Clinical characteristics associated with the onset of delirium among long-term nursing home residents.
ABSTRACT: Nursing home residents are frail, have multiple medical comorbidities, and are at high risk for delirium. Most of the existing evidence base on delirium is derived from studies in the acute in-patient population. We examine the association between clinical characteristics and medication use with the incidence of delirium during the nursing home stay.This is a retrospective cohort study of 1571 residents from 12 nursing homes operated by a single care provider in Ontario, Canada. Residents were over the age of 55 and admitted between February 2010 and December 2015 with no baseline delirium and a minimum stay of 180 days. Residents with moderate or worse cognitive impairment at baseline were excluded. The baseline and follow-up characteristics of residents were collected from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimal Data Set 2.0 completed at admission and repeated quarterly until death or discharge. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify characteristics and medication use associated with the onset of delirium.The incidence of delirium was 40.4% over the nursing home stay (mean LOS: 32 months). A diagnosis of dementia (OR: 2.54, p?
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>COVID-19 has had devastating effects on the health and well-being of older adult residents and health care professionals in nursing homes. Uncertainty about the associated consequences of these adverse effects on the use of medications common to this care setting remains.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and prescription medication changes among nursing home residents.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This population-based cohort study with an interrupted time-series analysis used linked health administrative data bases for residents of all nursing homes (N = 630) in Ontario, Canada. During the observation period, residents were divided into consecutive weekly cohorts. The first observation week was March 5 to 11, 2017; the last observation week was September 20 to 26, 2020.<h4>Exposures</h4>Onset of the COVID-19 pandemic on March 1, 2020.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Weekly proportion of residents dispensed antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, antibiotics, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Autoregressive integrated moving average models with step and ramp intervention functions tested for level and slope changes in weekly medication use after the onset of the pandemic and were fit on prepandemic data for projected trends.<h4>Results</h4>Across study years, the annual cohort size ranged from 75 850 to 76 549 residents (mean [SD] age, 83.4 [10.8] years; mean proportion of women, 68.9%). A significant increased slope change in the weekly proportion of residents who were dispensed antipsychotics (parameter estimate [β] = 0.051; standard error [SE] = 0.010; P < .001), benzodiazepines (β = 0.026; SE = 0.003; P < .001), antidepressants (β = 0.046; SE = 0.013; P < .001), trazodone hydrochloride (β = 0.033; SE = 0.010; P < .001), anticonvulsants (β = 0.014; SE = 0.006; P = .03), and opioids (β = 0.038; SE = 0.007; P < .001) was observed. The absolute difference in observed vs estimated use in the last week of the pandemic period ranged from 0.48% (for anticonvulsants) to 1.52% (for antipsychotics). No significant level or slope changes were found for antibiotics, ARBs, or ACE inhibitors.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this population-based cohort study, statistically significant increases in the use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids followed the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, although absolute differences were small. There were no significant changes for antibiotics, ARBs, or ACE inhibitors. Studies are needed to monitor whether changes in pharmacotherapy persist, regress, or accelerate during the course of the pandemic and how these changes affect resident-level outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Nursing home quality measures include the proportion of residents who receive antipsychotics. Residents with bipolar disorder are included even though antipsychotics are FDA-approved for this indication. We evaluated how including residents with bipolar disorder impacted the antipsychotic use quality measure for long-stay residents. We evaluated the agreement of minimum data set (MDS) bipolar disorder diagnoses with Medicare data, whether dementia was diagnosed before bipolar disorder, and how less-specific bipolar disorder diagnoses impacted findings. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Nursing homes in Iowa. PARTICIPANTS:21,955 long-stay nursing home residents in the first quarter of 2014. MEASUREMENTS:We identified antipsychotic use and bipolar disorder using MDS data. We compared MDS bipolar disorder diagnoses with Chronic Conditions Warehouse (CCW) "ever" bipolar disorder indicators, and prior year claims. We compared CCW condition onset dates to identify bipolar disorder diagnosed after dementia. RESULTS:The mean (SD) proportion receiving antipsychotics was 19.6% (11.1%) with bipolar disorder and 18.3% (10.8%) without. The positive predictive value (PPV) of MDS bipolar disorder diagnoses was 80.2% versus CCW lifetime indicators, and 74.6% versus claims. PPV decreased by 27.1% when "bipolar disorder, unspecified" and "other bipolar disorders" diagnoses were excluded. Nearly three-quarters of residents with bipolar disorder had dementia. Over half of those with dementia had dementia first per CCW records. This proportion was lower among those with more specific bipolar disorder diagnoses or MDS bipolar disorder indicators. CONCLUSIONS:Bipolar disorder in nursing home residents is often first diagnosed after dementia using nonspecific diagnoses. This practice deserves further evaluation.
