NGS Reveals Molecular Pathways Affected by Obesity and Weight Loss-Related Changes in miRNA Levels in Adipose Tissue.
ABSTRACT: Both obesity and weight loss may cause molecular changes in adipose tissue. This study aimed to characterize changes in adipose tissue miRNome in order to identify molecular pathways affected by obesity and weight changes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) differentially expressed in 47 samples of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from normal-weight (N), obese (O) and obese after surgery-induced weight loss (PO) individuals. Subsequently miRNA expression was validated by real-time PCR in 197 adipose tissues and bioinformatics analysis performed to identify molecular pathways affected by obesity-related changes in miRNA expression. NGS identified 344 miRNAs expressed in adipose tissues with ?5 reads per million. Using >2 and <-2 fold change as cut-offs we showed that the expression of 54 miRNAs differed significantly between VAT-O and SAT-O. Equally, between SAT-O and SAT-N, the expression of 20 miRNAs differed significantly, between SAT-PO and SAT-N the expression of 79 miRNAs differed significantly, and between SAT-PO and SAT-O, the expression of 61 miRNAs differed significantly. Ontological analyses disclosed several molecular pathways regulated by these miRNAs in adipose tissue. NGS-based miRNome analysis characterized changes of the miRNA profile of adipose tissue, which are associated with changes of weight possibly responsible for a differential regulation of molecular pathways in adipose tissue when the individual is obese and after the individual has lost weight.
Project description:Background: Given the role that vitamin D (VD) plays in the regulation of the inflammatory activity of adipocytes, we aimed to assess whether obesity changes the expression of VD-related genes in adipose tissue and, if so, to investigate whether this phenomenon depends on microRNA interference and how it may influence the local inflammatory milieu. Methods: The expression of genes encoding VD 1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and receptor (VDR), selected interleukins and microRNAs was evaluated by real-time PCR in visceral (VAT) and in subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues of 55 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) and 31 normal-weight (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m2) individuals. Results: VDR mRNA levels were higher, while CYP27B1 levels were lower in adipose tissues of obese patients than in those of normal-weight controls (VAT: P = 0.04, SAT: P < 0.0001 and VAT: P = 0.004, SAT: P = 0.016, respectively). The expression of VDR in VAT of obese subjects correlated negatively with levels of miR-125a-5p (P = 0.0006, rs = -0.525), miR-125b-5p (P = 0.001, rs = -0.495), and miR-214-3p (P = 0.009, rs = -0.379). Additionally, VDR mRNA concentrations in visceral adipose tissues of obese subjects correlated positively with mRNA levels of interleukins: 1?, 6 and 8. Conclusions: We observed obesity-associated up-regulation of VDR and down-regulation of CYP27B mRNA levels in adipose tissue. VDR expression correlates with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and may be regulated by miRNAs.
Project description:Although the accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a risk factor for disease, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested to have a protective role against obesity.We studied whether changes in BAT were related to changes in the amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in children treated for malignancy.We examined the effect of BAT activity on weight, SAT, and VAT in 32 pediatric patients with cancer whose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans at diagnosis showed no BAT activity. Changes in weight, SAT, and VAT from diagnosis to remission for children with metabolically active BAT at disease-free follow-up (BAT+) were compared with those in children without visualized BAT when free of disease (BAT-).Follow-up PET-CT studies (4.7 ± 2.4 mo later) after successful treatment of the cancer showed BAT+ in 19 patients but no active BAT (BAT-) in 13 patients. BAT+ patients, in comparison with BAT- patients, gained significantly less weight (3.3 ± 6.6% compared with 11.0 ± 11.6%; P = 0.02) and had significantly less SAT (18.2 ± 26.5% compared with 67.4 ± 71.7%; P = 0.01) and VAT (22.6 ± 33.5% compared with 131.6 ± 171.8%; P = 0.01) during treatment. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the inverse relations between BAT activation and measures of weight, SAT, and VAT persisted even after age, glucocorticoid treatment, and the season when the PET-CT scans were obtained were accounted for.The activation of BAT in pediatric patients undergoing treatment of malignancy is associated with significantly less adipose accumulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01517581.