Endothelial cell senescence with aging in healthy humans: prevention by habitual exercise and relation to vascular endothelial function.
ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence is emerging as a key mechanism of age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction, but evidence in healthy humans is lacking. Moreover, the influence of lifestyle factors such as habitual exercise on endothelial cell (EC) senescence is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EC senescence increases with sedentary, but not physically active, aging and is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Protein expression (quantitative immunofluorescence) of p53, a transcription factor related to increased cellular senescence, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 were 116%, 119%, and 128% greater (all P < 0.05), respectively, in ECs obtained from antecubital veins of older sedentary (60?±?1 yr, n = 12) versus young sedentary (22?±?1 yr, n = 9) adults. These age-related differences were not present (all P > 0.05) in venous ECs from older exercising adults (57?±?1 yr, n = 13). Furthermore, venous EC protein levels of p53 (r?=?-0.49, P = 0.003), p21 (r?=?-0.38, P = 0.03), and p16 (r?=?-0.58, P = 0.002) were inversely associated with vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation). Similarly, protein expression of p53 and p21 was 26% and 23% higher (both P < 0.05), respectively, in ECs sampled from brachial arteries of healthy older sedentary (63?±?1 yr, n = 18) versus young sedentary (25?±?1 yr, n = 9) adults; age-related changes in arterial EC p53 and p21 expression were not observed (P > 0.05) in older habitually exercising adults (59?±?1 yr, n = 14). These data indicate that EC senescence is associated with sedentary aging and is linked to endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, these data suggest that prevention of EC senescence may be one mechanism by which aerobic exercise protects against endothelial dysfunction with age.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study provides novel evidence in humans of increased endothelial cell senescence with sedentary aging, which is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function. Furthermore, our data suggest an absence of age-related increases in endothelial cell senescence in older exercising adults, which is linked with preserved vascular endothelial function.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To reveal whether B-myb is involved in preventing senescence of vascular endothelial cells, and if so, to identify possible mechanisms for it. MATERIALS AND METHODS:C57/BL6 male mice and primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were used. Bleomycin was applied to induce stress-related premature senescence. B-myb knockdown was achieved using an siRNA technique and cell senescence was assessed using the senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was analysed using an ROS assay kit and cell proliferation was evaluated using KFluor488 EdU kit. Capillary tube network formation was determined by Matrigel assay. Expressions of mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS:B-myb expression significantly decreased, while p53 and p21 expressions increased in the aortas of aged mice. This expression pattern was also found in replicative senescent HAECs and senescent HAECs induced by bleomycin. B-myb knockdown resulted in upregulation of p22phox , ROS accumulation and cell senescence of HAECs. Downregulation of B-myb significantly inhibited cell proliferation and capillary tube network formation and activated the p53/p21 signalling pathway. Blocking ROS production or inhibiting p53 activation remarkably attenuated SA-?-gal activity and delayed cell senescence induced by B-myb-silencing. CONCLUSION:Downregulation of B-myb induced senescence by upregulation of p22phox and activation of the ROS/p53/p21 pathway, in our vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that B-myb may be a novel candidate for regulating cell senescence to protect against endothelial senescence-related cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Oxidative stress regulates dysfunction and senescence of vascular endothelial cells. The DNA damage response and its main signaling pathway involving ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) have been implicated in playing a central role in mediating the actions of oxidative stress; however, the role of the ATM signaling pathway in vascular pathogenesis has largely remained unclear. Here, we identify ATM to regulate oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell dysfunction and premature senescence. Oxidative stress induced senescence in endothelial cells through activation/phosphorylation of ATM by way of an Akt/p53/p21-mediated pathway. These actions were abrogated in cells in which ATM was knocked down by RNA interference or inhibited by specific inhibitory compounds. Furthermore, the in vivo significance of this regulatory pathway was confirmed using ATM knock-out mice in which induction of senescent endothelial cells in the aorta in a diabetic mouse model of endothelial dysfunction and senescence was attenuated in contrast to pathological changes seen in wild-type mice. Collectively, our results show that ATM through an ATM/Akt/p53/p21-dependent signaling pathway mediates an instructive role in oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction and premature senescence.