Project description:Importance:Strategies to reduce the inappropriate prescription of antipsychotics have been the focus of recent attention but have shown considerable variation in their effectiveness. Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of academic detailing in nursing homes targeting appropriate prescribing of antipsychotics. Design, Setting, and Participants:We conducted a pragmatic, cluster randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of academic detailing vs usual care on prescribing antipsychotics in 40 nursing homes with 5363 residents in Ontario, Canada. Data were collected from October 2015 to March 2016 and analyzed from April to August 2018. Primary analyses were conducted using intention to treat. Intervention:Academic detailing delivered by health professionals (eg, nurses or pharmacists) who arranged meetings (with administrators, physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and support workers), presentations, group visits (with 2-6 clinicians), and 1-on-1 visits (traditional academic detailing visits). Academic detailers had direct and ongoing contact with the nursing homes from the time of launch. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome, defined at the level of the resident, was whether continuous antipsychotics were dispensed in the past week. Secondary outcomes included prescribing of other psychotropic medications and clinical outcomes and scores. Prescribing outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months, and clinical outcomes and scores were assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Results:A total of 40 nursing homes with 5363 residents were randomized, with 18 intervention homes (45.0%; 2303 [42.9%] residents) and 22 control homes (55.0%; 3060 [57.1%] residents). Participants in the intervention and control groups had similar median (interquartile range) age (86 [79-91] years vs 85 [78-90] years) and sex (674 [29.3%] men vs 970 [31.7%] men). At 12 months, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of daily antipsychotic use (intervention: 569 patients [25.2%]; control: 769 [25.6%]; odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.93-1.20; P?=?.49). There were no significant differences in the rates of health care utilization, but the intervention group did experience a statistically significant reduction in pain compared with the control group (mean [SD] pain score, 0.30 [0.59] vs 0.38 [0.66]; P?<?.001) and depression (mean [SD] Depression Rating Scale score, 2.18 [2.37] vs 2.81 [2.65]; P?<?.001) at 6 months. Conclusions and Relevance:The intervention did not further reduce antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes beyond system-level secular trends occurring alongside usual care. Our findings highlight the need for a more targeted approach to quality improvement strategies, including academic detailing, that account for the timing and topic of interventions. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02604056.
Project description:Objective: Determine the accuracy of nursing home self-reported antipsychotic prescribing before and after implementation of a Medicare campaign to reduce use.Methods: Quasi-experimental study comparing trends in self-reported antipsychotic prescribing relative to claims-based prescribing. Setting is a nationwide sample of 11,912 facilities, 2011-2013. Participants are long-stay nursing home residents (n?=?586,281) with prescribing data in Medicare Minimum Data Set 3.0 and Medicare Part D claims database. Verified with a pharmacy dispensing database. Main outcomes are the discrepancies in quarterly prevalence of antipsychotic prescribing between nursing home self-reports and claims data and the characteristics of facilities and residents where discrepancies were identified.Results: Nursing homes underreport their antipsychotic prescribing levels, on average, by 1 percentage point per quarter relative to Medicare Part D claims (0.013, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.012-0.015; p<.001). After the Medicare campaign, the underreporting gap increased by another half a percentage point (0.004, 95% CI .003-.005; p = .012). Nursing home residents with dementia, Alzheimer's disease or bipolar disorders were at the highest risk for underreported antipsychotic prescribing before the campaign (Adjusted Odds ratio (AOR) 1.385, 95% CI: 1.330-1.444; AOR 1.234, 95% CI: 1.172-1.300; AOR 1.574, 95% CI: 1.444-1.716, respectively) and afterwards. After the launch of the Medicare campaign, underreported antipsychotic prescribing occurred most in for-profit nursing homes (AOR 1.088, 95% CI: 1.005-1.178) and facilities in the US South (AOR 1.262, 95% CI: 1.145-1.391). Agreement was high between claims and dispensing data (99.7%).Conclusion: Nursing homes did not identify up to 6,000 residents per calendar quarter as having received antipsychotics despite these prescriptions being paid by Medicare and dispensed by a pharmacy. Nursing home rates of antipsychotic prescribing from self-reported data may be biased.
