Age-dependent increase in angiopoietin-like protein 2 accelerates skeletal muscle loss in mice.
ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle atrophy, or sarcopenia, is commonly observed in older individuals and in those with chronic disease and is associated with decreased quality of life. There is recent medical and broad concern that sarcopenia is rapidly increasing worldwide as populations age. At present, strength training is the only effective intervention for preventing sarcopenia development, but it is not known how this exercise regimen counteracts this condition. Here, we report that expression of the inflammatory mediator angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) increases in skeletal muscle of aging mice. Moreover, in addition to exhibiting increased inflammation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), denervated atrophic skeletal muscles in a mouse model of denervation-induced muscle atrophy had increased ANGPTL2 expression. Interestingly, mice with a skeletal myocyte-specific Angptl2 knockout had attenuated inflammation and ROS accumulation in denervated skeletal muscle, accompanied by increased satellite cell activity and inhibition of muscular atrophy compared with mice harboring wildtype Angptl2 Moreover, consistent with these phenotypes, wildtype mice undergoing exercise training displayed decreased ANGPTL2 expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, ANGPTL2 up-regulation in skeletal myocytes accelerates muscle atrophy, and exercise-induced attenuation of ANGPTL2 expression in those tissues may partially explain how exercise training prevents sarcopenia.
Project description:Muscle atrophy is associated with aging (sarcopenia) and chronic unloading (such as bed confinement and immobilization with casts), as well as various pathological conditions such as type 1 diabetes and nerve injury (denervation). C57BL/6 mice (7 weeks old, male) were denervated. After 14 days, skeletal muscle was collected and RNA extracted. Expression of Dnmt3a was reduced while expression of Gdf5 was increased by denervation. Overall design: WT mice (7 weeks old, male) were denervated for 14 days. For microarray analysis, RNA was isolated from the gastrocnemius skeletal muscle of control mice as well as denervated mice. Samples from control mice and denervated mice (N = 6 for each group) were pooled before use.
Project description:Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to that approximating a younger physiological age. Skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy older (N = 25) and younger (N = 26) adult men and women were compared using gene expression profiling, and a subset of these were related to measurements of muscle strength. 14 of the older adults had muscle samples taken before and after a six-month resistance exercise-training program. Before exercise training, older adults were 59% weaker than younger, but after six months of training in older adults, strength improved significantly (P<0.001) such that they were only 38% lower than young adults. As a consequence of age, we found 596 genes differentially expressed using a false discovery rate cut-off of 5%. Prior to the exercise training, the transcriptome profile showed a dramatic enrichment of genes associated with mitochondrial function with age. However, following exercise training the transcriptional signature of aging was markedly reversed back to that of younger levels for most genes that were affected by both age and exercise. We conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training.
Project description:Treatments are lacking for sarcopenia, a debilitating age-related skeletal muscle wasting syndrome. We identifed increased amounts of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), the prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>)-degrading enzyme, as a hallmark of aged tissues, including skeletal muscle. The consequent reduction in PGE<sub>2</sub> signaling contributed to muscle atrophy in aged mice and results from 15-PGDH-expressing myofibers and interstitial cells, such as macrophages, within muscle. Overexpression of 15-PGDH in young muscles induced atrophy. Inhibition of 15-PGDH, by targeted genetic depletion or a small-molecule inhibitor, increased aged muscle mass, strength, and exercise performance. These benefits arise from a physiological increase in PGE<sub>2</sub> concentrations, which augmented mitochondrial function and autophagy and decreased transforming growth factor-? signaling and activity of ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Thus, PGE<sub>2</sub> signaling ameliorates muscle atrophy and rejuvenates muscle function, and 15-PGDH may be a suitable therapeutic target for countering sarcopenia.
