Potential prognostic biomarkers identified by DNA methylation profiling analysis for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Lung adenocarcinoma is frequently occurring type of lung cancer with high metastatic risk. We performed a DNA methylation profiling analysis to identify possible prognostic markers involved in lung adenocarcinoma. DNA methylation profiling data (GSE66386) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially methylated genes were identified using a limma package. GO enrichment analysis was performed to identify vital functions related to differential gene methylation, and pathway analysis was performed to assess the associations between different proteins with regard to regulation of cell function and metabolism. The screening results showed a total of 112,662 differentially methylated genes in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared with those of the normal controls. These CpGs were involved in 16,705 genes. The skeletal system development (P=9.46E-27) and embryonic organ morphogenesis (P=8.67E-24) were found to be involved in lung adenocarcinoma. The cancer (P=3.64E-07), Rap1 signaling (P=9.21E-05) and calcium signaling (P=9.21E-05) pathways constituted the important pathways associated with lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, methylated PTPRF, HOXD3, HOXD13 and CACNA1A are potential markers and may be utilized for the diagnosis and therapy of lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression, and disease-specific methylation changes can be targeted as biomarkers. We have compared the genome-wide methylation pattern in tumor and tumor-adjacent normal lung tissue from four lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) patients using DNA methylation microarrays and identified 74 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Eighteen DMRs were selected for validation in a cohort comprising primary tumors from 52 LAC patients and tumor-adjacent normal lung tissue from 32 patients by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis. Significant increases in methylation were confirmed for 15 DMRs associated with the genes and genomic regions: OSR1, SIM1, GHSR, OTX2, LOC648987, HIST1H3E, HIST1H3G/HIST1H2BI, HIST1H2AJ/HIST1H2BM, HOXD10, HOXD3, HOXB3/HOXB4, HOXA3, HOXA5, Chr1(q21.1).A, and Chr6(p22.1). In particular the OSR1, SIM1 and HOXB3/HOXB4 regions demonstrated high potential as biomarkers in LAC. For OSR1, hypermethylation was detected in 47/48 LAC cases compared to 1/31 tumor-adjacent normal lung samples. Similarly, 45/49 and 36/48 LAC cases compared to 3/31 and 0/31 tumor-adjacent normal lung samples showed hypermethylation of the SIM1 and HOXB3/HOXB4 regions, respectively. In conclusion, this study has identified and validated 15 DMRs that can be targeted as biomarkers in LAC.
Project description:Homeobox protein Hox-D13 is encoded by HOXD13 gene which is frequently methylated in cancer and has been recognized as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we examined HOXD13 mRNA expression in 40 pairs of breast cancers and corresponding normal breast tissues. Bisulfite sequencing of HOXD13 promoter was performed in 6 pairs of breast tumors and corresponding normal breast tissues to examine the potential HOXD13 CpG methylated sites. HOXD13 DNA methylation frequency analysis was performed using MethyLight in 196 pairs of breast cancers and corresponding normal breast samples. DNA methylation status and clinico-pathological features were investigated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to assess the effect of methylation status on overall survival. We found that 60% (24/40) of breast cancers showed low HOXD13 mRNA expression when compared with corresponding normal breast tissue. The predicted CpG island was located in the -1325 bp to +675 bp region. Next, the -332 bp site in HOXD13 gene promoter was further examined and in 57.7% (113/196) samples methylation was detected at this site. HOXD13 methylation was correlated with larger tumor size (P = 0.004), but not with other clinico-pathological parameters. In addition, patients with methylated -HOXD13 promoter had worse overall survival (OS) (P = 0.005). Based on our results we conclude that HOXD13 methylation is a common event in primary breast cancer and is associated with poor survival of breast cancer patients. HOXD13 methylation could therefore potentially be used as a prognostic factor for breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Changes in DNA methylation of crucial cancer genes including tumor suppressors can occur early in carcinogenesis, being potentially important early indicators of cancer. The objective of this study was to examine a multiplexed approach to assess the methylation of tumor suppressor genes as tumor stratification and clinical outcome prognostic biomarkers for lung cancer. METHODS: A multicandidate probe panel interrogated DNA for aberrant methylation status in 18 tumor suppressor genes in lung cancer using a methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Lung cancer cell lines (n = 7), and primary lung tumors (n = 54) were examined using MS-MLPA. RESULTS: Genes frequently methylated in lung cancer cell lines including SCGB3A1, ID4, CCND2 were found among the most commonly methylated in the lung tumors analyzed. HLTF, BNIP3, H2AFX, CACNA1G, TGIF, ID4 and CACNA1A were identified as novel tumor suppressor candidates methylated in lung tumors. The most frequently methylated genes in lung tumors were SCGB3A1 and DLC1 (both 50.0%). Methylation rates for ID4, DCL1, BNIP3, H2AFX, CACNA1G and TIMP3 were significantly different between squamous and adenocarcinomas. Methylation of RUNX3, SCGB3A1, SFRP4, and DLC1 was significantly associated with the extent of the disease when comparing localized versus metastatic tumors. Moreover, methylation of HTLF, SFRP5 and TIMP3 were significantly associated with overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: MS-MLPA can be used for classification of certain types of lung tumors and clinical outcome prediction. This latter is clinically relevant by offering an adjunct strategy for the clinical management of lung cancer patients.
