indicating the capacity of this microorganism to produce polyene macrolides. This assumption was further verified by isolation of two polyene family compounds PF1 and PF2, which have the characteristic UV adsorption at 269, 278, 290?nm (PF1) and 363, 386 and 408?nm (PF2), respectively. S.?marokkonensis M10 is therefore a new source of polyene metabolites. Further studies on S.?marokkonensis M10 will provide more insights into natural product biosynthesis potential of related streptomycetes. This is also the first report to describe the genome sequence of S.?marokkonensis-related strain.
Project description:Using an established CRISPR-Cas mediated genome editing technique for streptomycetes, we explored the combinatorial biosynthesis potential of the auroramycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces roseosporous. Auroramycin is a potent anti-MRSA polyene macrolactam. In addition, auroramycin has antifungal activities, which is unique among structurally similar polyene macrolactams, such as incednine and silvalactam. In this work, we employed different engineering strategies to target glycosylation and acylation biosynthetic machineries within its recently elucidated biosynthetic pathway. Auroramycin analogs with variations in C-, N- methylation, hydroxylation and extender units incorporation were produced and characterized. By comparing the bioactivity profiles of five of these analogs, we determined that unique disaccharide motif of auroramycin is essential for its antimicrobial bioactivity. We further demonstrated that C-methylation of the 3, 5-epi-lemonose unit, which is unique among structurally similar polyene macrolactams, is key to its antifungal activity.
Project description:Polyene macrolides are important antibiotics used to treat fungal infections in humans. In this work, acyltransferase (AT) domain swaps, mutagenesis, and cross-complementation with heterologous polyketide synthase domain (PKS) loading modules were performed in order to facilitate production of new analogues of the polyene macrolide nystatin. Replacement of AT(0) in the nystatin PKS loading module NysA with the propionate-specific AT(1) from the nystatin PKS NysB, construction of hybrids between NysA and the loading module of rimocidin PKS RimA, and stepwise exchange of specific amino acids in the AT(0) domain by site-directed mutagenesis were accomplished. However, none of the NysA mutants constructed was able to initiate production of new nystatin analogues. Nevertheless, many NysA mutants and hybrids were functional, providing for different levels of nystatin biosynthesis. An interplay between certain residues in AT(0) and an active site residue in the ketosynthase (KS)-like domain of NysA in initiation of nystatin biosynthesis was revealed. Some hybrids between the NysA and RimA loading modules carrying the NysA AT(0) domain were able to prime rimocidin PKS with both acetate and butyrate units upon complementation of a rimA-deficient mutant of the rimocidin/CE-108 producer Streptomyces diastaticus. Expression of the PimS0 loading module from the pimaricin producer in the same host, however, resulted in production of CE-108 only. Taken together, these data indicate relaxed substrate specificity of NysA AT(0) domain, which is counteracted by a strict specificity of the first extender module KS domain in the nystatin PKS of Streptomyces noursei.
Project description:The genus <i>Streptomyces</i> is known to harbor numerous biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of potential utility in synthetic biology applications. However, it is often difficult to link uncharacterized BGCs with the secondary metabolites they produce. Proteomining refers to the strategy of identifying active BGCs by correlating changes in protein expression with the production of secondary metabolites of interest. In this study, we devised a shotgun proteomics-based workflow to identify active BGCs during fermentation when a variety of compounds are being produced. Mycelia harvested during the non-producing growth phase served as the background. Proteins that were differentially expressed were clustered based on the proximity of the genes in the genome to highlight active BGCs systematically from label-free quantitative proteomics data. Our software tool is easy-to-use and requires only 1 point of comparison where natural product biosynthesis was significantly different. We tested our proteomining clustering method on three <i>Streptomyces</i> species producing different compounds. In <i>Streptomyces coelicolor</i> A3(2), we detected the BGCs of calcium-dependent antibiotic, actinorhodin, undecylprodigiosin, and coelimycin P1. In <i>Streptomyces chrestomyceticus</i> BCC24770, 7 BGCs were identified. Among them, we independently re-discovered the type II PKS for albofungin production previously identified by genome mining and tedious heterologous expression experiments. In <i>Streptomyces tenebrarius</i>, 5 BGCs were detected, including the known apramycin and tobramycin BGC as well as a newly discovered caerulomycin A BGC in this species. The production of caerulomycin A was confirmed by LC-MS and the inactivation of the caerulomycin A BGC surprisingly had a significant impact on the secondary metabolite regulation of <i>S. tenebrarius</i>. In conclusion, we developed an unbiased, high throughput proteomics-based method to complement genome mining methods for the identification of biosynthetic pathways in <i>Streptomyces</i> sp.
