Bismuth antimicrobial drugs serve as broad-spectrum metallo-?-lactamase inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: Drug-resistant superbugs pose a huge threat to human health. Infections by Enterobacteriaceae producing metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), e.g., New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are very difficult to treat. Development of effective MBL inhibitors to revive the efficacy of existing antibiotics is highly desirable. However, such inhibitors are not clinically available till now. Here we show that an anti-Helicobacter pylori drug, colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), and related Bi(III) compounds irreversibly inhibit different types of MBLs via the mechanism, with one Bi(III) displacing two Zn(II) ions as revealed by X-ray crystallography, leading to the release of Zn(II) cofactors. CBS restores meropenem (MER) efficacy against MBL-positive bacteria in vitro, and in mice infection model, importantly, also slows down the development of higher-level resistance in NDM-1-positive bacteria. This study demonstrates a high potential of Bi(III) compounds as the first broad-spectrum B1 MBL inhibitors to treat MBL-positive bacterial infection in conjunction with existing carbapenems.
Project description:The global rise of metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) is problematic due to their ability to inactivate most ?-lactam antibiotics. MBL inhibitors that could be coadministered with and restore the efficacy of ?-lactams are highly sought after. In this study, we employ virtual screening of candidate MBL inhibitors without thiols or carboxylates to avoid off-target effects using the Avalanche software package, followed by experimental validation of the selected compounds. As target enzymes, we chose the clinically relevant B1 MBLs NDM-1, IMP-1, and VIM-2. Among 32 compounds selected from an approximately 1.5 million compound library, 6 exhibited IC50 values less than 40 ?M against NDM-1 and/or IMP-1. The most potent inhibitors of NDM-1, IMP-1, and VIM-2 had IC50 values of 19 ± 2, 14 ± 1, and 50 ± 20 ?M, respectively. While chemically diverse, the most potent inhibitors all contain combinations of hydroxyl, ketone, ester, amide, or sulfonyl groups. Docking studies suggest that these electron-dense moieties are involved in Zn(II) coordination and interaction with protein residues. These novel scaffolds could serve as the basis for further development of MBL inhibitors. A procedure for renaming NDM-1 residues to conform to the class B ?-lactamase (BBL) numbering scheme is also included.
Project description:Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) are a growing threat to the continued efficacy of ?-lactam antibiotics. Recently, aspergillomarasmine A (AMA) was identified as an MBL inhibitor, but the mode of inhibition was not fully characterized. Equilibrium dialysis and metal analysis studies revealed that 2 equiv of AMA effectively removes 1 equiv of Zn(II) from MBLs NDM-1, VIM-2, and IMP-7 when the MBL is at micromolar concentrations. Conversely, 1H NMR studies revealed that 2 equiv of AMA remove 2 equiv of Co(II) from Co(II)-substituted NDM-1, VIM-2, and IMP-7 when the MBL/AMA are at millimolar concentrations. Our findings reveal that AMA inhibits the MBLs by removal of the active site metal ions required for ?-lactam hydrolysis among the most clinically significant MBLs.
Project description:Pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria resistant to almost all ?-lactam antibiotics are a major public health threat. Zn(II)-dependent or metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) produced by these bacteria inactivate most ?-lactam antibiotics, including the carbapenems, which are "last line therapies" for life-threatening Gram-negative infections. NDM-1 is a carbapenemase belonging to the MBL family that is rapidly spreading worldwide. Regrettably, inhibitors of MBLs are not yet developed. Here we present the bisthiazolidine (BTZ) scaffold as a structure with some features of ?-lactam substrates, which can be modified with metal-binding groups to target the MBL active site. Inspired by known interactions of MBLs with ?-lactams, we designed four BTZs that behave as in vitro NDM-1 inhibitors with Ki values in the low micromolar range (from 7 ± 1 to 19 ± 3 ?M). NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that they inhibit hydrolysis of imipenem in NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli. In vitro time kill cell-based assays against a variety of bacterial strains harboring blaNDM-1 including Acinetobacter baumannii show that the compounds restore the antibacterial activity of imipenem. A crystal structure of the most potent heterocycle (L-CS319) in complex with NDM-1 at 1.9 Å resolution identified both structural determinants for inhibitor binding and opportunities for further improvements in potency.
