Awareness of Prevention Strategies and Willingness to Use Preexposure Prophylaxis in Brazilian Men Who Have Sex With Men Using Apps for Sexual Encounters: Online Cross-Sectional Study.
ABSTRACT: Geosocial networking (GSN) smartphone apps are becoming the main venue for sexual encounters among Brazilian men who have sex with men (MSM). To address the increased HIV incidence in this population, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently implemented in the Brazilian public health system in the context of combined HIV prevention.This study aimed to describe the characteristics of MSM using GSN apps for sexual encounters, their awareness of prevention strategies, and willingness to use PrEP.This study was an online cross-sectional study conducted in 10 Brazilian state capitals from July 1 to July 31, 2016. The questionnaire was programmed on SurveyGizmo and advertised in two GSN apps used by MSM to find sexual partners (Hornet and Grindr). Inclusion criteria were >18 years of age, cisgender men, with an HIV-negative status. Eligible individuals answered questions on: demographics; behavior; and knowledge, preferences, and willingness to use PrEP, nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP), HIV self-testing (HIVST), and condoms. Logistic regression modeling was performed to assess the factors associated with daily oral PrEP willingness.During the study period, 8885 individuals provided consent and started the questionnaire. Of these, 23.05% (2048/8885) were ineligible, 6837 (6837/8885, 76.94%) initiated, and 5065 (5065/8885, 57.00%) completed the entire questionnaire and were included in the present analysis. Median age was 30 years (interquartile range: 25-36), most self-declared as MSM (4991/5065, 98.54%), white (3194/5065, 63.06%), middle income (2148/5065, 42.41%), and had 12 or more years of schooling (3106/5062, 61.36%). The majority of MSM (3363/5064, 66.41%) scored >10 points (high risk) on The HIV Incidence Risk for MSM Scale, but only 21.39% (1083/5064) had a low perceived likelihood of getting HIV in the next year. Daily use of apps for sex was reported by 35.58% (1798/5054). Most MSM (4327/5065, 85.43%) reported testing for HIV at least once in their lifetime and 9.16% (464/5065) used nPEP in the previous year. PrEP, nPEP, and HIVST awareness was reported by 57.89% (2932/5065), 57.39% (2907/5065), and 26.57% (1346/5065) of participants, respectively. Half of all respondents (2653/5065, 52.38%) were willing to use daily oral PrEP, and this finding was associated with higher numbers of male sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47), condomless receptive anal intercourse (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.44), sex with HIV-positive partner versus no HIV-positive partner (one HIV-positive partner: AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.67), daily use of apps for sexual encounters (AOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.87), high and unknown perceived likelihood of getting HIV in the next year (AOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.47-2.02 and AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.70), sexually transmitted infection diagnosis (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.51), stimulant use (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43), PrEP awareness (AOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.30-1.70), and unwillingness to use condoms (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.33).Our results evidenced high-risk scores in the studied population, suggesting the importance of PrEP use. Those individuals presenting risky sexual behaviors were more willing to use PrEP. Nonetheless, only 58% (2932/5065) of individuals had heard about this prevention strategy. Efforts to increase awareness of new prevention strategies are needed, and mobile health tools are a promising strategy to reach MSM.
Project description:We examined willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia.An online survey of 990 MSM was conducted between March and April 2016. Eligibility criteria included being biological male, Malaysian citizen, 18 years of age or above, identifying as MSM, and being HIV negative or unknown status. Participants' demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, attitudes towards PrEP, and preferences regarding future access to PrEP were collected. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were performed to determine factors associated with willingness to use PrEP.Fewer than half of participants (44%) knew about PrEP before completing the survey. Overall, 39% of the sample were willing to take PrEP. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that Malay men (AOR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.12, 2.70), having 2 or more male anal sex partners in the past 6 months (AOR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.05), previous knowledge of PrEP (AOR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06, 1.86), lack of confidence in practising safer sex (AOR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.81), and having ever paid for sex with a male partner (AOR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.91) were independently associated with greater willingness to use PrEP, while men who identified as heterosexual were less willing to use PrEP (AOR, 0.36, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.97). Majority of participants preferred to access PrEP at affordable cost below 100 Malaysian Ringgit (USD25) per month from community based organisations followed by private or government hospitals.Overall, MSM in Malaysia reported a relatively low level of willingness to use PrEP, although willingness was higher among those previously aware of PrEP. There is a need to provide PrEP at affordable cost, increase demand and awareness of PrEP, and to provide access to this preventative medication via diverse, integrated and tailored sexual health services.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite evidence supporting pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy, there are concerns regarding the feasibility of widespread PrEP implementation among men who have sex with men (MSM). To inform the development of targeted PrEP delivery guidelines, sexual risk trajectories among HIV-negative MSM were characterized. METHODS:At semiannual visits from 2003 to 2011, HIV-negative MSM (N = 419) participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study provided data on sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) since their last visit. Based on their reported behaviors, participants were assigned a SRB score at each visit as follows: 0 = no insertive or receptive anal intercourse, 1 = no unprotected insertive or receptive anal intercourse, 2 = only unprotected insertive anal intercourse, 3 = unprotected receptive anal intercourse with 1 HIV-negative partner, 4 = condom serosorting, 5 = condom seropositioning, and 6 = no seroadaptive behaviors. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to examine SRB scores (<4 vs. ?4) and identify groups with distinct sexual risk trajectories. RESULTS:Three sexual risk trajectory groups were identified: low-risk (n = 264; 63.0%), moderate-risk (n = 96; 22.9%; mean duration of consecutive high-risk intervals ?1 year), and high-risk (n = 59; 14.1%; mean duration of consecutive high-risk intervals ?2 years). Compared to low-risk group membership, high-risk group membership was associated with younger age (in years) [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88 to 0.96], being White (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.48 to 9.11), earning an income ?$20,000 (AOR = 4.98, 95% CI: 2.13 to 11.64), distress/depression symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale ? 16) (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.92), and substance use (AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.01 to 3.97). CONCLUSIONS:Screening for the sociodemographic and behavioral factors described above may facilitate targeted PrEP delivery during high-risk periods among MSM.
Project description:Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated in subgroups of the population, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable strategy for HIV prevention, but knowledge about and preferences for PrEP delivery among Vietnamese MSM are not well understood. Methods: In 2015, an online survey was conducted with recruitment via social networking websites for MSM and peer recruitment. A description of daily oral, long-acting injectable, and rectal microbicide formulations of PrEP was provided to participants. Participants were asked about their prior awareness of and interest in PrEP, and ranked their most preferred PrEP modality. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with having heard of PrEP and preference for each PrEP modality. Results: Of 548 participants who answered demographic and PrEP-related questions, 26.8% had previously heard of PrEP and most (65.7%) endorsed rectal microbicides as their most preferred PrEP delivery modality. Commonly-cited perceived barriers to uptake of PrEP included concern about side-effects, perception about being HIV positive, and family or friends finding out about their sexual behaviour. In multivariable models, older participants less often endorsed rectal microbicides (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.95 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.99) and more often endorsed long-acting injectables (AOR 1.08 per year, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14) as their preferred PrEP modality. Participants who were willing to pay more for PrEP less often endorsed rectal microbicides (AOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.92) and more often endorsed long-acting injectables (AOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.35) and daily oral pills (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35) as their preferred form of PrEP. Conclusions: A variety of PrEP modalities were acceptable to MSM in Vietnam, but low knowledge of PrEP may be a barrier to implementation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Identifying appropriate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates is a challenge in planning for the safe and effective roll-out of this strategy. We explored the use of a validated HIV risk screening tool, HIV Incidence Risk Index for Men who have Sex with Men (HIRI-MSM), to identify "optimal" candidates among MSM testing at a busy sexual health clinic's community testing sites in Toronto, Canada. METHODS:Between November 2014 and April 2015, we surveyed MSM undergoing anonymous HIV testing at community testing sites in Toronto, Canada, to quantify "optimal" candidates for scaling up PrEP roll-out, defined as being at high objective HIV risk (scoring ?10 on the HIRI-MSM), perceiving oneself at moderate-to-high HIV risk and being willing to use PrEP. Cascades were constructed to identify barriers to broader PrEP uptake. The association between HIRI-MSM score and both willingness to use PrEP and perceived HIV risk were explored in separate multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS:Of 420 respondents, 64.4% were objectively at high risk, 52.5% were willing to use PrEP and 27.2% perceived themselves at moderate-to-high HIV risk. Only 16.4% were "optimal" candidates. Higher HIRI-MSM scores were positively associated with both willingness to use PrEP (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.3-2.2) and moderate-to-high perceived HIV risk (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.2-2.3). The proportion of men who were "optimal" candidates increased to 42.9% when the objective HIV risk cut-off was changed to top quartile of HIRI-MSM scores (?26). In our full cascade, a very low proportion (5.3%) of MSM surveyed could potentially benefit from PrEP under current conditions. The greatest barrier in the cascade was low perception of HIV risk among high-risk men, but considerable numbers were also lost in downstream cascade steps. Of men at high objective HIV risk, 68.3% did not perceive themselves to be at moderate-to-high HIV risk, 23.6% were unaware of PrEP, 40.1% were not willing to use PrEP, 47.6% lacked a family physician with whom they felt comfortable discussing sexual health, and 31.6% had no means to cover the cost of PrEP. CONCLUSIONS:A higher HIRI-MSM cut-off may be helpful for identifying candidates for PrEP scale-up. Improving engagement in the PrEP cascade will require interventions to simultaneously address multiple barriers.
