Clathrin heavy chain 22 contributes to the control of neuropeptide degradation and secretion during neuronal development.
ABSTRACT: The repertoire of cell types in the human nervous system arises through a highly orchestrated process, the complexity of which is still being discovered. Here, we present evidence that CHC22 has a non-redundant role in an early stage of neural precursor differentiation, providing a potential explanation of why CHC22 deficient patients are unable to feel touch or pain. We show the CHC22 effect on neural differentiation is independent of the more common clathrin heavy chain CHC17, and that CHC22-dependent differentiation is mediated through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. Using quantitative proteomics, we define the composition of clathrin-coated vesicles in SH-SY5Y cells, and determine proteome changes induced by CHC22 depletion. In the absence of CHC22 a subset of dense core granule (DCG) neuropeptides accumulated, were processed into biologically active 'mature' forms, and secreted in sufficient quantity to trigger neural differentiation. When CHC22 is present, however, these DCG neuropeptides are directed to the lysosome and degraded, thus preventing differentiation. This suggests that the brief reduction seen in CHC22 expression in sensory neural precursors may license a step in neuron precursor neurodevelopment; and that this step is mediated through control of a novel neuropeptide processing pathway.
Project description:The muscle isoform of clathrin heavy chain, CHC22, has 85% sequence identity to the ubiquitously expressed CHC17, yet its expression pattern and function appear to be distinct from those of well-characterized clathrin-coated vesicles. In mature muscle CHC22 is preferentially concentrated at neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions, suggesting a role at sarcolemmal contacts with extracellular matrix. During myoblast differentiation, CHC22 expression is increased, initially localized with desmin and nestin and then preferentially segregated to the poles of fused myoblasts. CHC22 expression is also increased in regenerating muscle fibers with the same time course as embryonic myosin, indicating a role in muscle repair. CHC22 binds to sorting nexin 5 through a coiled-coil domain present in both partners, which is absent in CHC17 and coincides with the region on CHC17 that binds the regulatory light-chain subunit. These differential binding data suggest a mechanism for the distinct functions of CHC22 relative to CHC17 in membrane traffic during muscle development, repair, and at neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions.
Project description:Clathrins are cytoplasmic proteins that play essential roles in endocytosis and other membrane traffic pathways. Upon recruitment to intracellular membranes, the canonical clathrin triskelion assembles into a polyhedral protein coat that facilitates vesicle formation and captures cargo molecules for transport. The triskelion is formed by trimerization of three clathrin heavy-chain subunits. Most vertebrates have two isoforms of clathrin heavy chains, CHC17 and CHC22, generating two clathrins with distinct cellular functions. CHC17 forms vesicles at the plasma membrane for receptor-mediated endocytosis and at the trans-Golgi network for organelle biogenesis. CHC22 plays a key role in intracellular targeting of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), accumulates at the site of GLUT4 sequestration during insulin resistance, and has also been implicated in neuronal development. Here, we demonstrate that CHC22 and CHC17 share morphological features, in that CHC22 forms a triskelion and latticed vesicle coats. However, cellular CHC22-coated vesicles were distinct from those formed by CHC17. The CHC22 coat was more stable to pH change and was not removed by the enzyme complex that disassembles the CHC17 coat. Moreover, the two clathrins were differentially recruited to membranes by adaptors, and CHC22 did not support vesicle formation or transferrin endocytosis at the plasma membrane in the presence or absence of CHC17. Our findings provide biochemical evidence for separate regulation and distinct functional niches for CHC17 and CHC22 in human cells. Furthermore, the greater stability of the CHC22 coat relative to the CHC17 coat may be relevant to its excessive accumulation with GLUT4 during insulin resistance.
Project description:In humans, there are two isoforms each of clathrin heavy chain (CHC17 and CHC22) and light chain (LCa and LCb) subunits, all encoded by separate genes. CHC17 forms the ubiquitous clathrin-coated vesicles that mediate membrane traffic. CHC22 is implicated in specialized membrane organization in skeletal muscle. CHC17 is bound and regulated by LCa and LCb, whereas CHC22 does not functionally interact with either light chain. The imbalanced interactions between clathrin subunit isoforms suggest a distinct evolutionary history for each isoform pair. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis placed both heavy and light chain gene duplications during chordate evolution, 510-600 million years ago. Genes encoding CHC22 orthologues were found in several vertebrate species, with only a pseudogene present in mice. Multiple paralogons surrounding the CHC genes (CLTC and CLTD) were identified, evidence that genomic or large-scale gene duplication produced the two CHC isoforms. In contrast, clathrin light chain genes (CLTA and CLTB) apparently arose by localized duplication, within 1-11 million years of CHC gene duplication. Analysis of sequence divergence patterns suggested that structural features of the CHCs were maintained after gene duplication, but new interactions with regulatory proteins evolved for the CHC22 isoform. Thus, independent mechanisms of gene duplication expanded clathrin functions, concomitant with development of neuromuscular sophistication in chordates.
Project description:Clathrin is crucial for endocytosis and plays a recently described role in mitosis. Two clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) are found in humans: the ubiquitous CHC17, and CHC22, a CHC that is enriched in skeletal muscle. Functional differences have been proposed for these clathrins despite high sequence similarity. Here, we compared each paralogue in functional assays of endocytosis and mitosis. We find that CHC17 and CHC22 are functionally equivalent. We also describe how previous work on CHC22 has involved a splice variant that is not usually expressed in cells.
Project description:CHC22 clathrin plays a key role in intracellular membrane traffic of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 in humans. We performed population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the CHC22-encoding CLTCL1 gene, revealing independent gene loss in at least two vertebrate lineages, after arising from gene duplication. All vertebrates retained the paralogous CLTC gene encoding CHC17 clathrin, which mediates endocytosis. For vertebrates retaining CLTCL1, strong evidence for purifying selection supports CHC22 functionality. All human populations maintained two high frequency CLTCL1 allelic variants, encoding either methionine or valine at position 1316. Functional studies indicated that CHC22-V1316, which is more frequent in farming populations than in hunter-gatherers, has different cellular dynamics than M1316-CHC22 and is less effective at controlling GLUT4 membrane traffic, altering its insulin-regulated response. These analyses suggest that ancestral human dietary change influenced selection of allotypes that affect CHC22's role in metabolism and have potential to differentially influence the human insulin response.
Project description:Congenital inability to feel pain is very rare but the identification of causative genes has yielded significant insights into pain pathways and also novel targets for pain treatment. We report a novel recessive disorder characterized by congenital insensitivity to pain, inability to feel touch, and cognitive delay. Affected individuals harboured a homozygous missense mutation in CLTCL1 encoding the CHC22 clathrin heavy chain, p.E330K, which we demonstrate to have a functional effect on the protein. We found that CLTCL1 is significantly upregulated in the developing human brain, displaying an expression pattern suggestive of an early neurodevelopmental role. Guided by the disease phenotype, we investigated the role of CHC22 in two human neural crest differentiation systems; human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived nociceptors and TRKB-dependant SH-SY5Y cells. In both there was a significant downregulation of CHC22 upon the onset of neural differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of CHC22 induced neurite outgrowth in neural precursor cells, which was rescued by stable overexpression of small interfering RNA-resistant CHC22, but not by mutant CHC22. Similarly, overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant, CHC22 blocked neurite outgrowth in cells treated with retinoic acid. These results reveal an essential and non-redundant role for CHC22 in neural crest development and in the genesis of pain and touch sensing neurons.
Project description:Mobilization of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular storage vesicles provides a mechanism for insulin-responsive glucose import into skeletal muscle. In humans, clathrin isoform CHC22 participates in formation of the GLUT4 storage compartment in skeletal muscle and fat. CHC22 function is limited to retrograde endosomal sorting and is restricted in its tissue expression and species distribution compared to the conserved CHC17 isoform that mediates endocytosis and several other membrane traffic pathways. Previously, we noted that CHC22 was expressed at elevated levels in regenerating rat muscle. Here we investigate whether the GLUT4 pathway in which CHC22 participates could play a role in muscle regeneration in humans and we test this possibility using CHC22-transgenic mice, which do not normally express CHC22. We observed that GLUT4 expression is elevated in parallel with that of CHC22 in regenerating skeletal muscle fibers from patients with inflammatory and other myopathies. Regenerating human myofibers displayed concurrent increases in expression of VAMP2, another regulator of GLUT4 transport. Regenerating fibers from wild-type mouse skeletal muscle injected with cardiotoxin also showed increased levels of GLUT4 and VAMP2. We previously demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing CHC22 in their muscle over-sequester GLUT4 and VAMP2 and have defective GLUT4 trafficking leading to diabetic symptoms. In this study, we find that muscle regeneration rates in CHC22 mice were delayed compared to wild-type mice, and myoblasts isolated from these mice did not proliferate in response to glucose. Additionally, CHC22-expressing mouse muscle displayed a fiber type switch from oxidative to glycolytic, similar to that observed in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations implicate the pathway for GLUT4 transport in regeneration of both human and mouse skeletal muscle, and demonstrate a role for this pathway in maintenance of muscle fiber type. Extrapolating these findings, CHC22 and GLUT4 can be considered markers of muscle regeneration in humans.
Project description:Clathrin depletion by ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) impairs mitotic spindle stability and cytokinesis. Depletion of several clathrin-associated proteins affects centrosome integrity, suggesting a further cell cycle function for clathrin. In this paper, we report that RNAi depletion of CHC17 (clathrin heavy chain 17) clathrin, but not the CHC22 clathrin isoform, induced centrosome amplification and multipolar spindles. To stage clathrin function within the cell cycle, a cell line expressing SNAP-tagged clathrin light chains was generated. Acute clathrin inactivation by chemical dimerization of the SNAP-tag during S phase caused reduction of both clathrin and ch-TOG (colonic, hepatic tumor overexpressed gene) at metaphase centrosomes, which became fragmented. This was phenocopied by treatment with Aurora A kinase inhibitor, suggesting a centrosomal role for the Aurora A-dependent complex of clathrin, ch-TOG, and TACC3 (transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 3). Clathrin inactivation in S phase also reduced total cellular levels of ch-TOG by metaphase. Live-cell imaging showed dynamic clathrin recruitment during centrosome maturation. Therefore, we propose that clathrin promotes centrosome maturation by stabilizing the microtubule-binding protein ch-TOG, defining a novel role for the clathrin-ch-TOG-TACC3 complex.
Project description:Intracellular trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from storage compartments to the plasma membrane is triggered in muscle and fat during the body's response to insulin. Clathrin is involved in intracellular trafficking, and in humans, the clathrin heavy-chain isoform CHC22 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. We found a role for CHC22 in the formation of insulin-responsive GLUT4 compartments in human muscle and adipocytes. CHC22 also associated with expanded GLUT4 compartments in muscle from type 2 diabetic patients. Tissue-specific introduction of CHC22 in mice, which have only a pseudogene for this protein, caused aberrant localization of GLUT4 transport pathway components in their muscle, as well as features of diabetes. Thus, CHC22-dependent membrane trafficking constitutes a species-restricted pathway in human muscle and fat with potential implications for type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Dense-core secretory granule (DCG) biogenesis is a prerequisite step for the sorting, processing, and secretion of neuropeptides and hormones in (neuro)endocrine cells. Previously, chromogranin A (CgA) has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of DCG biogenesis in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying mechanism of CgA-mediated DCG biogenesis has not been explored. In this study, we have uncovered a novel mechanism for the regulation of CgA-mediated DCG biogenesis. Transfection of CgA into endocrine 6T3 cells lacking CgA and DCGs not only recovered DCG formation and regulated secretion but also prevented granule protein degradation. Genetic profiling of CgA-expressing 6T3 versus CgA- and DCG-deficient 6T3 cells, followed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses, revealed that a serine protease inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1), was significantly up-regulated in CgA-expressing 6T3 cells. Overexpression of PN-1 in CgA-deficient 6T3 cells prevented degradation of DCG proteins at the Golgi apparatus, enhanced DCG biogenesis, and recovered regulated secretion. Moreover, depletion of PN-1 by antisense RNAs in CgA-expressing 6T3 cells resulted in the specific degradation of DCG proteins. We conclude that CgA increases DCG biogenesis in endocrine cells by up-regulating PN-1 expression to stabilize granule proteins against degradation.