Prostaglandin receptors induce urothelial tumourigenesis as well as bladder cancer progression and cisplatin resistance presumably via modulating PTEN expression.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:We investigated the role of prostaglandin receptors (e.g. prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2), EP4) and the efficacy of celecoxib in urothelial tumourigenesis and cancer progression. METHODS:We performed immunohistochemistry in bladder cancer (BC) tissue microarrays, in vitro transformation assay in a normal urothelial SVHUC line, and western blot/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/cell growth assays in BC lines. RESULTS:EP2/EP4 expression was elevated in BCs compared with non-neoplastic urothelial tissues and in BCs from those who were resistant to cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Strong positivity of EP2/EP4 in non-muscle-invasive tumours or positivity of EP2/EP4 in muscle-invasive tumours strongly correlated with disease progression or disease-specific mortality, respectively. In SVHUC cells, exposure to a chemical carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene considerably increased and decreased the expression of EP2/EP4 and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), respectively. Treatment with selective EP2/EP4 antagonist or celecoxib also resulted in prevention in 3-methylcholanthrene-induced neoplastic transformation of SVHUC cells. In BC lines, EP2/EP4 antagonists and celecoxib effectively inhibited cell viability and migration, as well as augmented PTEN expression. Furthermore, these drugs enhanced the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in BC cells. EP2/EP4 and PTEN were also elevated and reduced, respectively, in cisplatin-resistant BC sublines. CONCLUSIONS:EP2/EP4 activation correlates with induction of urothelial cancer initiation and outgrowth, as well as chemoresistance, presumably via downregulating PTEN expression.
Project description:The effective antitumorigenic potential of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and eicosonoid (EP; EP1-4) receptor antagonists prompted us to test their efficacy in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lymphomas. Our study demonstrated that (1) EP1-4 receptor protein levels vary among the various non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cell lines tested (BCBL-1:KSHV+/EBV-;BC-3: KSHV+/EBV-; Akata/EBV+: KSHV-/EBV+; and JSC-1 cells: KSHV+/EBV + cells); (2) 5.0 ?M of EP1 antagonist (SC-51322) had a significant antiproliferative effect on BCBL-1, BC-3, Akata/EBV+, and JSC-1 cells; (3) 50.0 ?M of EP2 antagonist (AH6809) was required to induce a significant antiproliferative effect on BCBL-1, Akata/EBV+, and JSC-1 cells; (4) 5.0 ?M of EP4 antagonist (GW 627368X) had a significant antiproliferative effect on BC-3, Akata/EBV+, and JSC-1 cells; (5) COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib (5.0 ?M) had significant antiproliferative effects on BCBL-1, BC-3, Akata/EBV+, and JSC-1 cells; and (6) a combination of 1.0 ?M each of celecoxib, SC-51322 and GW 627368X could potentiate the proapoptotic properties of celecoxib or vice-versa. Overall, our studies identified the synergistic antiproliferative effect of NSAIDs and EP receptor blockers on KSHV and EBV related B cell malignancies.
