Patient-centred attitudes among medical students in Mali, West Africa: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:Patient-centred attitudes have been shown to decline during medical training in high-income countries, yet little is known about attitudes among West African medical students. We sought to measure student attitudes towards patient-centredness and examine validity of the 18-item Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS) in this context. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING:430 medical students in years 1, 3, 5 and 6 of a 6-year medical training programme in Bamako, Mali. DESIGN:We conducted a cross-sectional survey, compared the proportion of students who agreed with each PPOS item by gender and academic year, and calculated composite PPOS scores. To examine psychometrics of the PPOS and its two subscales ('sharing' and 'caring'), we calculated internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and performed confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses (CFA and EFA). RESULTS:In seven of the nine 'sharing' items, the majority of students held attitudes favouring a provider-dominant style. For five of the nine 'caring' items, the majority of student responded consistently with patient-centred attitudes, while in the other four, responses indicated a disease-centred orientation. In eight items, a greater proportion of fifth/sixth year students held patient-centred attitudes as compared with first year students; there were few gender differences. Average PPOS scores indicated students were moderately patient-centred, with more favourable attitudes towards the 'caring' aspect than 'sharing'. Internal consistency of the PPOS was inadequate for the full scale (?=0.58) and subscales ('sharing' ?=0.37; 'caring' ?=0.48). CFA did not support the original PPOS factors and EFA did not identify an improved structure. CONCLUSIONS:West African medical students training in Bamako are moderately patient-centred and do not show the same declines in patient-centred attitudes in higher academic years as seen in other settings. Medical students may benefit from training in shared power skills and in attending to patient lifestyle factors. Locally validated tools are needed to guide West African medical schools in fostering patient-centredness among students.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Assessing medical students' attitudes toward patient-centred care is essential to bettering medical education. Based on doctor-patient relationships and the medical system in China, it is important to explore the impact of gender differences and other background factors on patient-centred attitudes and to provide references for medical education reform.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional study was conducted on fourth-year medical undergraduate students from November 2017 to March 2018 in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. The Chinese-revised Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (CR-PPOS), which has been validated in previous research, was used to measure the medical students' attitudes. The medical students' demographic data was collected, including their gender, age, information on whether they have siblings, family residence location, doctor(s) for parents, year in which the student first experienced clinical practice, and student category.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 513 students (91.12%) completed the survey. The Chinese medical students scored considerably higher for 'Caring' (including patients' preferences into the decision-making process) than for 'Sharing' (sharing information/responsibility with patients). These students tended to have patient-centred attitudes, as measured by an average overall CR-PPOS score of 3.63 (scores higher than 3.5 indicate patient-centred attitudes), which is higher than Malian (3.38) and Pakistani (3.40) medical students but lower than American (4.57) and Brazilian (4.66) students. Female students (<i>P</i> < 0.05) were significantly associated with more patient-centred attitudes and with higher 'Sharing' and 'Caring' subscale scores. <i>Student category</i> (<i>P</i> < 0.05) was associated with 'Sharing' and 'Caring' scores. <i>Clinical hospital students</i> (<i>P</i> < 0.05) were associated with more patient-centred attitudes and with higher 'Sharing' and 'Caring' subscale scores, <i>Students without siblings</i> (<i>p</i> < 0.07) were associated with the higher 'Sharing' subscale scores.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In China, gender has a significant impact on medical students' patient-centred attitudes, which is similar to findings from other countries. If medical schools want to raise patient-centred attitudes across the board and bridge the gap between male and female patient-centred attitudes, gender, student category, and other factors should be incorporated into medical education.