Project description:Vascular cell senescence, induced by the DNA damage response or inflammatory stress, contributes to age-associated vascular disease. Using complementary DNA microarray technology, we found that the level of POZ/BTB and AT-hook-containing zinc finger protein 1 (PATZ1) is downregulated during endothelial cell (EC) senescence. PATZ1 may have an important role as a transcriptional repressor in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation; however, the role of PATZ1 in EC senescence and vascular aging remains unidentified. Knockdown of PATZ1 in young cells accelerated premature EC senescence, which was confirmed by growth arrest, increased p53 protein level and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and repression of EC tube formation. In contrast, overexpression of PATZ1 in senescent cells reversed senescent phenotypes. Cellular senescence induced by PATZ1 knockdown in young cells was rescued by knockdown of p53, but not by knockdown of p16(INK4a). PATZ1 knockdown increased ROS levels, and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine abolished EC senescence induced by PATZ1 knockdown. Notably, PATZ1 immunoreactivity was lower in ECs of atherosclerotic tissues than those of normal arteries in LDLR(-/-) mice, and immunoreactivity also decreased in ECs of old human arteries. These results suggest that PATZ1 may have an important role in the regulation of EC senescence through an ROS-mediated p53-dependent pathway and contribute to vascular diseases associated with aging.
Project description:Endothelial senescence plays crucial roles in diabetic vascular complication. Recent evidence indicated that transient hyperglycaemia could potentiate persistent diabetic vascular complications, a phenomenon known as "metabolic memory." Although SIRT1 has been demonstrated to mediate high glucose-induced endothelial senescence, whether and how "metabolic memory" would affect endothelial senescence through SIRT1 signaling remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SIRT1 axis as well as the protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) and metformin (MET), two potent SIRT1 activators, during the occurrence of "metabolic memory" of cellular senescence (senescent "memory"). Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in either normal glucose (NG)/high glucose (HG) media for 6 days, or 3 days of HG followed by 3 days of NG (HN), with or without RSV or MET treatment. It was shown that HN incubation triggered persistent downregulation of deacetylase SIRT1 and upregulation of acetyltransferase p300, leading to sustained hyperacetylation (at K382) and activation of p53, and subsequent p53/p21-mediated senescent "memory." In contrast, senescent "memory" was abrogated by overexpression of SIRT1 or knockdown of p300. Interestingly, we found that SIRT1 and p300 could regulate each other in response to HN stimulation, suggesting that a delicate balance between acetyltransferases and deacetylases may be particularly important for sustained acetylation and activation of non-histone proteins (such as p53), and eventually the occurrence of "metabolic memory." Furthermore, we found that RSV or MET treatment prevented senescent "memory" by modulating SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. Notably, early and continuous treatment of MET, but not RSV, was particularly important for preventing senescent "memory." In conclusion, short-term high glucose stimulation could induce sustained endothelial senescence via SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. RVS or MET treatment could enhance SIRT1-mediated signaling and thus protect against senescent "memory" independent of their glucose lowering mechanisms. Therefore, they may serve as promising therapeutic drugs against the development of "metabolic memory."
Project description:Aggregated amyloid ? (A?) peptides in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain are hypothesized to trigger several downstream pathologies, including cerebrovascular dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that A? peptides can have antiangiogenic properties, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction in the early stages of the disease process. We have generated data showing that brain endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to toxic A?1-42 oligomers can readily enter a senescence phenotype. To determine the effect of A? oligomers on brain ECs, we treated early passaged human brain microvascular ECs and HUVECs with high MW A?1-42 oligomers (5 µM, for 72 h). For controls, we used no peptide treatment, 5 µM A?1-42 monomers, and 5 µM A?1-42 fibrils, respectively. Brain ECs treated with A?1-42 oligomers showed increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining and increased senescence-associated p21/p53 expression. Treatment with either A?1-42 monomer or A?1-42 fibrils did not induce senescence in this assay. We then measured vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) expression in the A?1-42 oligomer-treated ECs, and these cells showed significantly increased VEGFR-1 expression and decreased VEGFR-2 levels. Overexpression of VEGFR-1 in brain ECs readily induced senescence, suggesting a direct role of VEGFR-1 signaling events in this paradigm. More importantly, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR-1 expression in brain ECs was able to prevent up-regulation of p21 protein expression and significantly reduced induction of senescence following A?1-42 oligomer treatment. Our studies show that exposure to A?1-42 oligomers may impair vascular functions by altering VEGFR-1 expression and causing ECs to enter a senescent phenotype. Altered VEGFR expression has been documented in brains of AD patients and suggests that this pathway may play a role in AD disease pathogenesis. These studies suggest that modulating VEGFR-1 expression and signaling events could potentially prevent senescence and rejuvenate EC functions, and provides us with a novel target to pursue for prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD.-Angom, R. S., Wang, Y., Wang, E., Pal, K., Bhattacharya, S., Watzlawik, J. O., Rosenberry, T. L., Das, P., Mukhopadhyay, D. VEGF receptor-1 modulates amyloid ? 1-42 oligomer-induced senescence in brain endothelial cells.