Project description:We investigated the functional role of ATF2, a transcription factor normally activated via its phosphorylation in response to phospho-ERK/MAPK signals, in the outgrowth of urothelial cancer. In both neoplastic and non-neoplastic urothelial cells, the expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) correlated with those of phospho-ATF2. Dihydrotestosterone treatment in AR-positive bladder cancer cells also induced the expression of phospho-ATF2 and phospho-ERK as well as nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of ATF2. Meanwhile, ATF2 knockdown via shRNA resulted in significant decreases in cell viability, migration and invasion of AR-positive bladder cancer lines, but not AR-negative lines, as well as significant increases and decreases in apoptosis or G0/G1 cell cycle phase and S or G2/M phase, respectively. Additionally, the growth of AR-positive tumors expressing ATF2-shRNA in xenograft-bearing mice was retarded, compared with that of control tumors. ATF2 knockdown also resulted in significant inhibition of neoplastic transformation induced by a chemical carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene, as well as the expression of Bcl-2/cyclin-A2/cyclin-D1/JUN/MMP-2, in immortalized human normal urothelial SVHUC cells stably expressing AR, but not AR-negative SVHUC cells. Finally, immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens demonstrated significant elevation of ATF2/phospho-ATF2/phospho-ERK expression in bladder tumors, compared with non-neoplastic urothelial tissues. Multivariate analysis further showed that moderate/strong ATF2 expression and phospho-ATF2 positivity were independent predictors for recurrence of low-grade tumors (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.956, P = 0.045) and cancer-specific mortality of muscle-invasive tumors (HR = 5.317, P = 0.012), respectively. Thus, ATF2 appears to be activated in urothelial cells through the AR pathway and promotes the development and progression of urothelial cancer.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) triggers pro-inflammatory processes that can aggravate neuronal degeneration and functional impairments in many neurological conditions, mainly via producing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that activates four membrane receptors, EP1-EP4. However, which EP receptor is the culprit of COX-2/PGE2-mediated neuronal inflammation and degeneration remains largely unclear and presumably depends on the insult types and responding components. Herein, we demonstrated that COX-2 was induced and showed nuclear translocation in two neuronal cell lines - mouse Neuro-2a and human SH-SY5Y - after treatment with neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), leading to the biosynthesis of PGE2 and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1?. Inhibiting COX-2 or microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 suppressed the 6-OHDA-triggered PGE2 production in these cells. Treatment with PGE2 or EP2 selective agonist butaprost, but not EP4 agonist CAY10598, increased cAMP response in both cell lines. PGE2-initiated cAMP production in these cells was blocked by our recently developed novel selective EP2 antagonists - TG4-155 and TG6-10-1, but not by EP4 selective antagonist GW627368X. The 6-OHDA-promoted cytotoxicity was largely blocked by TG4-155, TG6-10-1 or COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib, but not by GW627368X. Our results suggest that PGE2 receptor EP2 is a key mediator of COX-2 activity-initiated cAMP signaling in Neuro-2a and SH-SY5Y cells following 6-OHDA treatment, and contributes to oxidopamine-mediated neurotoxicity.
Project description:Associations between growth factor receptor-mediated cell signaling and cancer cell growth have been previously characterized. Receptors for prostaglandin E2, such as EP2, and EP4, play roles in cancer growth, progression and invasion. Thus, we examined the interactions between EP2/EP4- and IGF-1R-mediated cellular signaling in human pancreatic cancer cells. Selective antagonists against EP2 and EP4 abrogated IGF-1-stimulated cell growth and suppressed MEK/ERK phosphorylation. In subsequent experiments, phospho-antibody arrays indicated increased phosphorylation levels of protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) at the Thr538 position following the inhibition of EP2/EP4-mediated signaling. Inhibition of PKC-? activity impaired cell viability compared with EP2/EP4-antagonized IGF-1-stimulated cells. PKC-? kinase MAP4K3, which plays a pivotal role in PKC-? activation, also affected growth signaling in the presence of EP2/EP4 antagonists. Administration of EP2 and EP4 antagonists significantly inhibited the growth of an orthotopic xenograft of IGF-1-secreting pancreatic cancer cells, with increased phospho-PKC-? and decreased phospho-ERK. Clinico-pathological analyses showed that 17.4% of surgical pancreatic cancer specimens were quadruple-positive for IGF-1R, EP2 (or EP4), MAP4K3, and PKC-?. These results indicate a novel signaling crosstalk between EP2/EP4 and IGF-1R in cancer cells, and suggest that the MAP4K3-PKC-? axis is central and could be exploited as a molecular target for cancer therapy.