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A patient-centred approach to care is increasingly the mandate for healthcare delivery. There is a need to explore how health professional students develop patient-centred attributes. This study aims to understand the extent of patient-centred orientations of health professional students, their perceptions and factors influencing their adoption of the approach. METHODS:The study used a cross-sectional, parallel mixed methods design combining a survey using the Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS) followed by focus groups with medical, nursing, physiotherapy and speech and language therapy students. Data included students' age, gender, programme, and placements experienced. Pearson's chi squared and the non-parametric equivalent Kruskal-Wallis H test were done to test for differences in demographics for appropriate variables. One-way ANOVA or Welch test was done to explore differences in PPOS scores. Regression analysis was done to test the influence of the demographic variables on PPOS scores. Data from focus groups were coded, categorised and organised under themes appropriate to the research aims. RESULTS:Of the 211 complete responses, significant differences were observed between medical and physiotherapy students in total PPOS scores, (MD -8.11 [95% CI -12.02 - 4.20] p = 0.000), Caring component (MD -4.44 [95% CI - 6.69, - 2.19] p = 0.000) and Sharing component (MD -3.67 [95% CI -6.12 -1.22] p = 0.001). The programme in which students were enrolled i.e. Medicine and SALT were the only indicators of higher PPOS total scores (F = 4.6 Df 10,69; p = 7.396e-06) and caring scores (F = 2.164 Df 10, 69 p = 0.022). Focus groups revealed that students perceived patient-centredness as holistic yet individualised care through establishing a partnership with patient. They identified that their student status, placement pressures, placement characteristics especially mentoring influenced their development of patient-centred attributes. CONCLUSION:This study highlights the fact that the pressures of training in the National Health Service affects the development of students' patient-centred orientation. There is a need for further work to explore aspects related to mentor training, for the development of patient-centred attributes, in a curricular framework structured on students' needs from this study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While patient-centred care improves patient outcomes, studies have shown that medical students become less patient-centred with time, so it is crucial to devise interventions that prevent this. We sought to determine whether first-year medical students who had a structured home-based interview with a chronically ill patient became more patient-centred than those who had a sham intervention. METHODS:This randomised controlled trial assigned first-year students from the University of Bern, Switzerland, to either an interview with a chronically ill patient at the patient's home or to a sham comparator. We used the PPOS-D12 questionnaire to measure students' levels of patient-centredness at baseline, and changes in these levels during their longitudinal primary care clerkship. RESULTS:A total of 317 students participated. Patient-centred attitudes increased during the study. A home-based interview with a chronically ill patient had no additional effect. Being female and having been exposed to patients before medical school were associated with being more patient-centred at baseline. Students were less patient-centred than their General Practitioner teachers. CONCLUSIONS:A structured, home-based interview with a chronically ill patient did not change students' patient-centred attitudes, so cannot be recommended as a way to influence those attitudes. However, patient-centred attitudes increased during the students' first year of study, possibly because of their longitudinal primary care clerkship. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT03722810 , registered 29th October 2018.
Project description:Background. A good doctor-patient relationship is the centre stone of modern medicine. Patients are getting increasingly aware about exercising their autonomy and thus modern medicine cannot deliver all its advances to the patients if a good doctor-patient relationship is not established. We initiated this study with the aim to assess the leaning of medical students, who are the future physicians, towards either a doctor-centered or a patient-centered care, and to explore the effects of personal attributes on care such as gender, academic year, etc. Materials & Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and Sep 2013. CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College Ethical Review Committee approved the study questionnaire. The study population consisted of 1,181 medical students in years 1-5 from two medical colleges. The English version of Patient Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS) was used to assess attitudes of medical students towards doctor-patient relationship. PPOS yields a mean score range of 1-6, where 1 signifies tendency towards a doctor centered relationship and 6 signifies patient-centered relationship. The relationship between PPOS scores and individual characteristics like gender, academic year etc. were examined by multiple regression. Results. A total of 783 students formed the final sample (response rate = 92%). Mean PPOS score of the entire sample was 3.40 (± .49 S.D.). Mean sharing sub-scale score was 3.18 (± 0.62 S.D. Mean caring sub-scale score was 3.63 (± 0.56 S.D.). Characteristics associated with most patient-centered attitudes were advanced academic year, having a clinical rotation, foreign background and studying in a private college. Gender, having doctor parents, relationship and residence status had no bearing on the attitudes (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Despite ongoing debate and the emphasis on a patient-centered curriculum, our study suggests that the current curriculum and its teachings are not producing the results they are designed to achieve. Students should be adequately exposed to the patients from the beginning of their medical education in clinical settings which are more sympathetic to a patient-centered care.