Project description:Background: Abnormal DNA methylation of is one of the important mechanisms leading to tumor pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to explore differentially methylated genes that may drive the development of renal clear cell carcinoma through a comprehensive analysis of the TCGA database. Materials and methods: Methylation data and RNA-seq data for clear cell renal cell carcinoma were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differentially methylated genes and the differential genes associated with survival were then screened by MethylMix R package and univariate Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. Their common genes were then intersected and obtained for further analysis. Correlation of gene expression and methylation levels, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) enrichments, survival curve, and ROC curve plotting for DNA methylation-driven genes were finally performed. The methylation alterations of the three genes were validated via two GEO datasets (GSE70303 and GSE113501), and the genes expression level was verified through two GEO datasets (GSE6344 and GSE53757). Results: Three novel DNA methylation-driven genes LAT, HOXD3 and NFE2L3 were identified in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Expression analysis further revealed that hypomethylation levels of LAT and NFE2L3 showed higher gene expression levels, while HOXD3 exhibited opposite methylation-expression pattern. The CpG sites of LAT (cg16462073), HOXD3 (cg24000528) and NFE2L3 (cg16882373) that may affect respective gene expressions were also identified. For the survival analysis, we found that hypomethylation and over-expression of LAT and NFE2L3 were correlated with poor survival, while hypermethylation and low-expression HOXD3 was correlated with poor survival of clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients. In addition, GSEA KEGG analysis and biological processes of these genes were also enriched for functional analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival and ROC analyses of these genes showed an average risk score of 0.9140593, AUC = 0.692, which suggested a good clinical application value. Finally, the opposite methylation-expression pattern of these three genes were verified in GEO datasets. Conclusions: In this study, we successfully exhibited the potential DNA methylation-driven genes LAT, HOXD3, and NFE2L3 involved in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Moreover, gene functions and prognostic risk models were also elucidated, which facilitated the expansion of the current study on the role of methylation in the pathology process of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Project description:PURPOSE:The microRNA-34b/c (miR-34b/c) is considered a tumor suppressor in different tumor types and a transcriptional target of TP53. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the clinical implications of miR-34b/c methylation in patients with early-stage lung adenocarcinoma and to determine the functional role of miR-34b/c re-expression in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Aberrant methylation and expression of miR-34b/c were assessed in 15 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and a cohort of 140 early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. Lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were transfected with miR-34b/c and the effects upon cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were investigated. RESULTS:Aberrant methylation of miR-34b/c was detected in 6 (40%) of 15 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and 64 of 140 (46%) primary lung adenocarcinoma. Expression of miR-34b/c was significantly reduced in all methylated cell lines and primary tumors, especially with TP53 mutations. Patients with increased miR-34b/c methylation had significantly shorter disease-free and overall survival as compared to patients with unmethylated or low level of miR-34b/c methylation. Ectopic expression of miR-34b/c in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. CONCLUSIONS:Epigenetic inactivation of miR-34b/c by DNA methylation has independent prognostic value in patients with early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. Reexpression of miR-34b/c leads to a less aggressive phenotype in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.
Project description:Lung cancer has the highest mortality of all cancers worldwide. Epigenetic alterations have emerged as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of various cancer tissue types. To identify methylation markers for early diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma, we aimed to integrate genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. To this end, we first examined the global DNA methylation pattern of lung adenocarcinoma and investigated the relationship between DNA methylation subtypes and clinical features. We then extracted differentially methylated and expressed genes, and adopted feature selection techniques to determine the final methylation markers. The performance of the markers in predicting lung adenocarcinoma was evaluated on three independent datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus. Protein levels of marker genes were validated by immunohistochemistry, and their biological function was further verified in vivo. We identified three novel methylation markers in lung adenocarcinoma including cg08032924, cg14823851, and cg19161124, mapping to CMTM2, TBX4, and DPP6, respectively. Validating these results on three independent datasets indicated that the three markers can achieve extremely high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from normal samples. Immunohistochemistry quantification results confirmed that markers are weakly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma, and CMTM2 decreased tumor growth of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma in vivo. Overall, our study identified three novel methylation markers in lung adenocarcinoma which may contribute toward an improved diagnosis potentially leading to a better outcome for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:As smoking rates decrease, proportionally more cases with lung adenocarcinoma occur in never-smokers, while aberrant DNA methylation has been suggested to contribute to the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. It is extremely difficult to distinguish which genes play key roles in tumorigenic processes via DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing from a large number of differentially methylated genes. By integrating gene expression and DNA methylation data, a pipeline combined with the differential network analysis is designed to uncover driver methylation genes and responsive modules, which demonstrate distinctive expressions and network topology in tumors with aberrant DNA methylation. Totally, 135 genes are recognized as candidate driver genes in early stage lung adenocarcinoma and top ranked 30 genes are recognized as driver methylation genes. Functional annotation and the differential network analysis indicate the roles of identified driver genes in tumorigenesis, while literature study reveals significant correlations of the top 30 genes with early stage lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers. The analysis pipeline can also be employed in identification of driver epigenetic events for other cancers characterized by matched gene expression data and DNA methylation data.