Project description:Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to that approximating a younger physiological age. Skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy older (N = 25) and younger (N = 26) adult men and women were compared using gene expression profiling, and a subset of these were related to measurements of muscle strength. 14 of the older adults had muscle samples taken before and after a six-month resistance exercise-training program. Before exercise training, older adults were 59% weaker than younger, but after six months of training in older adults, strength improved significantly (P<0.001) such that they were only 38% lower than young adults. As a consequence of age, we found 596 genes differentially expressed using a false discovery rate cut-off of 5%. Prior to the exercise training, the transcriptome profile showed a dramatic enrichment of genes associated with mitochondrial function with age. However, following exercise training the transcriptional signature of aging was markedly reversed back to that of younger levels for most genes that were affected by both age and exercise. We conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training. Keywords: resistance exercise, muscle, aging Overall design: A muscle biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of the right or left leg (randomized) before exercise or immobilization (young people, N = 26 total) and before (N = 25), and after (N = 14), the training period in older adults, ~20 cm proximal to the knee joint using a 5mm Bergström biopsy needle. The muscle was dissected of fat and connective tissue, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80°C for subsequent analysis. All subjects were required to abstain from strenuous physical activity for 48 h prior to the muscle biopsy.
Project description:Sarcopenia is defined as the progressive loss of muscle mass with age, and poses a serious threat to the physiological and psychological health of the elderly population with consequential economic and social burdens. Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a central role in the development of sarcopenia such that it alters cellular protein metabolism to favor proteolysis over synthesis, and thereby accelerates muscular atrophy. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutrition intervention strategies can attenuate or treat sarcopenia. Resistance exercise increases not only muscle mass but also muscle strength, while aerobic exercise is able to ameliorate the age-related metabolic disorders. Concurrent exercise training integrates the advantages of both aerobic and resistance exercise, and may exert a significant synergistic effect in the aging organism. Higher protein intakes rich in the amino acid leucine appear to restore skeletal muscle protein metabolism balance by rescuing protein synthesis in older adults. There is good reason to believe that a multimodal treatment, a combination of exercise and increased leucine consumption in the diet, can combat some of the muscle loss associated with aging. Future research is needed to consolidate these findings to humans, and to further clarify to what extent and by which mechanisms protein metabolism might be directly involved in sarcopenia pathogenesis and the multimodal treatment responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) is a classical modulator of skeletal muscle and regulates several processes, such as myogenesis, regeneration and muscle function in skeletal muscle diseases. Skeletal muscle atrophy, characterized by the loss of muscle strength and mass, is one of the pathological conditions regulated by TGF-?1, but the underlying mechanism involved in the atrophic effects of TGF-?1 is not fully understood. METHODS:Mice sciatic nerve transection model was created and gastrocnemius were analysed by western blot, immunofluorescence staining and fibre diameter quantification after 2 weeks. Exogenous TGF-?1 was administrated and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), autophagy were blocked by siRNA and chloroquine (CQ) respectively to explore the mechanism of the atrophic effect of TGF-?1 in denervated muscle. Similar methods were performed in C2C12 cells. RESULTS:We found that TGF-?1 was induced in denervated muscle and it could promote atrophy of skeletal muscle both in vivo and in vitro, up-regulated HMGB1 and increased autophagy activity were also detected in denervated muscle and were further promoted by exogenous TGF-?1. The atrophic effect of TGF-?1 could be inhibited when HMGB1/autophagy pathway was blocked. CONCLUSIONS:Thus, our data revealed that TGF-?1 is a vital regulatory factor in denervated skeletal muscle in which HMGB1/ autophagy pathway mediates the atrophic effect of TGF-?1. Our findings confirmed a new pathway in denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and it may be a novel therapeutic target for patients with muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury.
Project description:Skeletal muscle wasting attributed to inactivity has significant adverse functional consequences. Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) and TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)-Fn14 system are key regulators of skeletal muscle mass in various catabolic states. While the activation of TWEAK-Fn14 signaling causes muscle wasting, PGC-1? preserves muscle mass in several conditions, including functional denervation and aging. However, it remains unknown whether there is any regulatory interaction between PGC-1? and TWEAK-Fn14 system during muscle atrophy. Here we demonstrate that TWEAK significantly reduces the levels of PGC-1? and mitochondrial content (?50%) in skeletal muscle. Levels of PGC-1? are significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-knockout (KO) and Fn14-KO mice compared to wild-type mice on denervation. Transgenic (Tg) overexpression of PGC-1? inhibited progressive muscle wasting in TWEAK-Tg mice. PGC-1? inhibited the TWEAK-induced activation of NF-?B (?50%) and dramatically reduced (?90%) the expression of atrogenes such as MAFbx and MuRF1. Intriguingly, muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1? also prevented the inducible expression of Fn14 in denervated skeletal muscle. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK induces muscle atrophy through repressing the levels of PGC-1?. Overexpression of PGC-1? not only blocks the TWEAK-induced atrophy program but also diminishes the expression of Fn14 in denervated skeletal muscle.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue and decreased skeletal muscle mass (muscle atrophy) results in deteriorated motor function and perturbed body homeostasis. Myogenin promoter-associated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Myoparr promotes skeletal muscle atrophy caused by surgical denervation; however, the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined the downstream genes of Myoparr during muscle atrophy following denervation of tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in C57BL/6J mice. Myoparr knockdown affected the expression of 848 genes. Sixty-five of the genes differentially regulated by Myoparr knockdown coded secretory proteins. Among these 65 genes identified in Myoparr-depleted skeletal muscles after denervation, we focused on the increased expression of growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), an inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Myoparr knockdown led to activated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in denervated muscles, as indicated by the increased levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. Our detailed evaluation of downstream genes of Myoparr also revealed that Myoparr regulated differential gene expression between myogenic differentiation and muscle atrophy. This is the first report demonstrating the in vivo role of Myoparr in regulating BMP signaling in denervated muscles. Therefore, lncRNAs that have inhibitory activity on BMP signaling may be putative therapeutic targets for skeletal muscle atrophy.
Project description:Maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and function requires innervation by motor neurons, such that denervation causes muscle atrophy. We show that myogenin, an essential regulator of muscle development, controls neurogenic atrophy. Myogenin is upregulated in skeletal muscle following denervation and regulates expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and atrogin-1, which promote muscle proteolysis and atrophy. Deletion of myogenin from adult mice diminishes expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in denervated muscle and confers resistance to atrophy. Mice lacking histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4 and 5 in skeletal muscle fail to upregulate myogenin and also preserve muscle mass following denervation. Conversely, forced expression of myogenin in skeletal muscle of HDAC mutant mice restores muscle atrophy following denervation. Thus, myogenin plays a dual role as both a regulator of muscle development and an inducer of neurogenic atrophy. These findings reveal a specific pathway for muscle wasting and potential therapeutic targets for this disorder.
Project description:Skeletal muscle atrophy is thought to result from hyperactivation of intracellular protein degradation pathways, including autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the precise contributions of these pathways to muscle atrophy are unclear. Here, we show that an autophagy deficiency in denervated slow-twitch soleus muscles delayed skeletal muscle atrophy, reduced mitochondrial activity, and induced oxidative stress and accumulation of PARK2/Parkin, which participates in mitochondrial quality control (PARK2-mediated mitophagy), in mitochondria. Soleus muscles from denervated Park2 knockout mice also showed resistance to denervation, reduced mitochondrial activities, and increased oxidative stress. In both autophagy-deficient and Park2-deficient soleus muscles, denervation caused the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Denervation induced proteasomal activation via NFE2L1 nuclear translocation in control mice, whereas it had little effect in autophagy-deficient and Park2-deficient mice. These results suggest that PARK2-mediated mitophagy plays an essential role in the activation of proteasomes during denervation atrophy in slow-twitch muscles.