Project description:Tumor blood vessels support tumor growth and progression. Centrosomes are microtubule organization centers in cells, and often up to 30% of tumor endothelial cells (ECs) acquire excess (>2) centrosomes. Although excess centrosomes can lead to aneuploidy and chromosome instability in tumor cells, how untransformed ECs respond to excess centrosomes is poorly understood. We found that the frequency of primary human ECs with excess centrosomes was quickly reduced in a p53-dependent manner. Excess centrosomes in ECs were associated with p53 phosphorylation at Ser33, increased p21 levels, and decreased cell proliferation and expression of senescence markers, but independent of DNA damage and apoptosis. Aspects of the senescence-associated phenotype were also observed in mouse ECs that were isolated from tumors with excess centrosomes. Primary ECs with excess centrosomes in vascular sprouts also had elevated Ser33 p53 phosphorylation and expressed senescence markers. Our work demonstrates that nontransformed ECs respond differently to excess centrosomes than do most tumor cells-they undergo senescence in vascular sprouts and vessels, which suggests that pathologic outcomes of centrosome overduplication depend on the transformation status of cells.-Yu, Z., Ruter, D. L., Kushner, E. J., Bautch, V. L. Excess centrosomes induce p53-dependent senescence without DNA damage in endothelial cells.
Project description:Endothelial cell senescence is one of the main risk factors contributing to vascular diseases. As increasing number of "epigenetic drugs" entering clinical trials, understanding the mechanism of epigenetic regulation in vascular aging has significant implications in finding targets to cure vascular diseases. However, the epigenetic regulation of endothelial senescence remains unclear. Based on the findings that increased protein level of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase Smyd3 and elevated H3K4me3 modification happened in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced senescence in rat endothelial cells, we are curious about whether and how Smyd3 can regulate endothelial senescence. We found that an increase of Smyd3 alone promoted senescence-associated phenotypes, while knockdown of Smyd3 blocked senescence in endothelial cells. Furthermore, Smyd3-specific inhibitor reversed vascular senescence-associated phenotypes at cellular level. Importantly, Ang II-induced vascular senescence can be greatly alleviated in Smyd3 knockout (KO) mice and those treated with Smyd3 inhibitor. Mechanistically, Smyd3 directly bound to the promoter region of Cdkn1a (coding for p21), then caused its increased H3K4me3 level and elevated gene expression, and ultimately gave rise to senescence-associated phenotypes. Intriguingly, Smyd3-mediated p21 upregulated expression also exists in human tissues of vascular disease, indicating it is probably an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in regulating vascular senescence. Thus, Smyd3 can act as a novel factor regulating endothelial senescence through transcriptionally promoting p21 expression. Blocking the Smyd3-p21 signaling axis may also have potential medical implications in treating diseases related to vascular aging.