Project description:Prostaglandin (PG) E(2), a major product of activated macrophages, has been implicated in atherosclerosis and plaque rupture. The PGE(2) receptors, EP2 and EP4, are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions and are known to inhibit apoptosis in cancer cells. To examine the roles of macrophage EP4 and EP2 in apoptosis and early atherosclerosis, fetal liver cell transplantation was used to generate LDLR(-/-) mice chimeric for EP2(-/-) or EP4(-/-) hematopoietic cells. After 8 weeks on a Western diet, EP4(-/-) --> LDLR(-/-) mice, but not EP2(-/-) --> LDLR(-/-) mice, had significantly reduced aortic atherosclerosis with increased apoptotic cells in the lesions. EP4(-/-) peritoneal macrophages had increased sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli, including palmitic acid and free cholesterol loading, which was accompanied by suppression of activity of p-Akt, p-Bad, and NF-kappaB-regulated genes. Thus, EP4 deficiency inhibits the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways compromising macrophage survival and suppressing early atherosclerosis, identifying macrophage EP4-signaling pathways as molecular targets for modulating the development of atherosclerosis.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced under inflammatory conditions, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the products of COX activity. PGE2 has pleiotropic actions depending on the activation of specific E-type prostanoid EP1-4 receptors. We investigated the involvement of PGE2 and EP receptors in glial activation in response to an inflammatory challenge induced by LPS.Cultures of mouse microglia or astroglia cells were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of COX-2 inhibitors, and the production of PGE2 was measured by ELISA. Cells were treated with PGE2, and the effect on LPS-induced expression of TNF-α messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was studied in the presence or absence of drug antagonists of the four EP receptors. EP receptor expression and the effects of EP2 and EP4 agonists and antagonists were studied at different time points after LPS.PGE2 production after LPS was COX-2-dependent. PGE2 reduced the glial production of TNF-α after LPS. Microglia expressed higher levels of EP4 and EP2 mRNA than astroglia. Activation of EP4 or EP2 receptors with selective drug agonists attenuated LPS-induced TNF-α in microglia. However, only antagonizing EP4 prevented the PGE2 effect demonstrating that EP4 was the main target of PGE2 in naïve microglia. Moreover, the relative expression of EP receptors changed during the course of classical microglial activation since EP4 expression was strongly depressed while EP2 increased 24 h after LPS and was detected in nuclear/peri-nuclear locations. EP2 regulated the expression of iNOS, NADPH oxidase-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor. NADPH oxidase-2 and iNOS activities require the oxidation of NADPH, and the pentose phosphate pathway is a main source of NADPH. LPS increased the mRNA expression of the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose pathway glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and EP2 activity was involved in this effect.These results show that while selective activation of EP4 or EP2 exerts anti-inflammatory actions, EP4 is the main target of PGE2 in naïve microglia. The level of EP receptor expression changes from naïve to primed microglia where the COX-2/PGE2/EP2 axis modulates important adaptive metabolic changes.
Project description:Current non-invasive approaches for detection of urothelial cancers are suboptimal. We developed a test to detect urothelial neoplasms using DNA recovered from cells shed into urine. UroSEEK incorporates massive parallel sequencing assays for mutations in 11 genes and copy number changes on 39 chromosome arms. In 570 patients at risk for bladder cancer (BC), UroSEEK was positive in 83% of those who developed BC. Combined with cytology, UroSEEK detected 95% of patients who developed BC. Of 56 patients with upper tract urothelial cancer, 75% tested positive by UroSEEK, including 79% of those with non-invasive tumors. UroSEEK detected genetic abnormalities in 68% of urines obtained from BC patients under surveillance who demonstrated clinical evidence of recurrence. The advantages of UroSEEK over cytology were evident in low-grade BCs; UroSEEK detected 67% of cases whereas cytology detected none. These results establish the foundation for a new non-invasive approach for detection of urothelial cancer.
