A high carbohydrate, but not fat or protein meal attenuates postprandial ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 responses in Chinese men.
ABSTRACT: It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP), high-carbohydrate (HC), or high-fat (HF) mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10) and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4.34±0.41) young (age 21-40 years), normoglycaemic Chinese men. We measured fasting and postprandial plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total peptide-YY (PYY), and acyl-ghrelin in response to HP, HF, or HC meals. Overall postprandial plasma insulin response was more robust in the lean compared to obese subjects. The postprandial GLP-1 response after HF or HP meal was higher than HC meal in both lean and obese subjects. In obese subjects, HF meal induced higher response in postprandial PYY compared to HC meal. HP and HF meals also suppressed ghrelin greater compared to HC meal in the obese than lean subjects. In conclusion, a high-protein or high-fat meal induces a more favorable postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal response than a high-carbohydrate meal in obese insulin-resistant subjects.
Project description:Background: Oxidative stress induced by nutritional overload has been linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, which is associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications. Postprandial changes in expression of oxidative stress pathway genes in obese vs. lean individuals, following intake of different types of meals varying in macronutrient composition have not been characterized to date. Here we aimed to test whether/how oxidative stress responses in obese vs. lean individuals are modulated by meal composition. Methods: High-carbohydrate (HC), high-fat (HF), or high-protein (HP) liquid mixed meals were administered to study subjects (lean insulin-sensitive, n = 9 and obese insulin-resistant, n = 9). Plasma levels of glucose and insulin, lipid profile, urinary F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP), and expression levels of genes of oxidative stress pathways were assessed in mononuclear cells (MNC) derived from fresh peripheral blood, at baseline and up to 6-h postprandial states. Differences in these parameters were compared between insulin-sensitive/resistant groups undergoing aforementioned meal challenges. Results: Obese individuals exhibited increased pro-oxidant (i.e., CYBB and CYBA) and anti-oxidant (i.e., TXN RD1) gene expression in the postprandial state, compared with lean subjects, regardless of meal type (P interaction for group × time < 0.05). By contrast, lean subjects had higher expression of NCF-4 gene (pro-oxidant) after HC meal and SOD1 gene (anti-oxidant) after HC and HF meals (P interaction for group × meal < 0.05). There was an increase in postprandial level of urinary F2-IsoP in the obese (P < 0.05) but not lean group. Conclusions: These findings may represent an adaptive oxidative response to mitigate increased stress induced by acute nutritional excess. Further, the results suggest an increased predisposition of obese subjects to oxidative stress. Chronic nutritional excess resulting in increases in body weight and adiposity might lead to decompensation leading to worsening insulin resistance and its sequel. Insights from this study could impact on nutritional recommendations for obese subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:The concentrations of lipoprotein particles [high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), and chylomicrons] are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Most studies have examined these associations in the fasting state. Previous studies have shown lipoprotein particle concentration change following meal, and these changes are different in individuals with obesity. In this study, we aimed to assess whether various meal compositions lead to adverse short-term (2-h) postprandial lipoproteinemia in obese insulin resistant (obese-IR) subjects as compared to lean insulin sensitive (lean-IS) subjects. In a randomized crossover trial, nine lean-IS and nine obese-IR Chinese men aged 22-35 years were challenged with isoenergetic and isovolumic meals rich in protein (HP), fat (HF), or carbohydrate (HC). Plasma samples were collected after a 10-h fast, as well as 1-h and 2-h post-meal and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance. Plasma concentration of large VLDLs and chylomicron particles was higher and increased more after all meals in obese-IR compared to lean-IS subjects. The HP meal decreased small LDL particle concentration in obese-IR subjects, and increased small HDL particle concentration in all subjects. The HF meal led to a decrease in small HDL concentration in all subjects. In conclusion, obese-IR subjects revealed a detrimental response to meal challenges even as early as 2-h after meal intake.
Project description:The energy balance regulation may differ in lean and obese people. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the hormonal response to meals with varying macronutrient content, and the differences depending on body weight. METHODS:The crossover study included 46 men, 21?58 years old, normal-weight and overweight/obese. Every subject participated in two meal-challenge-tests with high-carbohydrate (HC), and normo-carbohydrate (NC) or high-fat (HF) meals. Fasting and postprandial blood was collected for a further 240 min, to determine adiponectin, leptin and total ghrelin concentrations. RESULTS:In normal-weight individuals after HC-meal we observed at 60min higher adiponectin concentrations (12,554 ± 1531 vs. 8691 ± 1070 ng/mL, p = 0.01) and significantly (p < 0.05) lower total ghrelin concentrations during the first 120 min, than after HF-meal intake. Fasting and postprandial leptin levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in overweigh/obese men. Leptin concentrations in normal-weight men were higher (2.72 ± 0.8 vs. 1.56 ± 0.4 ng/mL, p = 0.01) 180 min after HC-meal than after NC-meal intake. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that in normal-body weight men we can expect more beneficial leptin, adiponectin, and total ghrelin response after HC-meal intake, whereas, in overweight/obese men, the HC-meal intake may exacerbate the feeling of hunger, and satiety may be induced more by meals with lower carbohydrate content.