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aberrant DNA methylation is common in lung adenocarcinoma, but its timing in the phases of tumor development is largely unknown. Delineating when abnormal DNA methylation arises may provide insight into the natural history of lung adenocarcinoma and the role that DNA methylation alterations play in tumor formation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We used MethyLight, a sensitive real-time PCR-based quantitative method, to analyze DNA methylation levels at 15 CpG islands that are frequently methylated in lung adenocarcinoma and that we had flagged as potential markers for non-invasive detection. We also used two repeat probes as indicators of global DNA hypomethylation. We examined DNA methylation in 249 tissue samples from 93 subjects, spanning the putative spectrum of peripheral lung adenocarcinoma development: histologically normal adjacent non-tumor lung, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, formerly known as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma), and invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Comparison of DNA methylation levels between the lesion types suggests that DNA hypermethylation of distinct loci occurs at different time points during the development of lung adenocarcinoma. DNA methylation at CDKN2A ex2 and PTPRN2 is already significantly elevated in AAH, while CpG islands at 2C35, EYA4, HOXA1, HOXA11, NEUROD1, NEUROD2 and TMEFF2 are significantly hypermethylated in AIS. In contrast, hypermethylation at CDH13, CDX2, OPCML, RASSF1, SFRP1 and TWIST1 and global DNA hypomethylation appear to be present predominantly in invasive cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:The gradual increase in DNA methylation seen for numerous loci in progressively more transformed lesions supports the model in which AAH and AIS are sequential stages in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. The demarcation of DNA methylation changes characteristic for AAH, AIS and adenocarcinoma begins to lay out a possible roadmap for aberrant DNA methylation events in tumor development. In addition, it identifies which DNA methylation changes might be used as molecular markers for the detection of preinvasive lesions.
Project description:Smoking impacts DNA methylation genome-wide in blood of newborns from maternal smoking during pregnancy and adults from personal smoking. We compared smoking-related DNA methylation in lung adenocarcinoma (61 never smokers, 91 current smokers, and 238 former smokers) quantified with the Illumina450k BeadArray in The Cancer Genome Atlas with published large consortium meta-analyses of newborn and adult blood. We assessed whether CpG sites related to smoking in blood from newborns and adults were enriched in the lung adenocarcinoma methylation signal. Testing CpGs differentially methylated by smoke exposure, we identified 296 in lung adenocarcinoma meeting a P?<?10<sup>-4</sup> cutoff, while previous meta-analyses identified 3,042 in newborn blood, and 8,898 in adult blood meeting the same P?<?10<sup>-4</sup> cutoff. Lung signals were highly enriched for those seen in newborn (24 overlapping CpGs, P<sub>enrichment</sub>?=?1.2?×?10<sup>-18</sup>) and adult blood (66 overlapping CpGs, P<sub>enrichment</sub>?=?1.2?×?10<sup>-48</sup>). The 105 genes annotated to CpGs differentially methylated in lung tumors, but not blood, were enriched for RNA processing ontologies. Some epigenetic alterations associated with cigarette smoke exposure are tissue specific, but others are common across tissues. These findings support the value of blood-based methylation biomarkers for assessing exposure effects in target tissues.
Project description:Pathologic differentiation of tissue of origin in tumors found in the lung can be challenging, with differentiation of mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma emblematic of this problem. Indeed, proper classification is essential for determination of treatment regimen for these diseases, making accurate and early diagnosis critical. Here, we investigate the potential of epigenetic profiles of lung adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and nonmalignant pulmonary tissues (n = 285) as differentiation markers in an analysis of DNA methylation at 1413 autosomal CpG loci associated with 773 cancer-related genes. Using an unsupervised recursively partitioned mixture modeling technique for all samples, the derived methylation profile classes were significantly associated with sample type (P < 0.0001). In a similar analysis restricted to tumors, methylation profile classes significantly predicted tumor type (P < 0.0001). Random forests classification of CpG methylation of tumors--which splits the data into training and test sets--accurately differentiated mesothelioma from lung adenocarcinoma over 99% of the time (P < 0.0001). In a locus-by-locus comparison of CpG methylation between tumor types, 1266 CpG loci had significantly different methylation between tumors following correction for multiple comparisons (Q < 0.05); 61% had higher methylation in adenocarcinoma. Using the CpG loci with significant differential methylation in a pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of methylated gene-loci in Cell Cycle Regulation, DNA Damage Response, PTEN Signaling, and Apoptosis Signaling pathways in lung adenocarcinoma when compared with mesothelioma. Methylation profile-based differentiation of lung adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma is highly accurate, informs on the distinct etiologies of these diseases, and holds promise for clinical application.