Project description:Both short- and long-term exposure to fine dust (FD) from air pollution has been linked to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Endothelial cell (EC) senescence is an important risk factor for CVDs, and recent evidence suggests that FD-induced premature EC senescence increases oxidative stress levels. Hop plant (<i>Humulus lupulus</i>) is a very rich source of polyphenols known to have nutritional and therapeutic properties, including antioxidant behavior. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether <i>Humulus lupulus</i> extract prevents FD-induced vascular senescence and dysfunction and, if so, to characterize the underlying mechanisms and active components. Porcine coronary arteries and endothelial cells were treated with FD in the presence or absence of hop extract (HOP), and the senescence-associated-beta galactosidase (SA-?-gal) activity, cell-cycle progression, expression of senescence markers, oxidative stress level, and vascular function were evaluated. Results indicated that HOP inhibited FD-induced SA-?-gal activity, cell-cycle arrest, and oxidative stress, suggesting that HOP prevents premature induction of senescence by FD. HOP also ameliorated FD-induced vascular dysfunction. Additionally, xanthohumol (XN) and isoxanthohumol (IX) were found to produce the protective effects of HOP. Treatment with HOP and its primary active components XN and IX downregulated the expression of p22<sup>ph</sup><sup>o</sup><sup>x</sup>, p53, and angiotensin type 1 receptor, which all are known FD-induced redox-sensitive EC senescence inducers. Taken together, HOP and its active components protect against FD-induced endothelial senescence most likely via antioxidant activity and may be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing and/or treating air-pollution-associated CVDs.
Project description:Risk factors for atherosclerosis accelerate the senescence of vascular endothelial cells and promote atherogenesis by inducing vascular inflammation. A hallmark of endothelial senescence is the persistent up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes. We identified CDC42 signaling as a mediator of chronic inflammation associated with endothelial senescence. Inhibition of CDC42 or NF-?B signaling attenuated the sustained up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes in senescent human endothelial cells. Endothelium-specific activation of the p53/p21 pathway, a key mediator of senescence, also resulted in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules in mice, which was reversed by Cdc42 deletion in endothelial cells. Likewise, endothelial-specific deletion of Cdc42 significantly attenuated chronic inflammation and plaque formation in atherosclerotic mice. While inhibition of NF-?B suppressed the pro-inflammatory responses in acute inflammation, the influence of Cdc42 deletion was less marked. Knockdown of cdc-42 significantly down-regulated pro-inflammatory gene expression and restored the shortened lifespan to normal in mutant worms with enhanced inflammation. These findings indicate that the CDC42 pathway is critically involved in senescence-associated inflammation and could be a therapeutic target for chronic inflammation in patients with age-related diseases without compromising host defenses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Disturbed flow (d-flow)-induced senescence and activation of endothelial cells (ECs) have been suggested to have critical roles in promoting atherosclerosis. Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TERF2)-interacting protein (TERF2IP), a member of the shelterin complex at the telomere, regulates the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), in which EC activation and senescence are engendered simultaneously by p90RSK-induced phosphorylation of TERF2IP S205 and subsequent nuclear export of the TERF2IP-TERF2 complex. In this study, we investigated TERF2IP-dependent gene expression and its role in regulating d-flow-induced SASP. METHODS:A principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering were used to identify genes whose expression is regulated by TERF2IP in ECs under d-flow conditions. Senescence was determined by reduced telomere length, increased p53 and p21 expression, and increased apoptosis; EC activation was detected by NF-?B activation and the expression of adhesion molecules. The involvement of TERF2IP S205 phosphorylation in d-flow-induced SASP was assessed by depletion of TERF2IP and mutation of the phosphorylation site. RESULTS:Our unbiased transcriptome analysis showed that TERF2IP caused alteration in the expression of a distinct set of genes, including rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR) and makorin-1 (MKRN1) ubiquitin E3 ligase, under d-flow conditions. In particular, both depletion of TERF2IP and overexpression of the TERF2IP S205A phosphorylation site mutant in ECs increased the d-flow and p90RSK-induced MKRN1 expression and subsequently inhibited apoptosis, telomere shortening, and NF-?B activation in ECs via suppression of p53, p21, and telomerase (TERT) induction. CONCLUSIONS:MKRN1 and RICTOR belong to a distinct reciprocal gene set that is both negatively and positively regulated by p90RSK. TERF2IP S205 phosphorylation, a downstream event of p90RSK activation, uniquely inhibits MKRN1 expression and contributes to EC activation and senescence, which are key events for atherogenesis.