Project description:Many nursing home residents experience delirium. Nursing home personnel, especially nursing assistants, have the opportunity to become familiar with residents' normal cognitive function and to recognize changes in a resident's cognitive function over time. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of delirium recognition by licensed nurses and nursing assistants from eight nursing homes over a 12-month period. Participants were asked to complete five case vignette assessments at three different time points (in 6-month intervals) to test their ability to identify different subtypes of delirium and delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). A total of 760 case vignettes were completed across the different time points. Findings reveal that staff recognition of delirium was poor. The case vignette describing hyperactive DSD was correctly identified by the greatest number participants, and the case vignette describing hypoactive DSD was correctly identified by the least number of participants. Recognition of the case vignette describing hypoactive delirium improved over time. Nursing assistants performed similarly to the licensed nurses, indicating that all licensed nursing home staff require further education to correctly recognize delirium in older adults.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a disease with diverse presentation. Several studies have shown different occurrence of symptoms for women and men, but no studies have been found examining sex differences in clinical presentation for nursing home residents dying from COVID-19. The objective of this study was to describe sex and age differences and the impact of a dementia diagnosis on symptom occurrence during the last week in life for persons dying from COVID-19 in nursing homes.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a population-based retrospective study based on data from the Swedish Register of Palliative Care. A total of 1994 residents aged 65 or older who died from COVID-19 in nursing homes were identified. The impact of sex, age and a dementia diagnosis on six different symptoms was analysed using chi2-test and multivariate logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>Residents dying from COVID-19 were more often men (p < .002). Men more often had dyspnoea and death rattles (p < .001). Nausea was more common in women (p < .001). No sex differences in the occurrence of pain, anxiety or confusion were seen. Dyspnoea and nausea were less commonly reported in residents with dementia (p < .001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We found sex differences in symptom presentation for fatal COVID-19 in nursing home settings which remained after adjusting for age. Residents with a dementia diagnosis had fewer symptoms reported before death compared to those without dementia. Clinical presentation of fatal COVID-19 differs between women and men in nursing homes. Residents with fatal COVID-19 present with more unspecific and less prominent symptoms when also suffering from dementia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To investigate the use of potentially inappropriate medications and their relation to the length of nursing home stay among older adults.<h4>Methods</h4>Questionnaire surveys using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment scale were sent out to all nursing homes in Västerbotten county in northern Sweden in 2007 and 2013. In total, 3186 adults (1881 from 2007 and 1305 from 2013) ≥65 years old were included and 71.8% of those had cognitive impairment. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified using drug-specific quality indicators according to Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.<h4>Results</h4>Potentially inappropriate medications were used by 48.0% of the 2007 study sample and by 28.4% of the 2013 study sample. The prevalence of glibenclamide use 2007 and antipsychotic drug use 2013 increased linearly (β = 0.534E<sup>- 3</sup>, 95% CI: 0.040E<sup>- 3</sup>-0.103E<sup>- 2</sup>, p = 0.034 and β = 0.155E<sup>- 2</sup>, 95% CI: 0.229E<sup>- 3</sup>-0.288E<sup>- 2</sup>, p = 0.022, respectively) with the length of nursing home stay. No significant association was found between the prevalence of propiomazine, codeine, long-acting benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, tramadol or the total use of potentially inappropriate medications and the length of stay in nursing homes in 2007 or 2013. Antipsychotics were the most commonly prescribed of the drug classes investigated and used by 22.6% of the residents 2007 and by 16.0% of the residents 2013.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results indicate that treatment with potentially inappropriate medications is common among older adults living in nursing homes, but it seems to be related to the length of nursing home stay only to a smaller extent. Drug treatment should regularly be reviewed and followed-up among nursing home residents regardless of their length of nursing home stay, in order to prevent unnecessary adverse events.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Current information on opioid use in nursing home residents, particularly those with dementia, is unknown. We examined the temporal trends in opioid use by dementia severity and the association of dementia severity with opioid use in long-term care nursing home residents.<h4>Design</h4>Repeated measures cross-sectional study.<h4>Setting</h4>Long-term care nursing homes.<h4>Participants</h4>Using 20% Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Medicare claims from 2011-2017, we included long-term care residents (n = 734,739) from each year who had 120 days of consecutive stay. In a secondary analysis, we included residents who had an emergency department visit for a fracture (n = 12,927).