MicroRNA-709 Mediates Acute Tubular Injury through Effects on Mitochondrial Function.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction has important roles in the pathogenesis of AKI, yet therapeutic approaches to improve mitochondrial function remain limited. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic role of microRNA-709 (miR-709) in mediating mitochondrial impairment and tubular cell death in AKI. In a cisplatin-induced AKI mouse model and in biopsy samples of human AKI kidney tissue, miR-709 was significantly upregulated in the proximal tubular cells (PTCs). The expression of miR-709 in the renal PTCs of patients with AKI correlated with the severity of kidney injury. In cultured mouse PTCs, overexpression of miR-709 markedly induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis, and inhibition of miR-709 ameliorated cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell injury. Further analyses showed that mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM) is a target gene of miR-709, and genetic restoration of TFAM attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and cell injury induced by cisplatin or miR-709 overexpression in vitro Moreover, antagonizing miR-709 with an miR-709 antagomir dramatically attenuated cisplatin-induced kidney injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-709 has an important role in mediating cisplatin-induced AKI via negative regulation of TFAM and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings reveal a pathogenic role of miR-709 in acute tubular injury and suggest a novel target for the treatment of AKI.
Project description:Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb1), a small GTPase, plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival. However, the role and mechanisms for Rheb1 in tubular cell survival and acute kidney injury (AKI) remain unexplored. Here we found that Rheb1 signaling was activated in kidney tubule of AKI patients and cisplatin-treated mice. A mouse model of tubule-specific deletion of Rheb1 (Tubule-Rheb1-/-) was generated. Compared to control littermates, Tubule-Rheb1-/- mice were phenotypically normal within 2 months after birth but developed more severe kidney dysfunction, tubular cell death including apoptosis, necroptosis and ferroptosis, mitochondrial defect and less PGC-1? expression after cisplatin injection. In primary cultured tubular cells, Rheb1 ablation exacerbated cisplatin-induced cell death and mitochondrial defect. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency for Tsc1 in tubular cells led to Rheb1 activation and mitigated cisplatin-induced cell death, mitochondrial defect and AKI. Together, this study uncovers that Rheb1 may protect against cisplatin-induced tubular cell death and AKI through maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health concern with an annual mortality rate that exceeds those of breast and prostate cancer, heart failure, and diabetes combined. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are drivers of AKI-associated pathology; however, the pathways that mediate these events are poorly defined. Here, using a murine cisplatin-induced AKI model, we determined that both oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are associated with reduced levels of renal sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Treatment with the AMPK agonist AICAR or the antioxidant agent acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) restored SIRT3 expression and activity, improved renal function, and decreased tubular injury in WT animals, but had no effect in Sirt3-/- mice. Moreover, Sirt3-deficient mice given cisplatin experienced more severe AKI than WT animals and died, and neither AICAR nor ALCAR treatment prevented death in Sirt3-/- AKI mice. In cultured human tubular cells, cisplatin reduced SIRT3, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation, while restoration of SIRT3 with AICAR and ALCAR improved cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, our results indicate that SIRT3 is protective against AKI and suggest that enhancing SIRT3 to improve mitochondrial dynamics has potential as a strategy for improving outcomes of renal injury.
Project description:: The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in kidney injury repair has been studied widely. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We profiled the altered microRNAs in renal tissues from cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) rats treated with or without rat bone marrow MSCs (rMSCs). We observed that microRNA-146b (miR-146b) expression was considerably upregulated in renal tissues from AKI rats compared with that in healthy rats, and the expression decreased following MSC treatment after cisplatin administration. At the early stage of AKI, serum miR-146b levels exhibited a rapid increase that was even faster than that of two conventional renal function indexes: serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Furthermore, the serum miR-146b levels in AKI patients were higher than those in healthy people. In vitro exposure to cisplatin also increased miR-146b expression in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). miR-146b knockdown protected renal TECs from cisplatin-induced apoptosis and promoted their proliferation. Moreover, ErbB4 was identified as a direct target of miR-146b, and miR-146b inhibition induced ErbB4 expression, resulting in enhanced proliferation of injured renal TECs. In addition, restoration by rMSCs could be controlled through ErbB4 downregulation. In conclusion, elevated miR-146b expression contributes to cisplatin-induced AKI, partly through ErbB4 downregulation. miR-146b might be an early biomarker for AKI, and miR-146b inhibition could be a novel strategy for AKI treatment.The present study found that microRNA-146b (miR-146b) might be a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury and an indicator for its recovery after treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The results showed that in acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin, miR-146b in serum increased more quickly than did the usual indexes of kidney injury and decreased with restoration of MSCs. In addition, inhibition of miR-146b could ameliorate the apoptosis induced by cisplatin and potentially improve the proliferation by freeing ErbB4 and its downstream proteins.