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Weight gain is associated with fat volume increases, but associations with fat quality are less well characterized The associations of weight change with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and attenuation were investigated. METHODS:Computed tomography abdominal scans were acquired on a Framingham Heart Study subset (N = 836; 40.2% women; mean age 45.7 years), a mean of 6.1 years apart. Fat attenuation estimated fat quality. RESULTS:Mean weight change was +2.0 (SD 6.8; IQR -0.7, 5.0) kg in women and +2.7 (SD 6.0; IQR -0.5, 5.4) kg in men. Per 2.5 kg weight increase in women, VAT volume increased 126 cm(3) (95% CI, 112-140, p < 0.0001), SAT volume increased 258 cm(3) (95% CI, 239-278, p < 0.0001), and fat attenuation decreased (i.e., fat quality worsened) in VAT and SAT (p < 0.0001). Increasing VAT volume was associated with decreasing fat attenuation even after accounting for weight change. Relative to weight-stable women (n = 129), women who lost >2.5 kg (n = 58) had smaller SAT attenuation decreases (p < 0.0001). Similar patterns were seen in men. CONCLUSIONS:Weight gain was associated with decreases in fat attenuation independent of VAT and SAT volume changes. These findings highlighted the associations of weight gain and worsening fat attenuation, suggesting fat attenuation may be dynamic.
Project description:To assess changes in total (TAT), subcutaneous (SAT), visceral (VAT), and intermuscular (IMAT) adipose tissue by whole-body MRI before surgery and at 12 months and 24 months post-surgery in a subset of participants of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2.From 0 to 12 months, n?=?20 females and 3 males; from 12 to 24 months, n?=?42 females and 7 males. Paired t-tests and GLM repeated measures examined changes in TAT, SAT, VAT, and IMAT at 12 and 24 months, with sex and age as covariates.Changes from 0 to 12 months included weight (-41.9?±?12.1 kg; -36%), TAT (-33.5?±?9.6 kg; -56%), SAT (-29.2?±?8.2 kg; -55%), VAT (-3.3?±?1.6 kg; -73%), and IMAT (-0.99?±?0.68 kg; -50%), all P?<?0.001. In females, from 12 to 24 months, despite relative weight stability (-1.8?±?6.5 kg, -2%; P?=?0.085), VAT (-0.5?±?0.7 kg; -30%; P?<?0.001) and IMAT (-0.2?±?0.4 kg; -14%; P?=?0.012) decreased further. In males, from 12 to 24 months, weight increased (5.1?±?5.2 kg; 6%; P?=?0.04) with no significant changes in TAT or sub-depots.Bariatric surgery continues to induce favorable changes in body composition, i.e., persistent adipose tissue loss at 24 months in the absence of further significant weight loss.
Project description:The differential associations of adipose depots with metabolic risk during obesity have been proposed to be controlled by environmental and genetic factors. We evaluated the regional differences in transcriptome signatures between abdominal (aSAT) and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue (gSAT) in obese black South African women and tested the hypothesis that 12-week exercise training alters gene expression patterns in a depot-specific manner. Twelve young women performed 12-weeks of supervised aerobic and resistance training. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), whole-body composition and unbiased gene expression analysis of SAT depots. VO2peak increased, body weight decreased, and body fat distribution improved with exercise training (p?<?0.05). The expression of 15 genes, mainly associated with embryonic development, differed between SAT depots at baseline, whereas 318 genes were differentially expressed post-training (p?<?0.05). Four developmental genes were differentially expressed between these depots at both time points (HOXA5, DMRT2, DMRT3 and CSN1S1). Exercise training induced changes in the expression of genes associated with immune and inflammatory responses, and lipid metabolism in gSAT, and muscle-associated processes in aSAT. This study showed differences in developmental processes regulating SAT distribution and expandability of distinct depots, and depot-specific adaptation to exercise training in black South African women with obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adipose tissue is involved in several metabolic changes. This study investigated the association between the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue pre-surgery and the postsurgical response regarding the evolution of weight and concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in adult women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n?=?14) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n?