Project description:The efficacy of ?-lactam antibiotics is threatened by the emergence and global spread of metallo-?-lactamase (MBL) mediated resistance, specifically New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1). By utilization of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), a new class of inhibitors for NDM-1 and two related ?-lactamases, IMP-1 and VIM-2, was identified. On the basis of 2,6-dipicolinic acid (DPA), several libraries were synthesized for structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis. Inhibitor 36 (IC50 = 80 nM) was identified to be highly selective for MBLs when compared to other Zn(II) metalloenzymes. While DPA displayed a propensity to chelate metal ions from NDM-1, 36 formed a stable NDM-1:Zn(II):inhibitor ternary complex, as demonstrated by 1H NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, equilibrium dialysis, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission, and UV-vis spectroscopy. When coadministered with 36 (at concentrations nontoxic to mammalian cells), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem against clinical isolates of Eschericia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring NDM-1 were reduced to susceptible levels.
Project description:Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) are a growing threat to the use of almost all clinically used ?-lactam antibiotics. The identification of broad-spectrum MBL inhibitors is hampered by the lack of a suitable screening platform, consisting of appropriate substrates and a set of clinically relevant MBLs. We report procedures for the preparation of a set of clinically relevant metallo-?-lactamases (i.e., NDM-1 (New Delhi MBL), IMP-1 (Imipenemase), SPM-1 (São Paulo MBL), and VIM-2 (Verona integron-encoded MBL)) and the identification of suitable fluorogenic substrates (umbelliferone-derived cephalosporins). The fluorogenic substrates were compared to chromogenic substrates (CENTA, nitrocefin, and imipenem), showing improved sensitivity and kinetic parameters. The efficiency of the fluorogenic substrates was exemplified by inhibitor screening, identifying 4-chloroisoquinolinols as potential pan MBL inhibitors.
Project description:Production of metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), which hydrolyze carbapenems, is a cause of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Development of effective inhibitors for MBLs is one approach to restore carbapenem efficacy in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We report here that sulfamoyl heteroarylcarboxylic acids (SHCs) can competitively inhibit the globally spreading and clinically relevant MBLs (i.e., IMP-, NDM-, and VIM-type MBLs) at nanomolar to micromolar orders of magnitude. Addition of SHCs restored meropenem efficacy against 17/19 IMP-type and 7/14 NDM-type MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae to satisfactory clinical levels. SHCs were also effective against IMP-type MBL-producing Acinetobacter spp. and engineered Escherichia coli strains overproducing individual minor MBLs (i.e., TMB-2, SPM-1, DIM-1, SIM-1, and KHM-1). However, SHCs were less effective against MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Combination therapy with meropenem and SHCs successfully cured mice infected with IMP-1-producing E. coli and dually NDM-1/VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed the inhibition mode of SHCs against MBLs; the sulfamoyl group of SHCs coordinated to two zinc ions, and the carboxylate group coordinated to one zinc ion and bound to positively charged amino acids Lys224/Arg228 conserved in MBLs. Preclinical testing revealed that the SHCs showed low toxicity in cell lines and mice and high stability in human liver microsomes. Our results indicate that SHCs are promising lead compounds for inhibitors of MBLs to combat MBL-producing CRE.IMPORTANCE Carbapenem antibiotics are the last resort for control of severe infectious diseases, bloodstream infections, and pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae However, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains have spread globally and are a critical concern in clinical settings because CRE infections are recognized as a leading cause of increased mortality among hospitalized patients. Most CRE produce certain kinds of serine carbapenemases (e.g., KPC- and GES-type ?-lactamases) or metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), which can hydrolyze carbapenems. Although effective MBL inhibitors are expected to restore carbapenem efficacy against MBL-producing CRE, no MBL inhibitor is currently clinically available. Here, we synthesized 2,5-diethyl-1-methyl-4-sulfamoylpyrrole-3-carboxylic acid (SPC), which is a potent inhibitor of MBLs. SPC is a remarkable lead compound for clinically useful MBL inhibitors and can potentially provide a considerable benefit to patients receiving treatment for lethal infectious diseases caused by MBL-producing CRE.