Project description:Aims: Cisplatin, an anticancer drug, always leads to nephrotoxicity by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. As a major mechanism for cellular self-degradation, autophagy has been proven to protect against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the activation of autophagy induced by trehalose, we aimed to investigate the nephroprotective effects of trehalose on cisplatin-induced AKI and its underlying mechanisms. Results: Due to the activation of autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial fragmentation, depolarization, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced ATP generation) and apoptosis induced by cisplatin were markedly inhibited in trehalose-treated HK2 cells in vitro. Based on the transcriptional regulation role of transcription factor EB (TFEB) in autophagy and lysosome, we characterized trehalose-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB. Furthermore, consistent with trehalose treatment, overexpression of TFEB inhibited cell injury induced by cisplatin. However, the protective effects of trehalose were largely abrogated in tfeb-knockdown cells. In vivo, cisplatin injection resulted in severe kidney dysfunction and histological damage in mice. Trehalose administration activated TFEB-mediated autophagy, alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction and kidney injury in AKI mice. Innovation and conclusion: Our data suggest that trehalose treatment preserves mitochondria function via activation of TFEB-mediated autophagy and attenuates cisplatin-induced kidney injury.
Project description:Metformin, one of the most common prescriptions for patients with type 2 diabetes, is reported to protect the kidney from gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. However, the role and mechanisms for metformin in preventing cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains largely unknown. In this study, a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin was employed to induce acute kidney injury (AKI) in CD1 mice. The mice exhibited severe kidney dysfunction and histological damage at day 2 after cisplatin injection. Pretreatment of metformin could markedly attenuate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, tubular cell apoptosis and inflammatory cell accumulation in the kidneys. Additionally, pretreatment of metformin could enhance both AMPKα phosphorylation and autophagy induction in the kidneys after cisplatin injection. In cultured NRK-52E cells, a rat kidney tubular cell line, metformin could stimulate AMPKα phosphorylation, induce autophagy and inhibit cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis. Blockade of either AMPKα activation or autophagy induction could largely abolish the protective effect of metformin in cisplatin-induced cell death. Together, this study demonstrated that metformin may protect against cisplatin-induced tubular cell apoptosis and AKI through stimulating AMPKα activation and autophagy induction in the tubular cells.
Project description:Histone deacetylases 6 (HDAC6) has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Selective inhibition of HDAC6 might be a potential treatment for AKI. In our previous study, a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor (HDAC6i) 23BB effectively protected against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI with good safety. However, whether 23BB possessed favorable renoprotection against cisplatin-induced AKI and the involved mechanisms remained unknown. In the study, cisplatin-injected mice developed severe AKI symptom as indicated by acute kidney dysfunction and pathological changes, companied by the overexpression of HDAC6 in tubular epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 by the treatment of 23BB significantly attenuated sCr, BUN and renal tubular damage. Mechanistically, 23BB enhanced the acetylation of histone H3 to reduce the HDAC6 activity. Cisplatin-induced AKI triggered multiple signal mediators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress including PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 pathway, as well as CHOP, GRP78, p-JNK and caspase 12 proteins. Oral administration of our HDAC6i 23BB at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d for 3 days notably improved above-mentioned responses in the injured kidney tissues. HDAC6 inhibition also reduced the number of TUNEL-positive tubular cells and regulated apoptosis-related protein expression. Overall, these data highlighted that HDAC6 inhibitor 23BB modulated apoptosis via the inhibition of ER stress in the tubular epithelial cells of cisplatin-induced AKI.
Project description:Sepsis causes acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients, although the pathophysiology remains unclear. The receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3), a cardinal regulator of necroptosis, has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease. In mice subjected to polymicrobial sepsis, we demonstrate that RIPK3 promotes sepsis-induced AKI. Utilizing genetic deletion and biochemical approaches in vitro and in vivo, we identify a potentially novel pathway by which RIPK3 aggravates kidney tubular injury independently of the classical mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein-dependent (MLKL-dependent) necroptosis pathway. In kidney tubular epithelial cells, we show that RIPK3 promotes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction involving upregulation of NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4) and inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and -III, and that RIPK3 and NOX4 are critical for kidney tubular injury in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RIPK3 is required for increased mitochondrial translocation of NOX4 in response to proinflammatory stimuli, by a mechanism involving protein-protein interactions. Finally, we observed elevated urinary and plasma RIPK3 levels in human patients with sepsis-induced AKI, representing potential markers of this condition. In conclusion, we identify a pathway by which RIPK3 promotes kidney tubular injury via mitochondrial dysfunction, independently of MLKL, which may represent a promising therapeutic target in sepsis-induced AKI.
Project description:The pathogenesis of ischemic diseases remains unclear. Here we demonstrate the induction of microRNA-668 (miR-668) in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) in human patients, mice, and renal tubular cells. The induction was HIF-1 dependent, as HIF-1 deficiency in cells and kidney proximal tubules attenuated miR-668 expression. We further identified a functional HIF-1 binding site in the miR-668 gene promoter. Anti-miR-668 increased apoptosis in renal tubular cells and enhanced ischemic AKI in mice, whereas miR-668 mimic was protective. Mechanistically, anti-miR-668 induced mitochondrial fragmentation, whereas miR-668 blocked mitochondrial fragmentation during hypoxia. We analyzed miR-668 target genes through immunoprecipitation of microRNA-induced silencing complexes followed by RNA deep sequencing and identified 124 protein-coding genes as likely targets of miR-668. Among these genes, only mitochondrial protein 18 kDa (MTP18) has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics. In renal cells and mouse kidneys, miR-668 mimic suppressed MTP18, whereas anti-miR-668 increased MTP18 expression. Luciferase microRNA target reporter assay further verified MTP18 as a direct target of miR-668. In renal tubular cells, knockdown of MTP18 suppressed mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. Together, the results suggest that miR-668 is induced via HIF-1 in ischemic AKI and that, upon induction, miR-668 represses MTP18 to preserve mitochondrial dynamics for renal tubular cell survival and kidney protection.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common side effect of cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapy drug. Although AKI occurs in up to one third of cancer patients receiving cisplatin, effective renal protective strategies are lacking. Cisplatin targets renal proximal tubular epithelial cells leading to inflammation, reactive oxygen species, tubular cell injury, and eventually cell death. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a vagus nerve-mediated reflex that suppresses inflammation via ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs). Our previous studies demonstrated the renoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of cholinergic agonists, including GTS-21. Therefore, we examined the effect of GTS-21 on cisplatin-induced AKI. Male C57BL/6 mice received either saline or GTS-21 (4mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily for 4 days before cisplatin and treatment continued through euthanasia; 3 days post-cisplatin mice were euthanized and analyzed for markers of renal injury. GTS-21 significantly reduced cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and injury (p<0.05). GTS-21 significantly attenuated renal Ptgs2/COX-2 mRNA and IL-6, IL-1?, and CXCL1 protein expression, as well as neutrophil infiltration after cisplatin. GTS-21 blunted cisplatin-induced renal ERK1/2 activation, as well as renal ATP depletion and apoptosis (p<0.05). GTS-21 suppressed the expression of CTR1, a cisplatin influx transporter and enhanced the expression of cisplatin efflux transporters MRP2, MRP4, and MRP6 (p<0.05). Using breast, colon, and lung cancer cell lines we showed that GTS-21 did not inhibit cisplatin's tumor cell killing activity. GTS-21 protects against cisplatin-AKI by attenuating renal inflammation, ATP depletion and apoptosis, as well as by decreasing renal cisplatin influx and increasing efflux, without impairing cisplatin-mediated tumor cell killing. Our results support further exploring the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway for preventing cisplatin-induced AKI.
Project description:Sirt1, a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase, is reported to regulate intracellular metabolism and attenuate reactive oxidative species (ROS)-induced apoptosis leading to longevity and acute stress resistance. We created transgenic (TG) mice with kidney-specific overexpression of Sirt1 using the promoter sodium-phosphate cotransporter IIa (Npt2) driven specifically in proximal tubules and investigated the kidney-specific role of Sirt1 in the protection against acute kidney injury (AKI). We also elucidated the role of number or function of peroxisome and mitochondria in mediating the mechanisms for renal protective effects of Sirt1 in AKI. Cisplatin-induced AKI decreased the number and function of peroxisomes as well as mitochondria and led to increased local levels of ROS production and renal tubular apoptotic cells. TG mice treated with cisplatin mitigated AKI, local ROS, and renal tubular apoptotic tubular cells. Consistent with these results, TG mice treated with cisplatin also exhibited recovery of peroxisome number and function, as well as rescued mitochondrial function; however, mitochondrial number was not recovered. Immunoelectron microscopic findings consistently demonstrated that the decrease in peroxisome number by cisplatin in wild type mice was restored in transgenic mice. In HK-2 cells, a cultured proximal tubule cell line, overexpression of Sirt1 rescued the cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis through the restoration of peroxisome number, although the mitochondria number was not restored. These results indicate that Sirt1 overexpression in proximal tubules rescues cisplatin-induced AKI by maintaining peroxisomes number and function, concomitant up-regulation of catalase, and elimination of renal ROS levels. Renal Sirt1 can be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AKI.