=?19) at one (T1), three (T3) and six (T6) years after surgery. METHODS:Blood samples were collected to obtain plasma for the measurement of IL-6 and TNF. Anthropometric measurements were performed, collecting samples of VAT and SAT during surgery to assess the FA profiles. RESULTS:Weight loss had a positive correlation with the percentage of VAT-C17:0 (T1, T3) and SAT-C18:2 (T1, T3, T6), and it had a negative correlation with SAT-C22:0 (T1, T3) and VAT-C22:0 (T3). Regarding the inflammatory response, SAT-C14:0 (T6), VAT-C14:0 (T6), SAT-C14:1 (baseline), SAT-C15:0 (T6), SAT-C16:1 (T6), VAT-C16:1 (baseline), SAT-C17:1 (T6), VAT-C17:1 (baseline), VAT-C18:1 (T6), and VAT-C20:1 (T6) exhibited positive correlations with the concentration of IL-6, which were different from the correlations of IL-6 concentrations with SAT-C18:2, VAT-C18:2 (T6), and VAT-C18:3 (T6). The FA SAT-C18:0 (T1) was negatively correlated with TNF concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:Saturated FAs were predominantly proinflammatory, primarily in the late postoperative period. Alternately, the polyunsaturated FAs exhibited anti-inflammatory potential and predicted weight loss. Thus, the FA profile of the adipose tissue of obese adult women may be a predictor of the ponderal and inflammatory response 6?years after bariatric surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study was approved by the ethics committee of Federal University of Viçosa; Registration n. 17287913.2.0000.5153; Date: 07/05/2013.
Project description:Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity-associated chronic diseases. In the first year after bariatric surgery, obese patients significantly improve their metabolic status upon losing weight. We aimed to investigate whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression reflect a restoration of a healthy lean phenotype after bariatric surgery.Thirty-one severely obese patients (BMI ? 40 kg/m2) were examined before and after surgery. subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was collected during and 1 year after bariatric surgery. SAT from 20 matched lean and overweight patients (BMI < 30 kg/m2) was collected during elective abdominal surgery. Baseline characteristics and SAT gene expression relevant to glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and apoptosis were analyzed.After surgery, mean BMI decreased from 46.1 ± 6.3 to 31.1 ± 5.7 kg/m2 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance from 5.4 ± 5.3 to 0.8 ± 0.8. SAT expression of most analyzed inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and metabolic and cell surface markers was greatly downregulated even compared to the lean cohort. In contrast, gene expression of TNF and CASP3 was significantly upregulated. Elastic net regression analysis showed that fasting glucose levels and CASP3 predicted increased TNF expression in the post-obese group.Gene expression patterns in SAT 1 year after bariatric surgery point to a reduced inflammation. The unexpected high TNF expression in SAT of post-obese subjects is most likely not an indicator for inflammation, but rather an indicator for increased lipolysis and adipose tissue catabolism. Notably, after bariatric surgery SAT gene expression reflects a cachexia-like phenotype and differs from the lean state.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (i.e., increased intrahepatic triglyceride [IHTG] content), predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are the main pathways contributing to IHTG. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition influences the pathways, mediators, and magnitude of weight gain-induced changes in IHTG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We overfed 38 overweight subjects (age 48 ± 2 years, BMI 31 ± 1 kg/m2, liver fat 4.7 ± 0.9%) 1,000 extra kcal/day of saturated (SAT) or unsaturated (UNSAT) fat or simple sugars (CARB) for 3 weeks. We measured IHTG (1H-MRS), pathways contributing to IHTG (lipolysis ([2H5]glycerol) and DNL (2H2O) basally and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia), insulin resistance, endotoxemia, plasma ceramides, and adipose tissue gene expression at 0 and 3 weeks. RESULTS:Overfeeding SAT increased IHTG more (+55%) than UNSAT (+15%, P < 0.05). CARB increased IHTG (+33%) by stimulating DNL (+98%). SAT significantly increased while UNSAT decreased lipolysis. SAT induced insulin resistance and endotoxemia and significantly increased multiple plasma ceramides. The diets had distinct effects on adipose tissue gene expression. CONCLUSIONS:Macronutrient composition of excess energy influences pathways of IHTG: CARB increases DNL, while SAT increases and UNSAT decreases lipolysis. SAT induced the greatest increase in IHTG, insulin resistance, and harmful ceramides. Decreased intakes of SAT could be beneficial in reducing IHTG and the associated risk of diabetes.