Project description:Alterations in appetite hormones favoring increased postprandial satiety have been implicated in both the glycemic control and potential weight-loss benefits of a low-glycemic diet. Racial differences exist in dietary glycemic load and appetite hormone concentrations. This study examined the impact of glycemic load on appetite hormones in 20 black women [10 normal weight, BMI = 22.8 ± 1.42 (mean ± SD); 10 obese, BMI = 35.1 ± 2.77] and 20 white women (10 normal weight, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.45; 10 obese, BMI = 34.3 ± 2.77). Each woman completed two 4.5-d weight-maintenance, mixed-macronutrient, high-glycemic vs. low-glycemic load diets that concluded with a test meal of identical composition. Blood samples collected before and serially for 3 h after each test meal were assayed for plasma ghrelin and serum insulin and glucose concentrations. Compared with the high-glycemic load meal, the low-glycemic load meal was associated with lower insulin(AUC) (P = 0.02), glucose(AUC) (P = 0.01), and urge to eat ratings (P = 0.05) but with higher ghrelin(AUC) (P = 0.008). These results suggest the satiating effect of a low-glycemic load meal is not directly linked to enhanced postprandial suppression of ghrelin. Notably, these effects were significant among white but not black women, suggesting that black women may be less sensitive than white women to the glucoregulatory effects of a low-glycemic load. These findings add to a growing literature demonstrating racial differences in postprandial appetite hormone responses. If reproducible, these findings have implications for individualized diet prescription for the purposes of glucose or weight control in women.
Project description:<b>Scope</b>: To identify a metabolomic profile related to postprandial satiety sensations involved in appetite control would help for a better understanding of the regulation of food intake. Methods and Results: A cross-sectional analysis of plasma metabolites was conducted over 151 overweight/obese adults from the "Satiety Innovation"-SATIN study, a randomized clinical trial of a 12-week weight-loss maintenance period. Postprandial satiety sensations (3 h-iAUC) were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) at the beginning and at the end of the study. Fasting plasma metabolites were profiled using a targeted multiplatform metabolomics approach before each appetite test meal. Associations between 124 metabolites and iAUC-satiety were assessed using elastic net linear regression analyses. The accuracy of the multimetabolite weighted models for iAUC-VAS was evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation (CV) approach and the Pearson's correlation coefficients were estimated. Five and three metabolites were selected in the first and the second assessments, respectively. Circulating glycine and linoleic acid concentrations were consistently and positively associated with higher iAUC-satiety in both visits. Sucrose and sphingomyelins (C32:2, C38:1) were negatively associated with iAUC-satiety in the first visit. The Pearson correlations coefficients between the metabolomic profiles and iAUC-satiety in the first and the second appetite assessments were 0.37 and 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: Higher glycine and linoleic acid were moderately but consistently associated with higher postprandial satiety in two different appetite assessments in overweight and obese subjects.
Project description:Developing non-invasive alternatives to monitor insulin levels in humans holds potential practical value for identifying individuals with, or at risk of developing, insulin resistance. The aims of this study were: (1) to determine if saliva insulin can be used to delineate between low and high postprandial insulin levels following the ingestion of mixed breakfast meals; and (2) to determine if expected differences in postprandial hyperinsulinemia between young lean and young overweight/obese participants could be detected in saliva. Sixteen individuals (n = 8 classified as normal weight (NW); BMI 20.0-24.9 kg/m², and n = 8 classified as overweight/obese (OO); BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m²) completed two isocaloric mixed-meal tolerance tests following an overnight fast, consisting of a low-carbohydrate (LC) breakfast or a high-carbohydrate (HC) breakfast. Blood and saliva samples were collected at regular intervals for two hours postprandially. In both groups, plasma and saliva insulin total area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC (iAUC) were significantly higher after the HC as compared to the LC meal (all p ≤ 0.005). Insulin AUC and iAUC in both plasma and saliva were higher in OO than in NW after the HC meal (all p ≤ 0.02) but only plasma and saliva total AUC were higher in OO after the LC meal (both p ≤ 0.01). Plasma insulin AUC was significantly correlated with salivary insulin AUC in LC (r = 0.821; p < 0.001) and HC (r = 0.882; p < 0.001). These findings indicate that saliva could potentially be used to delineate between low and high insulin levels following mixed breakfast meals.