Project description:BackgroundMen who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of HIV and are an important population to monitor and ameliorate combination prevention efforts.AimTo estimate HIV prevalence and identify factors associated with frequent HIV testing (≥ 2 HIV tests in the last year) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among MSM in London.MethodsFor this cross-sectional study, MSM recruited from 22 social venues provided oral-fluid samples for anonymous HIV antibody (Ab) testing and completed a questionnaire. Factors associated with frequent HIV testing and PrEP use were identified through logistic regression.ResultsOf 767 men recruited, 545 provided an eligible oral specimen. Among these, 38 MSM (7.0%) were anti-HIV positive including five (13.2%; 5/38) who reported their status as negative. Condomless anal sex within the previous 3 months was reported by 60.1% (412/685) men. Frequent HIV testing was associated with, in the past year, a reported sexually transmitted infection (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 5.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.66-9.58) or ≥ 2 casual condomless partners (AOR 2-4 partners: 3.65 (95% CI: 1.87-7.10); AOR 5-10 partners: 3.34(95% CI: 1.32-8.49). Age ≥ 35 years was related to less frequent HIV testing (AOR 35-44 years: 0.34 (95% CI: 0.16-0.72); AOR ≥ 45 years: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12-0.69). PrEP use in the past year was reported by 6.2% (46/744) of MSM and associated with ≥ 2 casual condomless sex partners (AOR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.17-6.98) or chemsex (AOR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.09-4.91).ConclusionThis bio-behavioural study of MSM found high rates of behaviours associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. Combination prevention, including frequent HIV testing and use of PrEP, remains crucial in London.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recreational drug use has increased considerably among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). The phenomenon has the potentially to increase HIV transmission among Chinese MSM. The aims of this study were: 1) to investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use among Chinese MSM, and 2) to explore the correlation between gay smartphone based sex-seeking applications (gay apps), HIV/STIs testing, group sex, commercial sex, sexual roles and poppers use among Chinese MSM. METHODS:MSM who were born biologically male, were at least 16 years of age and had engaged in anal sex with a man at least once were recruited through a nation-wide online survey in 2014. Information regarding socio-demographics, risk behaviors, recreational drug use, HIV and other STIs testing history and gay app use were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine factors associated with recreational drug use among Chinese MSM. RESULTS:Among 1424 participating MSM, 1100 (77.3%) reported ever using recreational drugs in their lifetime. In the last 12 months, 303 (21.3%) used poppers, 34 (2.4%) used crystal meth and 15 (1.0%) used ecstasy. The mean age of respondents was 25.6±6.8 years, 72.9% identified as gay, 41.3% were students, and 83.8% had never been married. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that compared with non-popper users, popper users were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.15-1.96) and other STIs (aOR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.26-2.17). In addition, popper users were more likely to engage in group sex (aOR = 2.63, 95% CI:1.80-3.86), commercial sex (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI:1.13-3.06) and used gay mobile apps to seek sexual partners (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI:1.58-2.80). CONCLUSION:Chinese MSM has a high rate of recreational drug use, including poppers. Public health programs serving MSM may consider integrating intervention programs to decrease recreational drug use related harms.
Project description:Clinical trials are currently investigating the safety and efficacy of long-acting injectable (LAI) agents as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data, we assessed the self-reported willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM) to use LAI PrEP and their preference for LAI versus daily oral PrEP.In 2014, venue-based sampling was used to recruit MSM aged ?18 years in Washington, DC. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey followed by voluntary HIV testing. This analysis included MSM who self-reported negative/unknown HIV status at study entry. Correlates of being "very likely" to use LAI PrEP and preferring it to daily oral PrEP were identified using multivariable logistic regression.Of 314 participants who self-reported negative/unknown HIV status, 50% were <30 years old, 41% were non-Hispanic Black, 37% were non-Hispanic White, and 14% were Hispanic. If LAI PrEP were offered for free or covered by health insurance, 62% were very likely, 25% were somewhat likely, and 12% were unlikely to use it. Regarding preferred PrEP modality, 67% chose LAI PrEP, 24% chose oral PrEP, and 9% chose neither. Correlates of being very likely versus somewhat likely/unlikely to use LAI PrEP included age <30 years (aOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.68), reporting ?6 (vs. 1) sex partners in the last year (aOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.22-5.53), previous oral PrEP use (aOR 3.67; 95% CI 1.20-11.24), and being newly identified as HIV-infected during study testing (aOR 4.83; 95% CI 1.03-22.67). Black (vs. White) men (aOR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.96) and men with an income of <$20,000 (vs. ?$75,000; aOR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.93) were less likely to prefer LAI to oral PrEP.If LAI PrEP were found to be efficacious, its addition to the HIV prevention toolkit could facilitate more complete PrEP coverage among MSM at risk for HIV.
Project description:HIV disproportionately affects persons in Southeast United States. Primary care providers (PCPs) are vital for HIV prevention. Data are limited about their prescribing of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for prevention, including non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined these practices to assess gaps. During April-August 2017, we conducted an online survey of PCPs in Atlanta, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Miami, New Orleans, and Washington, DC to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate correlates of nPEP, PrEP and ART prescribing practices. Adjusting for MSA and specialty, the weighted sample (n?=?820, 29.6% adjusted response rate) comprised 60.2% white and 59.4% females. PCPs reported ever prescribing nPEP (31.0%), PrEP (18.1%), and ART (27.2%). Prescribing nPEP was associated with nPEP familiarity (aPR?=?2.63, 95% CI 1.59, 4.35) and prescribing PrEP (aPR?=?3.57, 95% CI 2.78, 4.55). Prescribing PrEP was associated with PrEP familiarity (aPR?=?4.35, 95% CI 2.63, 7.14), prescribing nPEP (aPR?=?5.00, 95% CI 2.00, 12.50), and providing care for persons with HIV (aPR?=?1.56, 95% CI 1.06, 2.27). Prescribing ART was associated with nPEP familiarity (aPR?=?1.89, 95% CI 1.27, 2.78) and practicing in outpatient public practice versus hospital-based facilities (aPR?=?2.14 95% CI 1.51, 3.04), and inversely associated with collaborations involving specialists (aPR?=?0.60, 95% CI 0.42, 0.86). A minority of PCPs surveyed from the Southeast report ever prescribing ARVs for prevention. Future efforts should include enhancing HIV care coordination and developing strategies to increase use of biomedical tools.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Publicly funded HIV-testing sites can identify HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates and provide PrEP linkage. SETTING:Harris Health System's HIV clinic, HIV-testing program, and HIV-prevention program (HPP) in Houston, TX, a high HIV-incidence city. METHODS:A prospective assessment of individuals aged 18 years and older recruited from walk-in HIV testing from December 2013 to April 2015 included risk assessment, HIV testing, and self-administered survey, with follow-up surveys at 6 and 12 months and medical record review. RESULTS:The mean age of our sample (n = 300) was 38.3 ± 11.7 years. Men constituted 63.1% of the sample and 53.7% were black non-Hispanic, 26.3% Hispanic, and 14.7% white non-Hispanic. Most were uninsured (63.5%). Only 27% always used condoms, although 67% perceived personal HIV risk. Of 300 participants, 64 (21.3%) linked to PrEP care and 49 (16.3%) took PrEP. In multivariable analysis, compared with heterosexual men, women [adjusted OR (aOR) 4.1, 95% CI: 1.5 to 11.1] and MSM (aOR 10.2, 95% CI: 3.4 to 31.0) were more likely to attend HPP and to take PrEP (aOR 3.0, 95% CI: 1.6 to 15.1 and 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1 to 8.3, respectively). Serodiscordance and PrEP interest correlated with program attendance (aOR 14.0, 95% CI: 6.1 to 32.3 and aOR 6.7, 95% CI: 1.8 to 25.4) and taking PrEP (aOR 13.1, 95% CI: 5.2 to 32.8 and 14.4, 95% CI: 1.8 to 166.9), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Preexposure prophylaxis interest, being female or MSM, and serodiscordance correlated with PrEP linkage. Safety-net health systems can facilitate PrEP access in marginalized populations, but the PrEP initiation rates remain low.
Project description:Transgender people continue to be at high-risk for HIV acquisition, but little is known about the characteristics of their sexual partners. To address this gap, we examined sociodemographic and sexual characteristics of cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reporting transgender sexual partners.A cohort of 392 MSM in southern California in a randomized clinical trial for PrEP adherence were followed from 2013 to 2016. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and logistic models identified characteristics of MSM reporting transgender sexual partners and PrEP adherence.Only 14 (4%) MSM reported having transgender sexual partners. MSM were more likely to report transgender partners if they were African American, had incident chlamydia, reported injection drug-using sexual partners, or received items for sex. Most associations remained significant in the multivariable model: African American (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.20, P?=?.01), incident chlamydia (AOR 3.71, P?=?.04), and receiving items for sex (AOR 5.29, P?=?.04). There were no significant differences in PrEP adherence between MSM reporting transgender partners and their counterpart.MSM who report transgender sexual partners share characteristics associated with individuals with high HIV prevalence. Identifying this group distinct from larger cohorts of MSM could offer new HIV prevention opportunities for this group of MSM and the transgender community.