Project description:Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) enable bacterial resistance to almost all classes of ?-lactam antibiotics. We report studies on enethiol containing MBL inhibitors, which were prepared by rhodanine hydrolysis. The enethiols inhibit MBLs from different subclasses. Crystallographic analyses reveal that the enethiol sulphur displaces the di-Zn(II) ion bridging 'hydrolytic' water. In some, but not all, cases biophysical analyses provide evidence that rhodanine/enethiol inhibition involves formation of a ternary MBL enethiol rhodanine complex. The results demonstrate how low molecular weight active site Zn(II) chelating compounds can inhibit a range of clinically relevant MBLs and provide additional evidence for the potential of rhodanines to be hydrolysed to potent inhibitors of MBL protein fold and, maybe, other metallo-enzymes, perhaps contributing to the complex biological effects of rhodanines. The results imply that any medicinal chemistry studies employing rhodanines (and related scaffolds) as inhibitors should as a matter of course include testing of their hydrolysis products.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are rapidly spreading and taking a staggering toll on all health care systems, largely due to the dissemination of genes coding for potent carbapenemases. An important family of carbapenemases are the Zn(II)-dependent β-lactamases, known as metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Among them, the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) has experienced the fastest and widest geographical spread. While other clinically important MBLs are soluble periplasmic enzymes, NDMs are lipoproteins anchored to the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. This unique cellular localization endows NDMs with enhanced stability upon the Zn(II) starvation elicited by the immune system response at the sites of infection. Since the first report of NDM-1, new allelic variants (16 in total) have been identified in clinical isolates differing by a limited number of substitutions. Here, we show that these variants have evolved by accumulating mutations that enhance their stability or the Zn(II) binding affinity in vivo, overriding the most common evolutionary pressure acting on catalytic efficiency. We identified the ubiquitous substitution M154L as responsible for improving the Zn(II) binding capabilities of the NDM variants. These results also reveal that Zn(II) deprivation imposes a strict constraint on the evolution of this MBL, overriding the most common pressures acting on catalytic performance, and shed light on possible inhibitory strategies.
Project description:?-Lactam antibiotics are the mainstay for the treatment of bacterial infections. However, elevated resistance to these antibiotics mediated by metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) has become a global concern. New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), a newly added member of the MBL family that can hydrolyze almost all ?-lactam antibiotics, has rapidly spread all over the world and poses serious clinical threats. Broad-spectrum and mechanism-based inhibitors against all MBLs are highly desired, but the differential mechanisms of MBLs toward different antibiotics pose a great challenge. To facilitate the design of mechanism-based inhibitors, we investigated the active-site conformational changes of NDM-1 through the determination of a series of 15 high-resolution crystal structures in native form and in complex with products and by using biochemical and biophysical studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics computation. The structural studies reveal the consistency of the active-site conformations in NDM-1/product complexes and the fluctuation in native NDM-1 structures. The enzymatic measurements indicate a correlation between enzymatic activity and the active-site fluctuation, with more fluctuation favoring higher activity. This correlation is further validated by structural and enzymatic studies of the Q123G mutant. Our combinational studies suggest that active-site conformational fluctuation promotes the enzymatic activity of NDM-1, which may guide further mechanism studies and inhibitor design.
Project description:The bicyclic boronate VNRX-5133 (taniborbactam) is a new type of ?-lactamase inhibitor in clinical development. We report that VNRX-5133 inhibits serine-?-lactamases (SBLs) and some clinically important metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), including NDM-1 and VIM-1/2. VNRX-5133 activity against IMP-1 and tested B2/B3 MBLs was lower/not observed. Crystallography reveals how VNRX-5133 binds to the class D SBL OXA-10 and MBL NDM-1. The crystallographic results highlight the ability of bicyclic boronates to inhibit SBLs and MBLs via binding of a tetrahedral (sp3) boron species. The structures imply conserved binding of the bicyclic core with SBLs/MBLs. With NDM-1, by crystallography, we observed an unanticipated VNRX-5133 binding mode involving cyclization of its acylamino oxygen onto the boron of the bicyclic core. Different side-chain binding modes for bicyclic boronates for SBLs and MBLs imply scope for side-chain optimization. The results further support the "high-energy-intermediate" analogue approach for broad-spectrum ?-lactamase inhibitor development and highlight the ability of boron inhibitors to interchange between different hybridization states/binding modes.