Project description:Although the essential role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in fracture healing is known, the targeted genes and molecular pathways remain unclear. Using prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP)2 and EP4 agonists, we examined the effects of EP receptor activation in compensation for the lack of COX-2 during fracture healing. In a fracture-healing model, COX-2(-/-) mice showed delayed initiation and impaired endochondral bone repair, accompanied by a severe angiogenesis deficiency. The EP4 agonist markedly improved the impaired healing in COX-2(-/-) mice, as evidenced by restoration of bony callus formation on day 14, a near complete reversal of bone formation, and an approximately 70% improvement of angiogenesis in the COX-2(-/-) callus. In comparison, the EP2 agonist only marginally enhanced bone formation in COX-2(-/-) mice. To determine the differential roles of EP2 and EP4 receptors on COX-2-mediated fracture repair, the effects of selective EP agonists on chondrogenesis were examined in E11.5 long-term limb bud micromass cultures. Only the EP4 agonist significantly increased cartilage nodule formation similar to that observed during prostaglandin E2 treatment. The prostaglandin E2/EP4 agonist also stimulated MMP-9 expression in bone marrow stromal cell cultures. The EP4 agonist further restored the reduction of MMP-9 expression in the COX-2(-/-) fracture callus. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that EP2 and EP4 have differential functions during endochondral bone repair. Activation of EP4, but not EP2 rescued impaired bone fracture healing in COX-2(-/-) mice.
Project description:Since invasive bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most lethal urological malignant tumors worldwide, understanding the molecular mechanisms that trigger the migration, invasion, and metastasis of BC has great significance in reducing the mortality of this disease. Although RelA/p65, a member of the NF-kappa B transcription factor family, has been reported to be upregulated in human BCs, its regulation of BC motility and mechanisms have not been explored yet.NF-κBp65 expression was evaluated in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-induced high invasive BCs by immunohistochemistry staining and in human BC cell lines demonstrated by Western Blot. The effects of NF-κBp65 knockdown on BC cell migration and invasion, as well as its regulated RhoGDIα and FBW7, were also evaluated in T24T cells by using loss- and gain-function approaches. Moreover, the interaction of FBW7 with RhoGDIα was determined with immunoprecipitation assay, while critical role of ubiquitination of RhoGDIα by FBW7 was also demonstrated in the studies.p65 protein was remarkably upregulated in the BBN-induced high invasive BCs and in human BC cell lines. We also observed that p65 overexpression promoted BC cell migration by inhibiting RhoGDIα expression. The regulatory effect of p65 on RhoGDIα expression is mediated by its upregulation of FBW7, which specifically interacted with RhoGDIα and promoted RhoGDIα ubiquitination and degradation. Mechanistic studies revealed that p65 stabilizing the E3 ligase FBW7 protein was mediated by its attenuating pten mRNA transcription.We demonstrate that p65 overexpression inhibits pten mRNA transcription, which stabilizes the protein expression of ubiquitin E3 ligase FBW7, in turn increasing the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoGDIα protein and finally promoting human BC migration. The novel identification of p65/PTEN/FBW7/RhoGDIα axis provides a significant insight into understanding the nature of BC migration, further offering a new theoretical support for cancer therapy.
Project description:Prostaglandins, PGE(2) in particular, have diverse actions on various organs, including inflammation, bone healing, bone formation, embryo implantation, induction of labour and vasodilatation, among others. However, systemic side effects have limited their clinical utility. The pharmacological activities of PGE(2) are mediated through four G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, EP1-EP4. Recent studies have shown that EP2 and EP4 receptors play important roles in regulating bone formation and resorption. EP2 and EP4 receptor-selective agonists have been shown to stimulate local or systemic bone formation, augment bone mass and accelerate the healing of fractures or bone defects in animal models upon local or systemic administration, thus, potentially offering new therapeutic options for enhancing bone formation and bone repair in humans. This review will focus on the studies related to bone formation and bone healing in the EP receptor knockout (KO) mice and the EP2 or EP4 receptor-selective agonist treated animal models.