Osteopontin regulates dentin and alveolar bone development and mineralization.
ABSTRACT: The periodontal complex is essential for tooth attachment and function and includes the mineralized tissues, cementum and alveolar bone, separated by the unmineralized periodontal ligament (PDL). To gain insights into factors regulating cementum-PDL and bone-PDL borders and protecting against ectopic calcification within the PDL, we employed a proteomic approach to analyze PDL tissue from progressive ankylosis knock-out (Ank-/-) mice, featuring reduced PPi, rapid cementogenesis, and excessive acellular cementum. Using this approach, we identified the matrix protein osteopontin (Spp1/OPN) as an elevated factor of interest in Ank-/- mouse molar PDL. We studied the role of OPN in dental and periodontal development and function. During tooth development in wild-type (WT) mice, Spp1 mRNA was transiently expressed by cementoblasts and strongly by alveolar bone osteoblasts. Developmental analysis from 14 to 240days postnatal (dpn) indicated normal histological structures in Spp1-/- comparable to WT control mice. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis at 30 and 90dpn revealed significantly increased volumes and tissue mineral densities of Spp1-/- mouse dentin and alveolar bone, while pulp and PDL volumes were decreased and tissue densities were increased. However, acellular cementum growth was unaltered in Spp1-/- mice. Quantitative PCR of periodontal-derived mRNA failed to identify potential local compensators influencing cementum in Spp1-/- vs. WT mice at 26dpn. We genetically deleted Spp1 on the Ank-/- mouse background to determine whether increased Spp1/OPN was regulating periodontal tissues when the PDL space is challenged by hypercementosis in Ank-/- mice. Ank-/-; Spp1-/- double deficient mice did not exhibit greater hypercementosis than that in Ank-/- mice. Based on these data, we conclude that OPN has a non-redundant role regulating formation and mineralization of dentin and bone, influences tissue properties of PDL and pulp, but does not control acellular cementum apposition. These findings may inform therapies targeted at controlling soft tissue calcification.
Project description:The tooth root and periodontal apparatus, including the acellular and cellular cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone, are critical for tooth function. Cementum and bone mineralization is regulated by factors including enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins that promote or inhibit hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Orphan Phosphatase 1 (Phospho1, PHOSPHO1) is a phosphatase expressed by chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and odontoblasts that functions in skeletal and dentin mineralization by initiating deposition of hydroxyapatite inside membrane-limited matrix vesicles. The role of PHOSPHO1 in periodontal formation remains unknown and we aimed to determine its functional importance in these tissues. We hypothesized that the enzyme would regulate proper mineralization of the periodontal apparatus. Spatiotemporal expression of PHOSPHO1 was mapped during periodontal development, and Phospho1(-/-) mice were analyzed using histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, radiography, and micro-computed tomography. The Phospho1 gene and PHOSPHO1 protein were expressed by active alveolar bone osteoblasts and cementoblasts during cellular cementum formation. In Phospho1(-/-) mice, acellular cementum formation and mineralization were unaffected, whereas cellular cementum deposition increased although it displayed delayed mineralization and cementoid. Phospho1(-/-) mice featured disturbances in alveolar bone mineralization, shown by accumulation of unmineralized osteoid matrix and interglobular patterns of protein deposition. Parallel to other skeletal sites, deposition of mineral-regulating protein osteopontin (OPN) was increased in alveolar bone in Phospho1(-/-) mice. In contrast to the skeleton, genetic ablation of Spp1, the gene encoding OPN, did not ameliorate dentoalveolar defects in Phospho1(-/-) mice. Despite alveolar bone mineralization defects, periodontal attachment and function appeared undisturbed in Phospho1(-/-) mice, with normal PDL architecture and no evidence of bone loss over time. This study highlights the role of PHOSPHO1 in mineralization of alveolar bone and cellular cementum, further revealing that acellular cementum formation is not substantially regulated by PHOSPHO1 and likely does not rely on matrix vesicle-mediated initiation of mineralization.
Project description:Although acellular cementum is essential for tooth attachment, factors directing its development and regeneration remain poorly understood. Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a mineralization inhibitor, is a key regulator of cementum formation: tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (Alpl/TNAP) null mice (increased PPi) feature deficient cementum, while progressive ankylosis protein (Ank/ANK) null mice (decreased PPi) feature increased cementum. Bone sialoprotein (Bsp/BSP) and osteopontin (Spp1/OPN) are multifunctional extracellular matrix components of cementum proposed to have direct and indirect effects on cell activities and mineralization. Studies on dentoalveolar development of Bsp knockout (Bsp-/-) mice revealed severely reduced acellular cementum, however underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The similarity in defective cementum phenotypes between Bsp-/- mice and Alpl-/- mice (the latter featuring elevated PPi and OPN), prompted us to examine whether BSP is operating by modulating PPi-associated genes. Genetic ablation of Bsp caused a 2-fold increase in circulating PPi, altered mRNA expression of Alpl, Spp1, and Ank, and increased OPN protein in the periodontia. Generation of a Bsp knock-out (KO) cementoblast cell line revealed significantly decreased mineralization capacity, 50% increased PPi in culture media, and increased Spp1 and Ank mRNA expression. While addition of 2?g/ml recombinant BSP altered Spp1, Ank, and Enpp1 expression in cementoblasts, changes resulting from this dose were not dependent on the integrin-binding RGD motif or MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Decreasing PPi by genetic ablation of Ank on the Bsp-/- mouse background reestablished cementum formation, allowing >3-fold increased acellular cementum volume compared to wild-type (WT). However, deleting Ank did not fully compensate for the absence of BSP. Bsp-/-; Ank-/- double-deficient mice exhibited mean 20-27% reduced cementum thickness and volume compared to Ank-/- mice. From these data, we conclude that the perturbations in PPi metabolism are not solely driving the cementum pathology in Bsp-/- mice, and that PPi is more potent than BSP as a cementum regulator, as shown by the ability to override loss of BSP by lowering PPi. We propose that BSP and PPi work in concert to direct mineralization in cementum and likely other mineralized tissues.
Project description:The tooth root cementum is a thin, mineralized tissue covering the root dentin that is present primarily as acellular cementum on the cervical root and cellular cementum covering the apical root. While cementum shares many properties in common with bone and dentin, it is a unique mineralized tissue and acellular cementum is critical for attachment of the tooth to the surrounding periodontal ligament (PDL). Resources for methodologies for hard tissues often overlook cementum and approaches that may be of value for studying this tissue. To address this issue, this report offers detailed methodology, as well as comparisons of several histological and immunohistochemical stains available for imaging the cementum-PDL complex by light microscopy. Notably, the infrequently used Alcian blue stain with nuclear fast red counterstain provided utility in imaging cementum in mouse, porcine and human teeth. While no truly unique extracellular matrix markers have been identified to differentiate cementum from the other hard tissues, immunohistochemistry for detection of bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a reliable approach for studying both acellular and cellular cementum and providing insight into developmental biology of these tissues. Histological and immunohistochemical approaches provide insight on developmental biology of cementum.
Project description:Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues of the skeleton and dentition. BSP is multifunctional, affecting cell attachment and signaling through an RGD integrin-binding region, and acting as a positive regulator for mineral precipitation by nucleating hydroxyapatite crystals. BSP is present in cementum, the hard tissue covering the tooth root that anchors periodontal ligament (PDL) attachment. To test our hypothesis that BSP plays an important role in cementogenesis, we analyzed tooth development in a Bsp null ((-/-)) mouse model. Developmental analysis by histology, histochemistry, and SEM revealed a significant reduction in acellular cementum formation on Bsp (-/-) mouse molar and incisor roots, and the cementum deposited appeared hypomineralized. Structural defects in cementum-PDL interfaces in Bsp (-/-) mice caused PDL detachment, likely contributing to the high incidence of incisor malocclusion. Loss of BSP caused progressively disorganized PDL and significantly increased epithelial down-growth with aging. Bsp (-/-) mice displayed extensive root and alveolar bone resorption, mediated by increased RANKL and the presence of osteoclasts. Results collected here suggest that BSP plays a non-redundant role in acellular cementum formation, likely involved in initiating mineralization on the root surface. Through its importance to cementum integrity, BSP is essential for periodontal function.
Project description:To date, attempts to regenerate functional periodontal tissues (including cementum) are largely unsuccessful due to a lack of full understanding about the cellular origin (epithelial or mesenchymal cells) essential for root cementum growth. To address this issue, we first identified a rapid cementum growth window from the ages of postnatal day 28 (P28) to P56. Next, we showed that expression patterns of Axin2 and ?-catenin within cementum-forming periodontal ligament (PDL) cells are negatively associated with rapid cementum growth. Furthermore, cell lineage tracing studies revealed that the Axin2+-mesenchymal PDL cells and their progeny rapidly expand and directly contribute to postnatal acellular and cellular cementum growth. In contrast, the number of K14+ epithelial cells, which were initially active at early stages of development, was reduced during rapid cementum formation from P28 to P56. The in vivo cell ablation of these Axin2+ cells using Axin2CreERT2/+; R26RDTA/+ mice led to severe cementum hypoplasia, whereas constitutive activation of ?-catenin in the Axin2+ cells resulted in an acceleration in cellular cementogenesis plus a transition from acellular cementum to cellular cementum. Thus, we conclude that Axin2+-mesenchymal PDL cells, instead of K14+ epithelial cells, significantly contribute to rapid cementum growth.
Project description:Previous studies revealed that cementum formation is tightly regulated by inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a mineralization inhibitor. Local PPi concentrations are determined by regulators, including ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), which increases PPi concentrations by adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. Orthodontic forces stimulate alveolar bone remodelling, leading to orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). To better understand how disturbed mineral metabolism and the resulting altered periodontal structures affect OTM, we employed Enpp1 mutant mice that feature reduced PPi and increased cervical cementum in a model of OTM induced by a stretched closed-coil spring ligated between the maxillary left first molar and maxillary incisors. We analyzed tooth movement, osteoclast/odontoclast response, and tooth root resorption by micro-computed tomography, histology, histomorphometry, and immunohistochemistry. Preoperatively, we noted an altered periodontium in Enpp1 mutant mice, with significantly increased periodontal ligament (PDL) volume and thickness, as well as increased PDL-bone/tooth root surface area, compared to wild-type (WT) controls. After 11 d of orthodontic treatment, Enpp1 mutant mice displayed 38% reduced tooth movement versus WT mice. Molar roots in Enpp1 mutant mice exhibited less change in PDL width in compression and tension zones compared to WT mice. Root resorption was noted in both groups with no difference in average depths, but resorption lacunae in Enpp1 mutant mice were almost entirely limited to cementum, with 150% increased cementum resorption and 92% decreased dentin resorption. Osteoclast/odontoclast cells were reduced by 64% in Enpp1 mutant mice, with a predominance of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells on root surfaces, compared to WT mice. Increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells on root surfaces were associated with robust immunolocalization of osteopontin (OPN) and receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Collectively, reduced response to orthodontic forces, decreased tooth movement, and altered osteoclast/odontoclast distribution suggests Enpp1 loss of function has direct effects on clastic function/recruitment and/or indirect effects on periodontal remodeling via altered periodontal structure or tissue mineralization.
Project description:The structural and functional integrity of bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-cementum complex stems from the load-bearing attachment sites (entheses) between soft (PDL) and hard (bone, cementum) tissues. These attachment sites are responsible for the maintenance of a bone-PDL-cementum complex biomechanical function. The objective was to investigate changes in spatiotemporal expression of key biomolecules in developing and functionally active entheses.Multilabeling technique was performed on hemimandibles of 3 wk and 3 mo-old scleraxis-GFP transgenic mice for CD146, CD31, NG2, osterix and bone sialoprotein. Regions of dominant stretch within the PDL were evaluated by identifying directionality of collagen fibrils, PDL fibroblasts and PDL cell cytoskeleton.CD146+ cells adjacent to CD31+ vasculature were identified at PDL-bone enthesis. NG2+ cells were located at coronal bone-PDL and apical cementum-PDL entheses in the 3-wk-old group, but at 3 mo, NG2 was positive at the entheses of the apical region and alveolar crest. NG2 and osterix were colocalized at the osteoid and cementoid regions of the PDL-bone and PDL-cementum entheses. Bone sialoprotein was prominent at the apical region of 3-wk-old mice. The directionality of collagen fibers, fibroblasts and their cytoskeleton overlapped, except in the apical region of 3 wk.Colocalization of biomolecules at zones of the PDL adjacent to attachment sites may be essential for the formation of precementum and osteoid interfaces at a load-bearing bone-PDL-tooth fibrous joint. Biophysical cues resulting from development and function can regulate recruitment and differentiation of stem cells potentially from a vascular origin toward osteo- and cemento-blastic lineages at the PDL-bone and PDL-cementum entheses. Investigating the coupled effect of biophysical and biochemical stimuli leading to cell differentiation at the functional attachment sites is critical for developing regeneration strategies to enable functional reconstruction of the periodontal complex.
Project description:<h4>Background/aims</h4>Tooth root cementum is sensitive to modulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)), an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite precipitation. Factors increasing PP(i) include progressive ankylosis protein (ANK) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) while tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase hydrolyzes PP(i). Studies here aimed to define the role of ANK in root and cementum by analyzing tooth development in Ank knock-out (KO) mice versus wild type.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Periodontal development in KO versus control mice was analyzed by histology, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. Cementoblast cultures were used in vitro to provide mechanistic underpinnings for PP(i) modulation of cell function.<h4>Results</h4>Over the course of root development, Ank KO cervical cementum became 8- to 12-fold thicker than control cervical cementum. Periodontal ligament width was maintained and other dentoalveolar tissues, including apical cementum, were unaltered. Cervical cementum uncharacteristically included numerous cells, from rapid cementogenesis. Ank KO increased osteopontin and dentin matrix protein 1 gene and protein expression, and markedly increased NPP1 protein expression in cementoblasts but not in other cell types. Conditional ablation of Ank in joints and periodontia confirmed a local role for ANK in cementogenesis. In vitro studies employing cementoblasts indicated that Ank and Enpp1 mRNA levels increased in step with mineral nodule formation, supporting a role for these factors in regulation of cementum matrix mineralization.<h4>Conclusion</h4>ANK, by modulating local PP(i), controls cervical cementum apposition and extracellular matrix. Loss of ANK created a local environment conducive to rapid cementogenesis; therefore, approaches modulating PP(i) in periodontal tissues have potential to promote cementum regeneration.
Project description:The periodontium, consisting of gingiva, periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and alveolar bone, is necessary for the maintenance of tooth function. Specifically, the regenerative abilities of cementum with inserted PDL are important for the prevention of tooth loss. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which are located in the connective tissue PDL between the cementum and alveolar bone, are an attractive candidate for hard tissue formation. We investigated the effects of recombinant human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rhPAI-1) on cementogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Untreated and rhPAI-1-treated hPDLSCs mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) and dentin matrix were transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of immunocompromised mice to assess their capacity for hard tissue formation at 8 and 10 weeks posttransplantation. rhPAI-1 accelerated mineral nodule formation and increased the mRNA expression of cementoblast-associated markers in hPDLSCs. We also observed that rhPAI-1 upregulated the levels of osterix (OSX) and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) through Smad2/3 and p38 pathways, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad3 and p38 inhibited the enhancement of mineralization of hPDLSCs by rhPAI-1. Furthermore, transplantation of hPDLSCs with rhPAI-1 showed a great ability to promote cementogenic differentiation. Notably, rhPAI-1 induced hPDLSCs to regenerate cementum-like tissue with PDL fibers inserted into newly formed cementum-like tissue. These results suggest that rhPAI-1 may play a key role in cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. rhPAI-1 with hPDLSCs may be a good candidate for future clinical applications in periodontal tissue regeneration and possibly in tooth root bioengineering.
Project description:Tooth-supporting periodontium forms a complex with multiple tissues, including cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone. In this study, we developed multiphase region-specific microscaffolds with spatiotemporal delivery of bioactive cues for integrated periodontium regeneration. Polycarprolactione-hydroxylapatite (90:10 wt%) scaffolds were fabricated using three-dimensional printing seamlessly in three phases: 100-?m microchannels in Phase A designed for cementum/dentin interface, 600-?m microchannels in Phase B designed for the PDL, and 300-?m microchannels in Phase C designed for alveolar bone. Recombinant human amelogenin, connective tissue growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 were spatially delivered and time-released in Phases A, B, and C, respectively. Upon 4-week in vitro incubation separately with dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPSCs), PDL stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs), or alveolar bone stem/progenitor cells (ABSCs), distinctive tissue phenotypes were formed with collagen I-rich fibers especially by PDLSCs and mineralized tissues by DPSCs, PDLSCs, and ABSCs. DPSC-seeded multiphase scaffolds upon in vivo implantation yielded aligned PDL-like collagen fibers that inserted into bone sialoprotein-positive bone-like tissue and putative cementum matrix protein 1-positive/dentin sialophosphoprotein-positive dentin/cementum tissues. These findings illustrate a strategy for the regeneration of multiphase periodontal tissues by spatiotemporal delivery of multiple proteins. A single stem/progenitor cell population appears to differentiate into putative dentin/cementum, PDL, and alveolar bone complex by scaffold's biophysical properties and spatially released bioactive cues.