Contribution of bacterial pathogens to evoking serological disease markers and aggravating disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT: Commensal bacteria and their pathogenic components in the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity may play pathological roles in autoimmune diseases. To study the possible involvement of bacterial pathogens in autoimmune diseases, IgG and IgA antibodies against pathogenic components produced by three strains of commensal bacteria, Escherichia coli-lipopolysaccharide (E. coli-LPS), Porphyromonas gingivalis-LPS (Pg-LPS) and peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PG-PS) from Streptococcus pyogenes, were determined by an improved ELISA system for sera from two groups of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who met rapid radiographic progression (RRP) criteria and non-RRP, and compared to normal (NL) controls. Antibody responses to these bacterial pathogens are unique and consistent in individuals, and no fundamental difference was observed between RA and NL controls. Despite the similar antibody responses to pathogens, lower IgG or higher IgA and consequent higher IgA/IgG antibody ratio among the patients with RA related to disease marker levels and disease activity. Peculiarly, the IgA/IgG anti-Pg-LPS antibody ratio resulted from lower IgG and higher IgA antibody responses to Pg-LPS strongly correlated not only with rheumatoid factor (RF), but also correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and disease activity score of 28 joints with ESR (DAS28-ESR) in the RRP group. In contrast, the IgA/IgG anti-E. coli-LPS and anti-PG-PS antibody ratio correlated or tended to correlate with RF, ESR, CRP, and DAS28-ESR in the non-RRP group, whereas either the IgG or IgA anti-Pg-LPS antibody levels and consequent IgA/IgG anti-Pg-LPS antibody ratio did not correlate with any clinical marker levels in this group. Notably, anti-circular-citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody levels, which did not correlate with either IgG or IgA antibody levels to any pathogens, did not correlate with severity of arthritis in both RRP and non-RRP. Taken together, we propose that multiple environmental pathogens, which overwhelm the host antibody defense function, contribute independently or concomitantly to evoking disease makers and aggravating disease activity, and affect disease outcomes.UMIN CTR UMIN000012200.
Project description:To assess the prevalence of a panel of serologic markers that reflect gut barrier dysfunction in a mixed cohort of pediatric and adult primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients.Sera of 67 PSC patients [median age (range): 32 (5-79) years, concomitant IBD: 67% and cirrhosis: 20%] were assayed for the presence of antibodies against to F-actin (AAA IgA/IgG) and gliadin (AGA IgA/IgG)] and for serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) by ELISA. Markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure [LPS binding protein (LBP)] and various anti-microbial antibodies [anti-OMP Plus IgA and endotoxin core IgA antibody (EndoCAb)] were also determined. Poor disease outcome was defined as orthotopic liver transplantation and/or liver-related death during the follow-up [median: 99 (14-106) mo]. One hundred and fifty-three healthy subjects (HCONT) and 172 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were the controls.A total of 28.4%, 28.0%, 9% and 20.9% of PSC patients were positive for AAA IgA, AAA IgG, AGA IgA and AGA IgG, respectively. Frequencies of AAA IgA and AAA IgG (P < 0.001, for both) and AGA IgG (P = 0.01, for both) but not AGA IgA were significantly higher compared to both of the HCONT and the UC groups. In survival analysis, AAA IgA-positivity was revealed as an independent predictor of poor disease outcome after adjusting either for the presence of cirrhosis [HR = 5.15 (1.27-20.86), P = 0.022 or for the Mayo risk score (HR = 4.24 (0.99-18.21), P = 0.052]. AAA IgA-positivity was significantly associated with higher frequency of anti-microbial antibodies (P < 0.001 for EndoCab IgA and P = 0.012 for anti-OMP Plus IgA) and higher level of the enterocyte damage marker (median I-FABPAAA IgA posvsneg: 365 vs 166 pg/mL, P = 0.011), but not with serum LBP level.Presence of IgA type AAA identified PSC patients with progressive disease. Moreover, it is associated with enhanced mucosal immune response to various microbial antigens and enterocyte damage further highlighting the importance of the gut-liver interaction in PSC.
Project description:Treatment of periodontitis has beneficial effects on systemic inflammation markers that relate to progression of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate whether immunization with A hemagglutinin domain (Rgp44) of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a major etiologic agent of periodontitis, would lead to an antibody response cross-reacting with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and how it would affect the progression of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. The data revealed a prominent IgM but not IgG response to malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde modified LDL (MAA-LDL) after Rgp44 and Pg immunizations, implying that Rgp44/Pg and MAA adducts may share cross-reactive epitopes that prompt IgM antibody production and consequently confer atheroprotection. A significant negative association was observed between atherosclerotic lesion and plasma IgA to Rgp44 in Rgp44 immunized mice, supporting further the anti-atherogenic effect of Rgp44 immunization. Plasma IgA levels to Rgp44 and to Pg in both Rgp44- and Pg-immunized mice were significantly higher than those in saline control, suggesting that IgA to Rgp44 could be a surrogate marker of immunization in Pg-immunized mice. Distinct antibody responses in plasma IgA levels to MAA-LDL, to Pg lipopolysaccharides (Pg-LPS), and to phosphocholine (PCho) were observed after Rgp44 and Pg immunizations, indicating that different immunogenic components between Rpg44 and Pg may behave differently in regard of their roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Immunization with Rgp44 also displayed atheroprotective features in modulation of plaque size through association with plasma levels of IL-1? whereas whole Pg bacteria achieved through regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-5 and IL-10. The present study may contribute to refining therapeutic approaches aiming to modulate immune responses and inflammatory/anti-inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis.
Project description:We report that IgA-/- mice exhibit specific defects in IgG antibody responses to various polysaccharide vaccines (Francisella tularensis LPS and Pneumovax), but not protein vaccines such as Fluzone. This defect further included responses to polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Prevnar and Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid vaccine). In agreement with these findings, IgA-/- mice were protected from pathogen challenge with protein- but not polysaccharide-based vaccines. Interestingly, after immunization with live bacteria, IgA+/+ and IgA-/- mice were both resistant to lethal challenge and their IgG anti-polysaccharide antibody responses were comparable. Immunization with live bacteria, but not purified polysaccharide, induced production of serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF), a cytokine important for IgG class switching; supplementing IgA-/- cell cultures with BAFF enhanced in vitro polyclonal IgG production. Taken together, these findings show that IgA deficiency impairs IgG class switching following vaccination with polysaccharide antigens and that live bacterial immunization can overcome this defect. Since IgA deficient patients also often show defects in antibody responses following immunization with polysaccharide vaccines, our findings could have relevance to the clinical management of this population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both). IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE:IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of lack of in vitro killing by anti-LPS antibodies from a minority of HIV-infected individuals with impaired immune homeostasis.
Project description:The goal of this work was to elucidate similarities between microorganisms from the perspective of the humoral immune system reactivity in professional athletes. The reactivity of serum IgG of 14 young, individuals was analyzed to 23 selected microorganisms as antigens by use of the in house ELISA. Serum IgM and IgA reactivity was also analyzed and a control group of sex and age matched individuals was used for comparison. The obtained absorbance levels were used as a string of values to correlate the reactivity to different microorganisms. IgM was found to be the most cross reactive antibody class, Pearson's r = 0.7-0.92, for very distant bacterial species such as Lactobacillus and E. coli.High correlation in IgG levels was found for Gammaproteobacteria and LPS (from E. coli) (r = 0.77 for LPS vs. P. aeruginosa to r = 0.98 for LPS vs. E.coli), whereas this correlation was lower in the control group (r = 0.49 for LPS vs. P. aeruginosa to r = 0.66 for LPS vs. E.coli). The correlation was also analyzed between total IgG and IgG subclasses specific for the same microorganism, and IgG2 was identified as the main subclass recognising different microorganisms, as well as recognising LPS. Upon correlation of IgG with IgA for the same microorganism absence of or negative correlation was found between bacteria-specific IgA and IgG in case of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcusgeni, whereas correlation was absent or positive for Candida albicans, Enterococcusfaecalis,Streptococcus species tested in professional athletes. Opposite results were obtained for the control group. Outlined here is a simple experimental procedure and data analysis which yields functional significance and which can be used for determining the similarities between microorganisms from the aspect of the humoral immune system, for determining the main IgG subclass involved in an immune response as well as for the analysis of different target populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mediators of protection against cholera, a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by Vibrio cholerae, are unknown. We have previously shown that plasma IgA as well as memory B IgG cells targeting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Vibrio cholerae O1 correlate with protection against V. cholerae O1 infection among household contacts of cholera patients. Protection against cholera is serogroup specific, and serogroup specificity is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) component of LPS. Therefore, we prospectively followed household contacts of cholera patients to determine whether OSP-specific immune responses present at the time of enrollment are associated with protection against V. cholerae infection. METHODOLOGY:In this study, we enrolled two hundred forty two household contacts of one hundred fifty index patients who were infected with Vibrio cholerae. We determined OSP-specific memory B cells and plasma IgA, IgG and IgM antibody responses on study entry (day 2). PRINCIPLE FINDINGS:The presence of OSP-specific plasma IgA, IgM, and IgG antibody responses on study entry were associated with a decrease in the risk of infection in household contacts (IgA, p = 0.015; IgM, p = 0.01, and IgG, p = 0.024). In addition, the presence of OSP-specific IgG memory B cell responses in peripheral blood on study entry was also associated with a decreased risk of infection (44% reduction; 95% CI: 31.1 to 99.8) in contacts. No protection was associated with cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB)-specific memory B cell responses. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that immune responses that target OSP, both in plasma and memory responses, may be important in mediating protection against infection with V. cholerae O1.
Project description:The gut is home to the body's largest population of plasma cells. In healthy individuals, IgA is the dominating isotype, whereas patients with inflammatory bowel disease also produce high concentrations of IgG. In the gut lumen, secretory IgA binds pathogens and toxins but also the microbiota. However, the antigen specificity of IgA and IgG for the microbiota and underlying mechanisms of antibody binding to bacteria are largely unknown. Here we show that microbiota binding is a defining property of human intestinal antibodies in both healthy and inflamed gut. Some bacterial taxa were commonly targeted by different monoclonal antibodies, whereas others selectively bound single antibodies. Interestingly, individual human monoclonal antibodies from both healthy and inflamed intestines bound phylogenetically unrelated bacterial species. This microbiota cross-species reactivity did not correlate with antibody polyreactivity but was crucially dependent on the accumulation of somatic mutations. Therefore, our data suggest that a system of affinity-matured, microbiota cross-species-reactive IgA is a common aspect of SIgA-microbiota interactions in the gut.