Project description:A combination of small molecule chemistry, biosynthetic analysis, and genome mining has revealed the unexpected conservation of polycyclic tetramate macrolactam biosynthetic loci in diverse bacteria. Initially our chemical analysis of a Streptomyces strain associated with the southern pine beetle led to the discovery of frontalamides A and B, two previously undescribed members of this antibiotic family. Genome analyses and genetic manipulation of the producing organism led to the identification of the frontalamide biosynthetic gene cluster and several biosynthetic intermediates. The biosynthetic locus for the frontalamides' mixed polyketide/amino acid structure encodes a hybrid polyketide synthase nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS), which resembles iterative enzymes known in fungi. No such mixed iterative PKS-NRPS enzymes have been characterized in bacteria. Genome-mining efforts revealed strikingly conserved frontalamide-like biosynthetic clusters in the genomes of phylogenetically diverse bacteria ranging from proteobacteria to actinomycetes. Screens for environmental actinomycete isolates carrying frontalamide-like biosynthetic loci led to the isolation of a number of positive strains, the majority of which produced candidate frontalamide-like compounds under suitable growth conditions. These results establish the prevalence of frontalamide-like gene clusters in diverse bacterial types, with medicinally important Streptomyces species being particularly enriched.
Project description:Fungal polyketide synthase (PKS)-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) hybrids are key enzymes for synthesizing structurally diverse hybrid natural products (NPs) with characteristic biological activities. Predicting their chemical space is of particular importance in the field of natural product chemistry. However, the unexplored programming rule of the PKS module has prevented prediction of its chemical structure based on amino acid sequences. Here, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 884 PKS-NRPS hybrids and a modification enzyme analysis of the corresponding biosynthetic gene cluster, revealing a hidden relationship between its genealogy and core structures. This unexpected result allowed us to predict 18 biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) groups producing known carbon skeletons (number of BGCs; 489) and 11 uncharacterized BGC groups (171). The limited number of carbon skeletons suggests that fungi tend to select PK skeletons for survival during their evolution. The possible involvement of a horizontal gene transfer event leading to the diverse distribution of PKS-NRPS genes among fungal species is also proposed. This study provides insight into the chemical space of fungal PKs and the distribution of their biosynthetic gene clusters.
Project description:Microbial-based eco-friendly biological substances are needed to protect crops from phytopathogenic fungi and replace toxic chemical fungicides that cause serious environmental issues. This study screened for soil antifungal <i>Streptomyces</i> strains, which produce rich, diverse, and valuable bioactive metabolites in the soil environment. Bioassay-based antifungal screening of approximately 2,400 <i>Streptomyces</i> strains led to the isolation of 149 strains as tentative antifungal producers. One <i>Streptomyces</i> strain showing the most potent antifungal activities against <i>Candida albicans</i> and <i>Fusarium oxysporum</i> was identified as a putative anti-phytopathogenic soil isolate that is highly homologous to <i>Streptomyces rubrisoli</i> (named <i>S. rubrisoli</i> Inha 501). An <i>in vitro</i> antifungal assay, pot-test, and field-test against various phytopathogenic fungi confirmed that <i>S. rubrisoli</i> Inha 501 is a potential novel phytopathogenic fungicide producer to protect various crops in the soil environment. Whole-genome sequencing of <i>S. rubrisoli</i> Inha 501 and an anti-SMASH genome mining approach revealed an approximately 150-kb polyene biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) in the chromosome. The target compound isolation and its BGC analysis confirmed that the giant linear polyene compound exhibiting the anti-phytopathogenic activity in <i>S. rubrisoli</i> Inha 501 was highly homologous to the previously reported compound, neotetrafibricin A. These results suggest that a bioassay-based screening of a novel antifungal <i>Streptomyces</i> strain followed by its genome mining for target compound BGC characterization would be an efficient approach to isolating a novel candidate phytopathogenic fungicide that can protect crops in the soil environment.
Project description:Actinosynnema is a small but well-known genus of actinomycetes for production of ansamitocin, the payload component of antibody-drug conjugates against cancers. However, the secondary metabolite production profile of Actinosynnema pretiosum ATCC 31565, the most famous producer of ansamitocin, has never been fully explored. Our antiSMASH analysis of the genomic DNA of Actinosynnema pretiosum ATCC 31565 revealed a NRPS-PKS gene cluster for polyene macrolactam. The gene cluster is very similar to gene clusters for mirilactam and salinilactam, two 26-membered polyene macrolactams from Actinosynnema mirum and Salinispora tropica, respectively. Guided by this bioinformatics prediction, we characterized a novel 26-membered polyene macrolactam from Actinosynnema pretiosum ATCC 31565 and designated it pretilactam. The structure of pretilactam was elucidated by a comprehensive analysis of HRMS, 1D and 2D-NMR, with absolute configuration of chiral carbons predicted bioinformatically. Pretilactam features a dihydroxy tetrahydropyran moiety, and has a hexaene unit and a diene unit as its polyene system. A preliminary antibacterial assay indicated that pretilactam is inactive against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans.