Task shifting in active management of the third stage of labor: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: Active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL) describes interventions with the common goal to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In low- and middle-income countries, implementation of AMTSL is hampered by shortage of skilled birth attendants and a high percentage of home deliveries. Task shifting of specific AMTSL components to unskilled birth attendants or self-administration could be a strategy to increase access to potentially life-saving interventions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect, acceptance and safety of task shifting of specific aspects of AMTSL to unskilled birth attendants.A systematic search was conducted in five databases in September 2015 to identify intervention studies of AMTSL implemented by unskilled birth attendants or pregnant women themselves. Quality of studies was evaluated with an adapted Cochrane Collaboration assessment tool.Of 2469 studies screened, 21 were included. All studies assessed implementation of uterotonics (misoprostol tablets or oxytocin injections), administered by community health workers (CHWs), auxiliary midwives, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or self-administration at antenatal (home) visits or delivery. Task shifting for none of the other AMTSL components was reported. Task shifting of provision of uterotonics reduced the risk of PPH (RR 0.16 to 1) compared to standard care (13 studies, n = 15.197). The correct dose and timing was reported for 83.4 to 99.8% (5 studies, n = 6083) and 63 to 100% (9 studies, n = 8378) women respectively. Uterotonics were recommended to others by 80 to 99.7% (7 studies, n = 6445); 80 to 99.4% (5 studies, n = 2677) would use the drug at next delivery. Willingness to pay for uterotonics varied from 54.6 to 100% (7 studies, n = 6090).Task shifting of AMTSL has thus far been evaluated for administration of uterotonics (misoprostol tablets and oxytocin injected by CHWs and auxiliary midwives) and resulted in reduction of PPH, high rates of appropriate use and satisfaction among users. In order to increase AMTSL coverage in low-staffed health facilities, task shifting of uterine massage or postpartum tonus assessment to unskilled attendants or delivered women could be considered. Task shifting of controlled cord traction is currently not recommended.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide and accounts for one third of maternal deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. PPH can be prevented by active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL), a series of steps recommended by the World Health Organization to be performed by skilled birth attendants (SBAs). Task shifting in the AMTSL step of uterotonic drugs administration to community health workers, traditional birth attendants and self-administration has been investigated as a strategy to increase access to quality obstetric care considering persistent SBA and facility-based delivery shortages. The aim of this study is to assess task shifting in the final step of AMTSL and compare uterine tonus assessment by a SBA to self-assessment. METHODS AND DESIGN:The study is an individual-level two-arm non-inferiority randomized controlled trial (RCT). A total of 800 women will be recruited in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Adult women in labor at term with an expected vaginal delivery who received antenatal instructions for self-assessment of uterine tonus will be eligible for inclusion. Women with an increased risk for PPH will be excluded. Women will be randomized to uterine tone assessment by a skilled birth attendant (midwife) or uterine tone self-assessment (with the safety back-up of a midwife present in case of PPH or uterine atony). Postpartum blood loss will be measured through weighing of disposable mats. The main study endpoints are PPH (≥500 ml blood loss), severe PPH (≥1000 ml blood loss), mean blood loss, and routine maternal and neonatal outcomes. Participants and caregivers will not be blinded given the nature of the intervention. DISCUSSION:A reduction of PPH-related maternal mortality requires full implementation of AMTSL. Task shifting of uterine tone assessment may contribute to increased AMTSL implementation in (clinical) settings where SBAs capacity is constrained. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02223806 , registration August 2014. PACTR:PACTR201402000736158 , registration July 2014. University of Ghana, Medical School Ethical and Protocol Review Committee: MS-Et/M.8-P4.1/2014-2015.
Project description:Tanzania has a maternal mortality ratio of 556 per 100,000 live births, representing 21% of all deaths of women of reproductive age. Hemorrhage, mostly postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), is estimated to cause at least 25% of maternal deaths in Tanzania. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children launched interventions to improve efforts to prevent PPH. Competency-based training for skilled birth attendants and ongoing quality improvement prioritized the practice of active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL).A cross-sectional study was conducted in 52 health facilities in Tanzania utilizing direct observations of women during labor and delivery. Observations were conducted in 2010 and, after competency-based training and quality improvement interventions in the facilities, in 2012. A total of 489 deliveries were observed in 2010 and 558 in 2012. Steps for AMTSL were assessed using a standardized structured observation checklist that was based on World Health Organization guidelines.The proportion of deliveries receiving all three AMTSL steps improved significantly by 19 percentage points (p?<?0.001) following the intervention, with the most dramatic increase occurring in health centers and dispensaries (47.2 percentage point change) compared to hospitals (5.2 percentage point change). Use of oxytocin for PPH prevention rose by 37.1 percentage points in health centers and dispensaries but remained largely the same in hospitals, where the baseline was higher. There was substantial improvement in the timely provision of uterotonics (within 3 min of birth) across all facilities (p?=?0.003). Availability of oxytocin, which was lower in health centers and dispensaries than hospitals at baseline, rose from 73 to 94% of all facilities.The quality of PPH prevention increased substantially in facilities that implemented competency-based training and quality improvement interventions, with the most dramatic improvement seen at lower-level facilities. As Tanzania continues with efforts to increase facility births, it is imperative that the quality of care also be improved by promoting use of up-to-date guidelines and ensuring regular training and mentoring for health care providers so that they adhere to the guidelines for care of women during labor. These measures can reduce maternal and newborn mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of postpartum blood loss and the effect of uterotonics are biased by visually estimated blood loss. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of measured postpartum blood loss with and without prophylactic uterotonics for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Medline and PubMed terms (labour stage, third) AND (ergonovine, ergonovine tartrate, methylergonovine, oxytocin, oxytocics or misoprostol) AND (postpartum haemorrhage or haemorrhage) and Cochrane reviews without any language restriction. SELECTION CRITERIA: Refereed publications in the period 1988-2007 reporting mean postpartum blood loss, PPH (> or =500 ml) or severe PPH (> or =1000 ml) following vaginal births. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Raw data were abstracted into Excel by one author and then reviewed by a co-author. Data were transferred to SPSS 17.0, and copied into RevMan 5.0 to perform random effects meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS: The distribution of average blood loss (29 studies) is similar with any prophylactic uterotonic, and is lower than without prophylaxis. Compared with no uterotonic, oxytocin and misoprostol have lower PPH (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.81; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.08, respectively) and severe PPH rates (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.29-1.29; OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52-1.04, respectively). Oxytocin has lower PPH (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.60-0.70) and severe PPH (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.91) rates than misoprostol, but not in developing countries. CONCLUSION: Oxytocin is superior to misoprostol in hospitals. Misoprostol substantially lowers PPH and severe PPH. A sound assessment of the relative merits of the two drugs is needed in rural areas of developing countries, where most PPH deaths occur.
Project description:Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low-income countries and is a significant contributor to severe maternal morbidity and long-term disability. Carbetocin may be an underused uterotonic for prevention of PPH. A number of studies are being conducted that may challenge the place of oxytocin as the first choice of uterotonics for prevention of PPH. This paper describes the current research into carbetocin and ranking of effectiveness of uterotonics that may provide important new information to assist healthcare decision makers to ensure that women receive an effective uterotonic for prevention of PPH.We searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for current studies on effectiveness of carbetocin for prevention of PPH following vaginal delivery with sample sizes large enough to provide quality evidence to support potential changes to international guidelines. We also searched the Cochrane Library for current systematic reviews including carbetocin used in prevention of PPH.Susceptibility to degradation from exposure to heat is one of the key causes of reduced effectiveness of oxytocin in preventing PPH from uterine atony. Although heat stable and effective in preventing PPH, misoprostol is also subject to degradation due to exposure to moisture and produces some side-effects. Other uterotonics (including ergometrine and combinations of oxytocin, ergometrine and misoprostol) are also available and used with varying safety and effectiveness profiles and quality issues. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality from PPH include research studies seeking to identify safe, stable, effective uterotonics. Heat stable carbetocin is the subject of two major clinical studies into its effectiveness in preventing PPH following vaginal deliveries, information that could expand its application for prevention of PPH.Heat stable carbetocin is being investigated as a potential alternative to oxytocin. This paper describes two current clinical trials on carbetocin and a network meta-analysis ranking of all uterotonic agents, including carbetocin, which combined may provide evidence supporting expansion of the use of the heat stable formulation of carbetocin in PPH prevention.