Project description:The humoral response to invading mucosal pathogens comprises multiple antibody isotypes derived from systemic and mucosal compartments. To understand the contribution of each antibody isotype/source to the mucosal humoral response, parallel investigation of the specificities and functions of antibodies within and across isotypes and compartments is required. The role of IgA against HIV-1 is complex, with studies supporting a protective role as well as a role for serum IgA in blocking effector functions. Thus, we explored the fine specificity and function of IgA in both plasma and mucosal secretions important to infant HIV-1 infection, i.e., breast milk. IgA and IgG were isolated from milk and plasma from 20 HIV-1-infected lactating Malawian women. HIV-1 binding specificities, neutralization potency, inhibition of virus-epithelial cell binding, and antibody-mediated phagocytosis were measured. Fine-specificity mapping showed IgA and IgG responses to multiple HIV-1 Env epitopes, including conformational V1/V2 and linear V2, V3, and constant region 5 (C5). Env IgA was heterogeneous between the milk and systemic compartments (Env IgA, τ = 0.00 to 0.63, P = 0.0046 to 1.00). Furthermore, IgA and IgG appeared compartmentalized as there was a lack of correlation between the specificities of Env-specific IgA and IgG (in milk, τ = -0.07 to 0.26, P = 0.35 to 0.83). IgA and IgG also differed in functions: while neutralization and phagocytosis were consistently mediated by milk and plasma IgG, they were rarely detected in IgA from both milk and plasma. Understanding the ontogeny of the divergent IgG and IgA antigen specificity repertoires and their effects on antibody function will inform vaccination approaches targeted toward mucosal pathogens.IMPORTANCE Antibodies within the mucosa are part of the first line of defense against mucosal pathogens. Evaluating mucosal antibody isotypes, specificities, and antiviral functions in relationship to the systemic antibody profile can provide insights into whether the antibody response is coordinated in response to mucosal pathogens. In a natural immunity cohort of HIV-infected lactating women, we mapped the fine specificity and function of IgA in breast milk and plasma and compared these with the autologous IgG responses. Antigen specificities and functions differed between IgG and IgA, with antiviral functions (neutralization and phagocytosis) predominantly mediated by the IgG fraction in both milk and plasma. Furthermore, the specificity of milk IgA differed from that of systemic IgA. Our data suggest that milk IgA and systemic IgA should be separately examined as potential correlates of risk. Preventive vaccines may need to employ different strategies to elicit functional antiviral immunity by both antibody isotypes in the mucosa.
Project description:Antibodies to LPS and flagellin have been described as indirect measures of increased gastrointestinal permeability and may be markers of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), which is a condition associated with poor child growth.We assessed whether LPS- and flagellin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were associated with poor growth in young Tanzanian children at risk of EED.Blood samples were obtained from 590 children at 6 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo of age. Serum LPS- and flagellin-specific Ig concentrations (IgA and IgG) were measured with the use of an ELISA. Growth was measured on a monthly basis for 18 mo.Anti-LPS and anti-flagellin IgA and IgG concentrations increased over the first year of life and were higher than concentrations (measured at 9 mo of age) in healthy controls. Children with anti-flagellin IgA, anti-LPS IgA, anti-flagellin IgG, and anti-LPS IgG concentrations in the highest quartile at 6 wk of age were 2.02 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.67), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.27), 1.94 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.62), and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.25, 4.27) times, respectively, more likely to become underweight (weight-for-age z score <-2) after adjustment for covariates (P-trend < 0.05) than were children with Ig concentrations in the lowest quartile. Children with increased concentrations of anti-flagellin IgA were also more likely to become wasted; however, there was no association between any of the markers and subsequent stunting.Serologic measures of increased intestinal permeability to bacterial components are associated with subsequent poor growth and could help identify children who may benefit most from preventive interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00421668.
Project description:Anti-glycan antibodies are an abundant subpopulation of serum antibodies with critical functions in many immune processes. Changes in the levels of these antibodies can occur with the onset of disease, exposure to pathogens, or vaccination. As a result, there has been significant interest in exploiting anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for many diseases. Serum contains a mixture of anti-glycan antibodies that can recognize the same antigen, and competition for binding can potentially influence the detection of antibody subpopulations that are more relevant to disease processes. The most abundant antibody isotypes in serum are IgG, IgM, and IgA, but little is known regarding how these different isotypes compete for the same glycan antigen. In this study, we developed a multiplexed glycan microarray assay and applied it to evaluate how different isotypes of anti-glycan antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compete for printed glycan antigens. While IgG and IgA antibodies typically outcompete IgM for peptide or protein antigens, we found that IgM outcompete IgG and IgA for many glycan antigens. To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition can account for the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigen specificities appear to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We demonstrate that IgM in maternal sera compete with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear as though certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies.