DeNOx Abatement over Sonically Prepared Iron-Substituted Y, USY and MFI Zeolite Catalysts in Lean Exhaust Gas Conditions.
ABSTRACT: Iron-substituted MFI, Y and USY zeolites prepared by two preparation routes-classical ion exchange and the ultrasound modified ion-exchange method-were characterised by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet (UV)/visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV/Vis DRS). Ultrasound irradiation, a new technique for the preparation of the metal salt suspension before incorporation to the zeolite structure, was employed. An experimental study of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH? on both iron-substituted reference zeolite catalysts and those prepared through the application of ultrasound conducted during an ion-exchange process is presented. The prepared zeolite catalysts show high activity and selectivity in SCR deNOx abatement. The MFI-based iron catalysts, especially those prepared via the sonochemical method, revealed superior activity in the deNOx process, with almost 100% selectivity towards N?. The hydrothermal stability test confirmed high stability and activity of MFI-based catalysts in water-rich conditions during the deNOx reaction at 450 °C.
Project description:Cu/SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared using solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and liquid ion exchange (LIE). SSIE is conducted by calcining a physical mixture of H-SAPO-34 zeolite and CuO nanoparticles at elevated temperatures (500-800 °C). The conventional LIE method is conducted by exchanging Na-SAPO-34 with Cu(COOCH3)2 aqueous solution with a final calcination step at 500 °C. Catalysts were fully characterized, focusing on Cu species identification. The NH3-SCR activity is evaluated for NO x removal. Cu/SAPO-34 catalysts synthesized by SSIE at 700 °C achieved an optimal reaction rate, which was correlated with a higher proportion of Cu2+ ions. The activation energies of Cu/SAPO-34 catalysts prepared by SSIE and LIE with varying copper loadings are 32-38 and 42-47 kJ mol-1, respectively. The SSIE catalysts achieve higher turnover frequency than LIE catalysts for a similar copper content, which decreases on increasing the copper loading. These results provide evidence that Cu ions exchanged into the Cu/SAPO-34 catalysts synthesized by SSIE present higher activity than those prepared by LIE for NO x removal by NH3-SCR.
Project description:Co/SSZ-13 zeolites were prepared by heating the finely dispersed mixture of NH4-SSZ-13 and different cobalt salts up to 550?°C. Investigations by thermogravimetry - differential scanning calorimetry - mass spectrometry provided new insight into details of the solid-state reaction. Formation of Co carrying hydrate melt or volatile species was shown to proceed from chloride, nitrate, or acetylacetonate Co precursor salts upon thermal treatment. This phase change allows the transport of the Co species into the zeolite pores. The reaction of the NH4 + or H+ zeolite cations and the mobile Co precursors generates vapor or gas products, readily leaving the zeolite pores, and cobalt ions in lattice positions suggesting that solid-state ion-exchange is the prevailing process. The obtained catalysts are of good activity and N2 selectivity in the CH4/NO-SCR reaction. The thermal treatment of acetate or formate salts give solid intermediates that are unable to get in contact and react with the cations in the zeolite micropores. These catalysts contain mainly Co-oxide clusters located on the outer surface of the zeolite crystallites and have poor catalytic performance.
Project description:Cobalt-loaded MFI zeolite showed distinct activity for direct methylation of benzene with methane into toluene. High activity was found at around 0.6 of Co/Al molar ratio. Incorporation of carbon from methane into the methyl group of toluene was confirmed with isotope tracer experiments and mass spectroscopy. Ammonia infrared-mass spectroscopy temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure indicated that Lewis acidic divalent (+II of oxidation state) Co species mono-atomically dispersed on the ion exchange site of MFI zeolite was the active species.
Project description:Catalytic ozonation process (COP) is considered as a cost-efficient technology for the treatment of refractory chemical wastewaters. The catalyst performance plays an important role for the treatment efficiency. The present study investigated efficiencies and mechanisms of manganese (Mn)-based Y zeolites in COPs for removing nitrobenzene from water. The catalysts of Mn/NaY and Mn/USY were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation, while Mn-USY was obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Mn-USY contained a greater ratio of Mn2+ than Mn/NaY, and Mn/USY. Mn oxides loaded on Y zeolites promoted the COP efficiencies. Mn/NaY increased total organic carbon removal in COP by 7.3% compared to NaY, while Mn/USY and Mn-USY increased 11.5 and 15.8%, respectively, relative to USY in COP. Multivalent Mn oxides (Mn2+, Mn3+, and Mn4+) were highly dispersed on the surface of NaY or USY, and function as catalytic active sites, increasing mineralization. Mn-USY showed the highest total organic carbon removal (44.3%) in COP among the three catalysts, because Mn-USY had a higher ratio of Mn2+ to the total Mn oxides on the surface than Mn/NaY and Mn/USY and the catalytic effects from intercorrelations between Mn oxides and mesoporous surface structures. The hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals governed oxidations in COP using Mn-USY. Nitrobenzene was oxidized to polyhydroxy phenol, polyhydroxy nitrophenol, and p-benzoquinone. The intermediates were then oxidized to small organic acids and ultimately carbon dioxide and water. This study demonstrates the potential of Y zeolites used in COP for the treatment of refractory chemical wastewaters.
Project description:Four different methods for gold deposition on Beta zeolite, namely impregnation, ion-exchange, deposition-reduction, and grafting on (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane functionalized support, were applied to investigate their influence on textural/structural changes in the zeolite support and its surface acidity. The as-prepared materials were fully characterized by XRD, N<sub>2</sub> physisorption, ICP-OES, XPS, TEM, and pyridine adsorption. The obtained results indicated that bifunctional redox-acidic materials prepared within this work were characterized not only by different gold loading and gold particle size, but also different textural parameters and acidity. All these features were strongly affected by the procedure applied for gold deposition. The introduction of Au into Beta zeolite by ion exchange caused a significant decrease in the Si/Al ratio in the zeolite framework. The size of Au particles determined the textural parameters of the zeolite and the number of Lewis acid sites (LAS). The Brønsted acid sites (BAS) number was decreased if (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane or NaBH<sub>4</sub> were used in the procedure of gold deposition. The highest BAS/LAS ratio was achieved for the sample prepared by ion exchange in the ammonium form of Beta zeolite. The presented results permit making a proper choice of the gold modification procedure for the preparation of bifunctional (redox-acidic) materials, addressed to a desired application.
Project description:Perfluoroalkylglucosides comprise a very important class of fluorine-containing surfactants. These compounds can be synthesized by using the Fisher reaction, starting directly from glucose and the required perfluoroalcohols. We wish to report on the use of zeolite catalysts of different structure and composition for the synthesis of perfluoroalkylglucosides when using glucose and 1-octafluoropentanol as substrates. Zeolites of different pore architecture have been chosen (ZSM-5, ZSM-12, MCM-22 and Beta). Zeolites were characterized by XRD, nitrogen sorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid-state 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. The activity of the zeolite catalysts in the glycosidation reaction was studied in a batch reactor at 100 °C below atmospheric pressure. The performance of zeolites was compared to other catalysts, an ion-exchange resin (Purolite) and a montmorillonite-type layered aluminosilicate. The catalytic performance of zeolite Beta was the highest among the zeolites studied and the results were comparable to those obtained over Purolite and montmorillonite type catalysts.
Project description:Preparing catalysts with highly dispersed metal nanoparticles and narrow particle size distribution has been in the focus of numerous studies. Besides size and size distribution, the location of metal nanoparticles within and local metal loading of the support can have significant impact on catalytic performance. This study revealed that great variations in Pt loading between individual Pt/zeolite Y crystals occurred irrespective of the metal deposition method, namely ion-exchange (IE) or incipient wetness impregnation (IWI). The variation in Pt loading was found to be directly related to different Si/Al ratios of individual zeolite crystals. Results indicate that this Si/Al variation was likely induced by post-synthesis treatments, commonly performed to introduce mesoporosity. In view of the great importance of zeolite-based catalysts for oil refining, understanding the origin of such metal loading heterogeneities may lead to further improvement of zeolite-based catalytic performance.
Project description:Mesoporous and nanostructured zeolite-based catalysts experience prolonged lifetimes due to increased mass transfer and reduced micropore obstruction by coke formation as compared to their bulky microporous counterparts. Diquaternary ammonium structure-directing agents (SDAs) can be used to synthesize hierarchical MFI sheet-like and MEL needle-like zeolites. An explanation of the underlying molecular-level details of the synthesis of these nanostructured zeolites is presented on the basis of non-covalent interactions between the template and zeolite surfaces as well as silicate oligomers studied by means of classical molecular dynamics. Use was made of Si11 and Si33 silicate oligomers that contain structural features of the framework to be formed as originally proposed by the Leuven group. Molecular recognition is driven by a combination of strong electrostatic and weaker dispersion interactions. An analysis of the early stage of zeolite formation is necessary, as the template adsorption energies in the fully formed zeolite crystals cannot explain the preferential growth of the MFI sheets or MEL needles. Specifically, it is found that the differences in dispersion interactions between the SDA alkyl chains and the silicate oligomers are decisive in the formation of particular zeolite structures.
Project description:To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of catalyst durability for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with an ammonia reductant, we employed scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to study Cu-exchanged zeolites with the CHA and MFI framework structures before and after simulated 135?000-mile aging. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements were performed at the Al?K- and Cu?L-edges. The local environment of framework Al, the oxidation state of Cu, and geometric changes were analyzed, showing a multi-factor-induced catalytic deactivation. In Cu-exchanged MFI, a transformation of CuII to CuI and Cux Oy was observed. We also found a spatial correlation between extra-framework Al and deactivated Cu species near the surface of the zeolite as well as a weak positive correlation between the amount of CuI and tri-coordinated Al. By inspecting both Al and Cu in fresh and aged Cu-exchanged zeolites, we conclude that the importance of the preservation of isolated CuII sites trumps that of Brønsted acid sites for NH3 -SCR activity.
Project description:Some two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated zeolites are single- or near single-unit cell thick silicates that can function as molecular sieves. Although they have already found uses as catalysts, adsorbents and membranes precise determination of their thickness and wrinkling is critical as these properties influence their functionality. Here we demonstrate a method to accurately determine the thickness and wrinkles of a 2D zeolite nanosheet by comprehensive 3D mapping of its reciprocal lattice. Since the intensity modulation of a diffraction spot on tilting is a fingerprint of the thickness, and changes in the spot shape are a measure of wrinkling, this mapping is achieved using a large-angle tilt-series of electron diffraction patterns. Application of the method to a 2D zeolite with MFI structure reveals that the exfoliated MFI nanosheet is 1.5 unit cells (3.0?nm) thick and wrinkled anisotropically with up to 0.8?nm average surface roughness.