Highly-efficient quantum memory for polarization qubits in a spatially-multiplexed cold atomic ensemble.
ABSTRACT: Quantum memory for flying optical qubits is a key enabler for a wide range of applications in quantum information. A critical figure of merit is the overall storage and retrieval efficiency. So far, despite the recent achievements of efficient memories for light pulses, the storage of qubits has suffered from limited efficiency. Here we report on a quantum memory for polarization qubits that combines an average conditional fidelity above 99% and efficiency around 68%, thereby demonstrating a reversible qubit mapping where more information is retrieved than lost. The qubits are encoded with weak coherent states at the single-photon level and the memory is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency in an elongated laser-cooled ensemble of cesium atoms, spatially multiplexed for dual-rail storage. This implementation preserves high optical depth on both rails, without compromise between multiplexing and storage efficiency. Our work provides an efficient node for future tests of quantum network functionalities and advanced photonic circuits.
Project description:Ensembles of solid-state optical emitters enable broadband quantum storage and transduction of photonic qubits, with applications in high-rate quantum networks for secure communications and interconnecting future quantum computers. To transfer quantum states using ensembles, rephasing techniques are used to mitigate fast decoherence resulting from inhomogeneous broadening, but these techniques generally limit the bandwidth, efficiency and active times of the quantum interface. Here, we use a dense ensemble of neodymium rare-earth ions strongly coupled to a nanophotonic resonator to demonstrate a significant cavity protection effect at the single-photon level-a technique to suppress ensemble decoherence due to inhomogeneous broadening. The protected Rabi oscillations between the cavity field and the atomic super-radiant state enable ultra-fast transfer of photonic frequency qubits to the ions (?50?GHz bandwidth) followed by retrieval with 98.7% fidelity. With the prospect of coupling to other long-lived rare-earth spin states, this technique opens the possibilities for broadband, always-ready quantum memories and fast optical-to-microwave transducers.
Project description:Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low.
Project description:Donor spins in silicon are highly competitive qubits for upcoming quantum technologies, offering complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatibility, coherence (T2) times of minutes to hours, and simultaneous initialization, manipulation, and readout fidelities near ~99.9%. This allows for many quantum error correction protocols, which will be essential for scale-up. However, a proven method of reliably coupling spatially separated donor qubits has yet to be identified. We present a scalable silicon-based platform using the unique optical properties of "deep" chalcogen donors. For the prototypical 77Se+ donor, we measure lower bounds on the transition dipole moment and excited-state lifetime, enabling access to the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics using known silicon photonic resonator technology and integrated silicon photonics. We also report relatively strong photon emission from this same transition. These results unlock clear pathways for silicon-based quantum computing, spin-to-photon conversion, photonic memories, integrated single-photon sources, and all-optical switches.
Project description:The ability to manipulate quantum states of light by integrated devices may open new perspectives both for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and for novel technological applications. However, the technology for handling polarization-encoded qubits, the most commonly adopted approach, is still missing in quantum optical circuits. Here we demonstrate the first integrated photonic controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate for polarization-encoded qubits. This result has been enabled by the integration, based on femtosecond laser waveguide writing, of partially polarizing beam splitters on a glass chip. We characterize the logical truth table of the quantum gate demonstrating its high fidelity to the expected one. In addition, we show the ability of this gate to transform separable states into entangled ones and vice versa. Finally, the full accessibility of our device is exploited to carry out a complete characterization of the CNOT gate through a quantum process tomography.
Project description:An optical quantum memory is a stationary device that is capable of storing and recreating photonic qubits with a higher fidelity than any classical device. Thus far, these two requirements have been fulfilled for polarization qubits in systems based on cold atoms and cryogenically cooled crystals. Here, we report a room-temperature memory capable of storing arbitrary polarization qubits with a signal-to-background ratio higher than 1 and an average fidelity surpassing the classical benchmark for weak laser pulses containing 1.6 photons on average, without taking into account non-unitary operation. Our results demonstrate that a common vapor cell can reach the low background noise levels necessary for polarization qubit storage using single-photon level light, and propels atomic-vapor systems towards a level of functionality akin to other quantum information processing architectures.
Project description:Teleportation of unitary operations can be viewed as a quantum remote control. The remote realization of robust multiqubit logic gates among distant long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum computation and quantum information processing. Here we propose a simple and deterministic scheme for teleportation of a Toffoli gate among three spatially separated electron spin qubits in optical microcavities by using local linear optical operations, an auxiliary electron spin, two circularly-polarized entangled photon pairs, photon measurements, and classical communication. We assess the feasibility of the scheme and show that the scheme can be achieved with high average fidelity under the current technology. The scheme opens promising perspectives for constructing long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation networks with solid-state qubits.
Project description:Electronic spins in different environments are currently investigated as potential qubits, i.e. the logic units of quantum computers. These have to retain memory of their quantum state for a sufficiently long time (phase memory time, Tm) allowing quantum operations to be performed. For molecular based spin qubits, strategies to increase phase coherence by removing nuclear spins are rather well developed, but it is now crucial to address the problem of the rapid increase of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, T1-1, with increasing temperature that hampers their use at room-temperature. Herein, thanks to the combination of pulsed EPR spectroscopy and AC susceptometry we evidence that an evaporable vanadyl complex of formula VO(dpm)2, where dpm- is the anion of dipivaloylmethane, presents a combination of very promising features for potential application as molecular spin-qubit. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, studied in detail through AC susceptometry, decreases slowly with increasing temperature and, more surprisingly, it is not accelerated by the application of an external field up to several Teslas. State-of-the art phase memory times for molecular spin systems in protiated environment are detected by pulsed EPR also in moderate dilution, with values of 2.7 ?s at 5 K and 2.1 ?s at 80 K. Low temperature scanning tunnel microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in situ investigations reveal that intact molecules sublimated in ultra-high vacuum spontaneously form an ordered monolayer on Au(111), opening the perspective of electric access to the quantum memory of ensembles of spin qubits that can be scaled down to the single molecule.
Project description:Hybrid architectures, consisting of conventional and topological qubits, have recently attracted much attention due to their capability in consolidating robustness of topological qubits and universality of conventional qubits. However, these two kinds of qubits are normally constructed in significantly different energy scales, and thus the energy mismatch is a major obstacle for their coupling, which can support the exchange of quantum information between them. Here we propose a microwave photonic quantum bus for a strong direct coupling between the topological and conventional qubits, where the energy mismatch is compensated by an external driving field. In the framework of tight-binding simulation and perturbation approach, we show that the energy splitting of Majorana fermions in a finite length nanowire, which we use to define topological qubits, is still robust against local perturbations due to the topology of the system. Therefore, the present scheme realizes a rather robust interface between the flying and topological qubits. Finally, we demonstrate that this quantum bus can also be used to generate multipartitie entangled states with the topological qubits.
Project description:The ability to maintain coherence and control in a qubit is a major requirement for quantum computation. We show theoretically that long coherence times can be achieved at easily accessible temperatures (such as boiling point of liquid helium) in small (i.e., ~10?nanometers) charge qubits of oxide double quantum dots when only optical phonons are the source of decoherence. In the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling and in the non-adiabatic region, we employ a duality transformation to make the problem tractable and analyze the dynamics through a non-Markovian quantum master equation. We find that the system decoheres after a long time, despite the fact that no energy is exchanged with the bath. Detuning the dots to a fraction of the optical phonon energy, increasing the electron-phonon coupling, reducing the adiabaticity, or decreasing the temperature enhances the coherence time.
Project description:There is an urgent quest for room-temperature qubits in nanometer-sized, ultrasmall nanocrystals for quantum biosensing, hyperpolarization of biomolecules, and quantum information processing. Thus far, the preparation of such qubits at the nanoscale has remained futile. Here, we present a synthesis method that avoids any interaction of the solid with high-energy particles and uses self-propagated high-temperature synthesis with a subsequent electrochemical method, the no-photon exciton generation chemistry to produce room-temperature qubits in ultrasmall nanocrystals of sizes down to 3 nm with high yield. We first create the host silicon carbide (SiC) crystallites by high-temperature synthesis and then apply wet chemical etching, which results in ultrasmall SiC nanocrystals and facilitates the creation of thermally stable defect qubits in the material. We demonstrate room-temperature optically detected magnetic resonance signal of divacancy qubits with 3.5% contrast from these nanoparticles with emission wavelengths falling in the second biological window (1000-1380 nm). These results constitute the formation of nonperturbative bioagents for quantum sensing and efficient hyperpolarization.