Project description:To examine the effect of exercise on abdominal adipose tissue in adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Post hoc analysis of two randomised controlled trials.Outpatient secondary prevention programme in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.97 men and women with prehypertension, stage 1 or medically controlled hypertension. 49% of the sample was also diagnosed with T2DM.All participants completed a 26-week (6.5 months) supervised aerobic and resistance exercise programme following American College of Sports Medicine guidelines.The main outcomes in this post hoc analysis were total abdominal adipose tissue (TAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured by MRI. Secondary outcomes were to determine whether the magnitude of abdominal fat change differed by diabetes status in men and women and to identify the predictors of change in abdominal fat distribution with exercise.Overall, participants (mean age 61±6 years; 45% women) significantly improved peak oxygen uptake by 15% (p<0.01) and reduced weight by 2% (p<0.01). No change in SAT was observed after training. The reduction in VAT following exercise was attenuated in participants with T2DM (-3%) compared with participants who were non-T2DM (-18%, p<0.001 for the difference in change). The magnitude of VAT loss was associated with a decrease in body weight (r=0.50, p<0.001). After adjustment for weight change using regression analysis, diabetes status remained an independent predictor of the change in VAT.Although participants with and without T2DM attained an exercise training effect as evidenced by increased fitness, VAT was unchanged in T2DM compared to those without T2DM, suggesting that these individuals may be resistant to this important benefit of exercise. The strategies for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in T2DM may be most effective when they include a weight loss component.Clinicaltrials.gov Registry NCT00212303.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Identifying metabolic abnormalities that occur before pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) diagnosis could increase chances for early detection. We collected data on changes in metabolic parameters (glucose, serum lipids, triglycerides; total, low-density, and high-density cholesterol; and total body weight) and soft tissues (abdominal subcutaneous fat [SAT], adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue [VAT], and muscle) from patients 5 years before the received a diagnosis of PDAC. METHODS:We collected data from 219 patients with a diagnosis of PDAC (patients) and 657 healthy individuals (controls) from the Rochester Epidemiology Project, from 2000 through 2015. We compared metabolic profiles of patients with those of age- and sex-matched controls, constructing temporal profiles of fasting blood glucose, serum lipids including triglycerides, cholesterol profiles, and body weight and temperature for 60 months before the diagnosis of PDAC (index date). To construct the temporal profile of soft tissue changes, we collected computed tomography scans from 68 patients, comparing baseline (>18 months before diagnosis) areas of SAT, VAT, and muscle at L2/L3 vertebra with those of later scans until time of diagnosis. SAT and VAT, isolated from healthy individuals, were exposed to exosomes isolated from PDAC cell lines and analyzed by RNA sequencing. SAT was collected from KRAS+/LSLG12D P53flox/flox mice with PDACs, C57/BL6 (control) mice, and 5 patients and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in metabolic or soft tissue features of patients vs controls until 30 months before PDAC diagnosis. In the 30 to 18 months before PDAC diagnosis (phase 1, hyperglycemia), a significant proportion of patients developed hyperglycemia, compared with controls, without soft tissue changes. In the 18 to 6 months before PDAC diagnosis (phase 2, pre-cachexia), patients had significant increases in hyperglycemia and decreases in serum lipids, body weight, and SAT, with preserved VAT and muscle. In the 6 to 0 months before PDAC diagnosis (phase 3, cachexia), a significant proportion of patients had hyperglycemia compared with controls, and patients had significant reductions in all serum lipids, SAT, VAT, and muscle. We believe the patients had browning of SAT, based on increases in body temperature, starting 18 months before PDAC diagnosis. We observed expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in SAT exposed to PDAC exosomes, SAT from mice with PDACs, and SAT from all 5 patients but only 1 of 4 controls. CONCLUSIONS:We identified 3 phases of metabolic and soft tissue changes that precede a diagnosis of PDAC. Loss of SAT starts 18 months before PDAC identification, and is likely due to browning. Overexpression of UCP1 in SAT might be a biomarker of early-stage PDAC, but further studies are needed.