Project description:The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the intake of Policaptil Gel Retard® (PGR) is able to affect appetite, metabolic and hormonal postprandial profile in obese children. 46 obese children were randomly assigned to treatment with PGR or placebo, in a double blind clinical trial. Two PGR tablets or placebo were given in fasting condition, before the ingestion of a mixed meal (15 kcal/kg lean body mass). Blood samples were taken at baseline and for 4 hours, for measuring blood lipids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Appetite was quantified using a visual analog scale. Children assuming PGR had a significantly lower increase of postprandial triglycerides (area under the curve (AUC): 3021 (2879) vs. 5038 (3738) mg × 240 min/Dl) and appetite (-234 (274) vs. 36 (329)) than children assuming placebo. The AUC of ghrelin was significantly lower after PGR ingestion, than after placebo (-8179 (8073) vs. -2800 (7579) pg × 240 min/mL). Blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and GLP-1 profiles were not significantly different in the two groups. In conclusion, a single intake of two tablets of PGR was associated with a significant reduction of appetite, ghrelin, and triglycerides in the postprandial period in obese children. Further investigation will assess if a chronic intake of PGR may affect body weight and glucose metabolism.
Project description:Postprandial responses to food are highly dependent on the macronutrient composition of the diet. We investigated the acute effects of transition from the recommended moderately high carbohydrate (HC) diet towards a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipemia, and appetite-regulating hormones in non-diabetic adults. Fourteen subjects, including five males (Mean ± SD: age 62 ± 6.5; BMI 32 ± 7.6 kg/m²; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 40 ± 3.0 mmol/mol; HOMA2-IR 2.1 ± 0.9) were included in this randomized, cross-over study. Iso-caloric diets were consumed for two consecutive days with a median wash-out period of 21 days (range 2?8 weeks) between diets (macronutrient energy composition: CRHP/HC; 31%/54% carbohydrate, 29%/16% protein, 40%/30% fat). Postprandial glucose, insulin secretion rate (ISR), triglycerides (TGs), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and satiety ratings were assessed after ingestion of breakfast (Br) and lunch (Lu), and gut hormones and glucagon were assessed after ingestion of Br. Compared with the HC diet, the CRHP diet reduced peak glucose concentrations (Br 11%, p = 0.024; Lu 11%, p < 0.001), glucose excursions (Br 80%, p = 0.20; Lu 85%, p < 0.001), and ISR (Br 31%; Lu 64%, both p < 0.001) whereas CRHP, as compared with HC, increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (Br 27%, p = 0.015) and glucagon values (Br 249%, p < 0.001). NEFA and TG levels increased in the CRHP diet as compared with the HC diet after Br, but no difference was found after Lu (NEFA Br 22%, p < 0.01; TG Br 42%, p = 0.012). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity, insulin clearance, cholecystokinin values, and subjective satiety ratings were unaffected. It is possible to achieve a reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulin without a deleterious effect on beta-cell glucose sensitivity by substituting part of dietary carbohydrate with iso-caloric protein and fat in subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The metabolic effects are more pronounced after the second meal.
Project description:We evaluated the effects of mixed meals differing in glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content on postprandial serum glucose and insulin response, hunger, and satiety over the course of a 12-h day.In this randomized crossover trial, 26 overweight or obese adults received four diets in random order (high GI, high carbohydrate [HGI-HC]; high GI, low carbohydrate [HGI-LC]; low GI, high carbohydrate [LGI-HC]; and low GI, low carbohydrate [LGI-LC]). All meals were prepared by a metabolic kitchen. Participants received breakfast, lunch, and dinner over the course of a 12-h day. Primary outcomes were postprandial serum glucose and insulin quantified as area under the curve. Hunger, fullness, and satiety were assessed by visual analog scale.The HGI-LC, LGI-HC, and LGI-LC diets significantly reduced glucose and insulin area under the curve compared with the HGI-HC diet (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). There were no significant differences in ratings of hunger, fullness, or satiety between the different dietary treatments.Reducing the GI or carbohydrate content of mixed meals reduces postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and these changes can be sustained over the course of an entire day. However, there were no differences in subjective hunger and satiety ratings between the diets. These results demonstrate that maintaining a low GI or glycemic load diet is an effective method of controlling serum glucose and insulin levels.
Project description:Almonds provide a satiating, healthy source of fat and fiber. The postprandial metabolic and satiety response to 2 ounces of nuts or dairy was assessed in 18 overweight/obese women during late pregnancy. Serum glucose, triglycerides, insulin, c-peptide, leptin, ghrelin, and lipoprotein particles were measured prior to and during a 5-h postprandial period following the consumption of an isocaloric breakfast meal with equivalent amounts of fat from either nuts or dairy on two separate mornings. Satiety was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires and ad libitum food intake at the end of the study. At 33 weeks gestation, the women had gained an average of 7.0 ± 4.4 kg during gestation. Body fat averaged 41.9 ± 5.5% and hemoglobin A1c levels were elevated, (7.2 ± 0.6%). Fasting glucose levels were normal, but hyperinsulinemia was evident. The two test meals did not affect the postprandial metabolic response, but glucose, triglyceride, and ghrelin concentrations changed with time during the postprandial period (p < 0.001, p = 0.0008, p = 0.006). Satiety measures did not differ between the two test meals. Consuming an isocaloric breakfast meal with equivalent amounts of fat from nuts or dairy did not alter postprandial levels of blood lipids, glucose, hormones, or measures of satiety in overweight/obese, pregnant women.