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Shared decision making is a crucial component of evidence-based practice, but a lack of training in the "how to" of it is a major barrier to its uptake. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief intervention for facilitating shared decision making skills in clinicians and student clinicians. DESIGN: Multi-centre randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and seven medical students, physiotherapy or occupational therapy students undertaking a compulsory course in evidence-based practice as part of their undergraduate or postgraduate degree from two Australian universities. INTERVENTION: The 1-h small-group intervention consisted of facilitated critique of five-step framework, strategies, and pre-recorded modelled role-play. Both groups were provided with a chapter about shared decision making skills. MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was skills in shared decision making and communicating evidence [Observing Patient Involvement (OPTION) scale, items from the Assessing Communication about Evidence and Patient Preferences (ACEPP) Tool], rated by a blinded assessor from videorecorded role-plays. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: confidence in these skills and attitudes towards patient-centred communication (Patient Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS)). KEY RESULTS: Of participants, 95 % (102) completed the primary outcome measures. Two weeks post-intervention, intervention group participants scored significantly higher on the OPTION scale (adjusted group difference?=?18.9, 95 % CI 12.4 to 25.4), ACEPP items (difference?=?0.9, 95 % CI 0.5 to 1.3), confidence measure (difference?=?13.1, 95 % CI 8.5 to 17.7), and the PPOS sharing subscale (difference?=?0.2, 95 % CI 0.1 to 0.5). There was no significant difference for the PPOS caring subscale. CONCLUSIONS: This brief intervention was effective in improving student clinicians' ability, attitude towards, and confidence in shared decision making facilitation. Following further testing of the longer-term effects of this intervention, incorporation of this brief intervention into evidence-based practice courses and workshops should be considered, so that student clinicians graduate with these important skills, which are typically neglected in clinician training.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Burnout is defined as a prolonged state of physical and psychological exhaustion. Doctors, due to the demanding nature of their job, are susceptible to facing burnout, which has far reaching implications on their productivity and motivation. It affects the quality of care they provide to patients, thus eroding the doctor-patient relationship which embodies patient centeredness and autonomy. The study aims at addressing the stressors leading to burnout and its effect on the doctor-patient relationship.<h4>Methods</h4>A descriptive, cross-sectional study design with convenience (non-probability) sampling technique was employed in six major hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 600 doctors were approached for the study which included house officers or "HOs" (recent graduates doing their 1 year long internship) and post-graduate trainees or "PGRs" (residents for 4-5 years in their specialties). Burnout was measured using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventor (CBI) while attitudes towards the doctor-patient relationship was measured using the Patient Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS), which measures two components of the relationship: power sharing and patient caring. Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data via SPSS v.21.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 515 doctors consented to take part in the study (response rate 85.83%). The final sample consisted of 487 doctors. The burnout score was not associated with the total and caring domain scores of PPOS (<i>P</i> > 0.05). However, it was associated with the power sharing sub-scale of PPOS. Multiple linear regression analysis yielded a significant model, by virtue of which CBI scores were positively associated with factors such as female gender, feeling of burn out, scoring high on sharing domain of PPOS and a lack of personal control while CBI scores were negatively associated with private medical college education, having a significant other, accommodation away from home and a sense of never ending competition. Burnout levels varied significantly between house officers and post graduate trainees. Twenty-three percent of the participants (mostly house officers) had high/very high burnout levels on the CBI (Kristenson's burnout scoring). Both groups showed significant differences with respect to working hours, smoking status and income.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Although burnout showed no significant association with total and caring domain scores of PPOS (scale used to assess doctor-patient relationship), it showed a significant association with the power sharing domain of PPOS suggesting some impact on the overall delivery of patient care. Thus, it necessitates the monitoring of stressors in order to provide an atmosphere where patient autonomy can be practiced.
Project description:This study explores the extent to which a one-week nursing rotation for medical students changed the interprofessional attitudes of the participating nurses and students. Third-year medical students worked with nurses before starting clinical rotations. Pre- and post-experience surveys assessing perceptions of mutual respect, nurse-doctor roles, and interprofessional communication and teamwork were given to 55 nurses and 57 students. The surveys consisted of qualitative questions and a Likert scale questionnaire that was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The response rate was 51/57 (89%) students and 44/55 (80%) nurse preceptors. Nurses reported that students met nurses' expectations by displaying responsibility, respect, effective communication, and an understanding of nursing roles. Medical students' narratives demonstrated two significant changes. First, their views of nurses changed from that of physician helpers to that of collaborative patient-centred professionals. Second, they began defining nursing not by its tasks, but as a caring- and communication-centred profession. Responses to Likert-scaled questions showed significant differences corresponding to changes described in the narrative. A one-week immersive clinical nursing rotation for medical students was a transformative way of learning interprofessional competencies. Learning in an authentic workplace during a clinical rotation engendered mutual respect between nurses and future doctors. Students' view of the role of nurses changed from nurses working for doctors with patients, to working with doctors for patients.
Project description:Patient-centredness has become an important aspect of health service delivery; however, there are a limited number of studies that focus on this concept in the domain of hearing healthcare. The objective of this study was to examine and compare audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness in Portugal, India and Iran.The study used a cross-sectional survey design with audiologists recruited from three different countries.A total of 191 fully-completed responses were included in the analysis (55 from Portugal, 78 from India and 58 from Iran).The Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS).PPOS mean scores suggest that audiologists have a preference for patient-centredness (ie, mean of 3.6 in a 5-point scale). However, marked differences were observed between specific PPOS items suggesting these preferences vary across clinical situations. A significant level of difference (p<0.001) was found between audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness in three countries. Audiologists in Portugal had a greater preference for patient-centredness when compared to audiologists in India and Iran, although no significant differences were found in terms of age and duration of experience among these sample populations.There are differences and similarities in audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness among countries. These findings may have implications for the training of professionals and also for clinical practice in terms of optimising hearing healthcare across countries.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Systems of undergraduate medical education and patient care can create barriers to fostering caring attitudes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to survey associate deans and curriculum leaders about teaching and assessment of caring attitudes in their medical schools. PARTICIPANTS: The participants of this study include 134 leaders of medical education in the USA and Canada. METHODS: We developed a survey with 26 quantitative questions and 1 open-ended question. In September to October 2005, the Association of American Medical Colleges distributed it electronically to curricular leaders. We used descriptive statistics to analyze quantitative data, and the constant comparison technique for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: We received 73 responses from 134 medical schools. Most respondents believed that their schools strongly emphasized caring attitudes. At the same time, 35% thought caring attitudes were emphasized less than scientific knowledge. Frequently used methods to teach caring attitudes included small-group discussion and didactics in the preclinical years, role modeling and mentoring in the clinical years, and skills training with feedback throughout all years. Barriers to fostering caring attitudes included time and productivity pressures and lack of faculty development. Respondents with supportive learning environments were more likely to screen applicants' caring attitudes, encourage collaborative learning, give humanism awards to faculty, and provide faculty development that emphasized teaching of caring attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of educational leaders value caring attitudes, but overall, educational systems inconsistently foster them. Schools may facilitate caring learning environments by providing faculty development and support, by assessing students and applicants for caring attitudes, and by encouraging collaboration.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To adapt the Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS), to a Chinese context, and explore the preference towards patient-centred communication among physicians and patients with the Chinese-revised Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (CR-PPOS). DESIGN:A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. SETTING:Clinical settings from eight medical units, including four community hospitals and four general hospitals, in Shanghai, China. PARTICIPANTS:1018 participants, including 187 physicians and 831 patients, completed this study in two successive stages. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:Psychometric properties of the CR-PPOS and participants' score on the CR-PPOS. RESULTS:Compared with the original PPOS, the 11-item CR-PPOS obtained better psychometric indices. Physicians and patients scored differently on both the total CR-PPOS and its two subscales. Compared with physicians, the scores of patients were more influenced by their personal characteristics, such as age and education. CONCLUSIONS:The CR-PPOS is a better instrument in a Chinese context than the original translated version. The divergence in the extent to which patient-centred communication is preferred among Chinese physicians and patients should be noted. Adapting physicians' communication strategy to patients' preferences based on their personal characteristics can be a viable approach towards improving clinical efficiency.