<h4>Measurements</h4>Dementia was classified as no, mild, moderate, and severe based on the first MDS assessment each year. In the 120 days of nursing home stay, opioid use was measured as any, prolonged (>90 days), and high-dose (≥90 morphine milligram equivalent dose/day). For residents with a fracture, opioid use was measured within 7 days after emergency department discharge. Association of dementia severity with opioid use was evaluated using logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, any opioid use declined by 8.5% (35.2% to 32.2%, P < .001), prolonged use by 5.0% (14.1% to 13.4%, P < .001), and high-dose by 21.4% (1.4% to 1.1%, P < .001) from 2011 to 2017. Opioid use declined across 4 dementia severity groups. Among residents with fracture, opioid use declined by 9% in mild, 9.5% in moderate, and 12.3% in severe dementia. The odds of receiving any, prolonged, and high-dose opioids decreased with increasing severity of dementia. For example, severe dementia reduced the odds of any [23.5% vs 47.6%; odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.57], prolonged (9.8% vs 20.7%; OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.67-0.71), and high-dose (1.0% vs 2.3%; OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63-0.74) opioids.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>Use of opioids declined in nursing home residents from 2011 to 2017, and the use was lower in residents with dementia, possibly reflecting suboptimal pain management in this population.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Antipsychotics are used for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) but have risks. Anticholinergics can worsen outcomes in dementia. The Improving Antipsychotic Appropriateness in Dementia Patients educational program (IA-ADAPT) and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Partnership to Improve Dementia Care (CMS Partnership) promote improved care for BPSD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of these programs on medication use and BPSD among nursing home residents.<h4>Methods</h4>This quasi-experimental longitudinal study used Medicare and assessment data for Iowa nursing home residents from April 2011 to December 2012. Residents were required to be eligible for six continuous months for inclusion. Antipsychotic use and anticholinergic use were evaluated on a monthly basis, and changes in BPSD were tracked using assessment data. Results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) per month after exposure to the IA-ADAPT or the start of the CMS Partnership.<h4>Results</h4>Of 426 eligible Iowa nursing homes, 114 were exposed to the IA-ADAPT in 2012. Nursing home exposure to the IA-ADAPT was associated with reduced antipsychotic use (OR [95% CI] = 0.92 [0.89-0.95]) and anticholinergic use (OR [95% CI] = 0.95 [0.92-0.98]), reduced use of excessive antipsychotic doses per CMS guidance (OR [95% CI] = 0.80 [0.75-0.86]), increased odds of a potentially appropriate indication among antipsychotic users (OR [95% CI] = 1.04 [1.00-1.09]), and decreased documentation of verbal aggression (OR [95% CI] = 0.96 [0.94-0.99]). Facilities with two or more IA-ADAPT exposures had greater reductions in antipsychotic and anticholinergic use than those with only one. The CMS Partnership was associated with reduced antipsychotic use (OR [95% CI] = 0.96 [0.94-0.98]) and decreased documentation of any measured BPSD (OR [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.97-0.99]) as well as delirium specifically (OR [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.96-0.99]).<h4>Discussion</h4>This study suggests that the IA-ADAPT and the CMS Partnership improved medication use with no adverse impact on BPSD.
Project description:The majority of nursing home residents with dementia experience behavioural and psychological symptoms like apathy, agitation, and anxiety. According to analyses of prescription prevalence in Germany, antipsychotic drugs are regularly prescribed as first-line treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in persons with dementia, although guidelines clearly prioritise non-pharmacological interventions. Frequently, antipsychotic drugs are prescribed for inappropriate reasons and for too long without regular reviewing. The use of antipsychotics is associated with adverse events like increased risk of falling, stroke, and mortality. The aim of the study is to investigate whether a person-centred care approach, successfully evaluated in nursing homes in the United Kingdom, can be implemented in German nursing homes and, in comparison with a control group, can result in a clinically relevant reduction of the proportion of residents with antipsychotic prescriptions.The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial comparing an intervention group (two-day initial training on person-centred care and ongoing training and support programme) with a control group. Both study groups will receive, as optimised usual care, a medication review by an experienced psychiatrist/geriatrician providing feedback to the prescribing physician. Overall, 36 nursing homes in East, North, and West Germany will be randomised. The primary outcome is the proportion of residents receiving at least one antipsychotic prescription (long-term medication) after 12 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes are residents' quality of life, agitated behaviour, as well as safety parameters like falls and fall-related medical attention. A health economic evaluation and a process evaluation will be performed alongside the study.To improve care, a reduction of the current high prescription rate of antipsychotics in nursing homes by the intervention programme is expected.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02295462.