Project description:to determine if misoprostol is safe and efficacious in preventing postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when administered by trained traditional birth attendants (TBA) at home deliveries.a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.a total of 1119 women giving birth at home.from June 2006 to June 2008, consenting women were randomised to receive 600 microg oral misoprostol (n = 534) or placebo (n = 585) after delivery to determine whether misoprostol reduced the incidence of PPH (? 500 ml).the primary outcomes were measured blood loss ? 500 ml after delivery and drop in haemoglobin >2 g/dl from before to after delivery.oral misoprostol was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of PPH (? 500 ml) (16.5 versus 21.9%; relative risk 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97). There were no measurable differences between study groups for drop in haemoglobin >2?g/dl (relative risk 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.02); but significantly fewer women receiving misoprostol had a drop in haemoglobin >3 g/dl, compared with placebo (5.1 versus 9.6%; relative risk 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.83). Shivering and chills were significantly more common with misoprostol. There were no maternal deaths among participants.postpartum administration of 600 microg oral misoprostol by trained TBAs at home deliveries reduces the rate of PPH by 24%. Given its ease of use and low cost, misoprostol could reduce the burden of PPH in community settings where universal oxytocin prophylaxis is not feasible. Continual training and skill-building for TBAs, along with monitoring and evaluation of programme effectiveness, should accompany any widespread introduction of this drug.
Project description:In settings where home birth rates are high, prenatal distribution of misoprostol has been advocated as a strategy to increase access to uterotonics during the third stage of labor to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to project the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy in Uganda from both governmental (the relevant payer) and modified societal perspectives.To compare prenatal misoprostol distribution to status quo (no misoprostol distribution), we developed a decision analytic model that tracked the delivery pathways of a cohort of pregnant women from the prenatal period, labor to delivery without complications or delivery with PPH, and successful treatment or death. Delivery pathway parameters were derived from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Incidence of PPH, treatment efficacy, adverse event and case fatality rates, access to misoprostol, and health resource use and cost data were obtained from published literature and supplemented with expert opinion where necessary. We computed the expected incidence of PPH, mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to examine robustness of our results. In the base-case analysis, misoprostol distribution lowered the expected incidence of PPH by 1.2% (95% credibility interval (CrI): 0.55%, 1.95%), mortality by 0.08% (95% CrI: 0.04%, 0.13%) and DALYs by 0.02 (95% CrI: 0.01, 0.03).” and “ICERs were US$181 (95% CrI: 81, 443) per DALY averted from a governmental perspective, and US$64 (95% CrI: -84, 260) per DALY averted from a modified societal perspective [corrected].Prenatal distribution of misoprostol is potentially cost-effective in Uganda and should be considered for national-level scale up for prevention of PPH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and the amount of blood loss are directly related to management of the third stage of labor. No previous report has compared the effects of carbetocin to those of misoprostol. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effects of carbetocin to those of misoprostol for management of the third stage of labor and for the prevention of PPH. METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid, clinicaltrial.gov , and PubMed databases on December 28, 2017. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by 2 of the authors independently. Individual and pooled incidences were calculated for the included studies, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed model for forest plots without heterogeneity and a random effect model for those with heterogeneity. RESULTS:Our search identified 117 studies; however, 29 studies were duplicate. Of the 88 non-duplicate studies, 5 met the inclusion criteria. Of these five studies, two are currently underway. Hence, three studies were finally included in our meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of the impact of carbetocin on PPH (500-1000 ml) was (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.14-0.50). Carbetocin significantly reduced the need for additional uterotonics (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.49). Reduction in the hemoglobin level and blood loss during the third stage of labor was significantly lower in women who received carbetocin than in those who received misoprostol. The length of the third stage of labor was significantly lower in women who received carbetocin than in those who received misoprostol. The incidence of side effects, such as heat sensation, metallic taste, fever, and shivering, were significantly lower in women who received carbetocin than in those who received misoprostol. CONCLUSION:Although this review showed that carbetocin is effective for decreasing PPH, blood loss, the length of the third stage of labor, and the need for additional uterotonics, this conclusion should be considered with caution. Because assessment of PPH is a subjective issue and it is uncertain whether outcomes were assessed blindly in respect to treatment. We recommend future research to verify our findings. Also clinicians may like to consider use of carbetocin for women with low risk for PPH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oral tranexamic acid (TXA), if effective in reducing blood loss after delivery for women experiencing primary PPH, could be administered where parenteral administration is not feasible. This trial assessed the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of oral TXA when used as an adjunct to sublingual misoprostol to treat postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) following vaginal delivery. METHODS:From October 2016 to January 2018, women presenting at four hospitals in Senegal and Vietnam for vaginal delivery were screened for enrollment in the trial. Women diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage (defined as blood loss ?700?ml) were randomized to receive either oral TXA (1950?mg) or placebo in addition to 800 mcg sublingual misoprostol. Postpartum blood loss was measured using a calibrated drape. Blood loss for all PPH cases was recorded for 2 h after administration of the drugs. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with bleeding controlled with the trial regimen without recourse to further treatment. Secondary outcomes including the rate of severe PPH, mean/median blood loss, use of additional uterotonics and/or interventions side effects, and acceptability were also recorded. RESULTS:Of the 258 women who received treatment for PPH, 128 received placebo and misoprostol and 130 received TXA and misoprostol. The proportion of women who had active bleeding controlled with trial drugs alone and no additional interventions was similar in both groups: 77(60.2%) placebo; 74 (56.9%) TXA, p?=?0.59). Use of other interventions to control bleeding, including uterotonics, did not differ significantly between groups. Median blood loss at PPH diagnosis was 700?ml in both groups. Uterine atony alone or in addition to another cause contributed to over 90% of PPH cases reported (92.2% placebo vs. 91.5% TXA), other causes included perineal and cervical lacerations and retained placenta. Reports of side effects and acceptability were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION:Adjunct use of oral TXA with misoprostol to treat PPH resulted in similar clinical and acceptability outcomes when compared to treatment with misoprostol alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02805426. Registered on 3 September 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Reducing deaths from PPH is a global challenge. The voices of women and healthcare providers have been missing from the debate around best practices for PPH prevention. The aim of this review was to identify, appraise and synthesize available evidence about the views and experiences of women and healthcare providers on interventions to prevent PPH. METHODS:We searched eight electronic databases and reference lists of eligible studies published between 1996 and 2018, reporting qualitative data on views and experiences of PPH in general, and of any specific preventative intervention(s). Authors' findings were extracted and synthesised using meta-ethnographic techniques. Confidence in the quality, coherence, relevance and adequacy of data underpinning the resulting themes was assessed using GRADE-CERQual. A line of argument synthesis was developed. RESULTS:Thirty-five studies from 29 countries met our inclusion criteria. Our results indicate that women and healthcare providers recognise the dangers of severe blood loss in the perinatal and postpartum period, but don't always share the same beliefs about the causes and consequences of PPH. Skilled birth attendants and traditional birth attendants (TBA's) want to prevent PPH but may lack the required resources and training. Women generally appreciate PPH prevention strategies, especially where their individual needs, beliefs and values are taken into account. Women and healthcare providers also recognize the value of using uterotonics (medications that contract the uterus) to prevent PPH but highlight safety concerns and potential misuse of the drugs as acceptability and implementation issues. CONCLUSIONS:Based on stakeholder views and experiences, PPH prevention strategies are more likely to be successful where all stakeholders agree on the causes and consequences of severe postpartum blood loss, especially in the context of sufficient resources and effective implementation by competent, suitably trained providers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in Sokoto State, Nigeria, where 95% of women give birth outside of a health facility. Although pilot schemes have demonstrated the value of community-based distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH, none have provided practical insight on taking such programs to scale. METHODS:A community-based system for the distribution of misoprostol tablets (in 600ug) and chlorhexidine digluconate gel 7.1% to mother-newborn dyads was introduced by state government officials and community leaders throughout Sokoto State in April 2013, with the potential to reach an estimated 190,467 annual births. A simple outcome form that collected distribution and consumption data was used to assess the percentage of mothers that received misoprostol at labor through December 2014. Mothers' conditions were tracked through 6 weeks postpartum. Verbal autopsies were conducted on associated maternal deaths. RESULTS:Misoprostol distribution was successfully introduced and reached mothers in labor in all 244 wards in Sokoto State. Community data collection systems were successfully operational in all 244 wards with reliable capacity to record maternal deaths. 70,982 women or 22% of expected births received misoprostol from April 2013 to December 2014. Between April and December 2013, 33 women (< 1%) reported that heavy bleeding persisted after misoprostol use and were promptly referred. There were a total of 11 deaths in the 2013 cohort which were confirmed as maternal deaths by verbal autopsies. Between January and December of 2014, a total 434 women (1.25%) that ingested misoprostol reported associated side effects. CONCLUSION:It is feasible and safe to utilize government guidelines on results-based primary health care to successfully introduce community distribution of life saving misoprostol at scale to reduce PPH and improve maternal outcomes. Lessons from Sokoto State's at-scale program implementation, to assure every mother's right to uterotonics, can inform scale-up elsewhere in Nigeria.