Parkin clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria regulates ROS levels and increases survival of human chondrocytes.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chondrocyte death are important contributors to the development and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we determined the expression and role of Parkin in the clearance of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and chondrocyte survival under pathological conditions. METHODS:Human chondrocytes were from the unaffected area of knee OA cartilage (n = 12) and were stimulated with IL-1? to mimic pathological conditions. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ROS levels were determined using specific dyes and flow cytometry. Autophagy was determined by Western blotting for ATG5, Beclin1, immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. siRNA, wild-type and mutant Parkin plasmids were transfected using Amaxa system. Apoptosis was determined by PI staining of chondrocytes and TUNEL assay. RESULTS:IL-1?-stimulated OA chondrocytes showed high levels of ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane damage, accumulation of damaged mitochondria and higher incidence of apoptosis. IL-1? stimulation of chondrocytes with depleted Parkin expression resulted in sustained high levels of ROS, accumulation of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria and enhanced apoptosis. Parkin translocation to depolarized/damaged mitochondria and recruitment of p62/SQSTM1 was required for the elimination of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria in IL-1?-stimulated OA chondrocytes. Importantly we demonstrate that Parkin elimination of depolarized/damaged mitochondria required the Parkin ubiquitin ligase activity and resulted in reduced ROS levels and inhibition of apoptosis in OA chondrocytes under pathological conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrates that Parkin functions to eliminate depolarized/damaged mitochondria in chondrocytes which is necessary for mitochondrial quality control, regulation of ROS levels and chondrocyte survival under pathological conditions.
Project description:Mutations in the Park2 gene, encoding the E3 ubiquitin-ligase parkin, are responsible for a familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin-mediated ubiquitination is critical for the efficient elimination of depolarized dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). As damaged mitochondria are a major source of toxic reactive oxygen species within the cell, this pathway is believed to be highly relevant to the pathogenesis of PD. Little is known about how parkin-mediated ubiquitination is regulated during mitophagy or about the nature of the ubiquitin conjugates involved. We report here that USP8/UBPY, a deubiquitinating enzyme not previously implicated in mitochondrial quality control, is critical for parkin-mediated mitophagy. USP8 preferentially removes non-canonical K6-linked ubiquitin chains from parkin, a process required for the efficient recruitment of parkin to depolarized mitochondria and for their subsequent elimination by mitophagy. This work uncovers a novel role for USP8-mediated deubiquitination of K6-linked ubiquitin conjugates from parkin in mitochondrial quality control.
Project description:Pathologic calcification of cartilage consists of the formation of basic calcium phosphate (BCP) and/or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) containing calcium crystals in mature hyaline or articular cartilage and is associated with aging, cartilage injury and likely plays a role in accelerating the pathology of osteoarthritis (OA). The pathways regulating joint calcification, in particular cartilage calcification, are not completely understood, but inflammation and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are contributory factors. The xanthine oxidase (XO) form of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), the key enzyme in xanthine and uric acid metabolism, is a major cellular source of superoxide. We hypothesized that XOR could be implicated in chondrocyte mineralization and cartilage calcification and degradation in OA. We showed both in murine primary chondrocyte and chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, that mineralization was inhibited by two different XOR inhibitors, febuxostat and allopurinol. In addition, XOR inhibition reduced the expression of the pro-mineralizing cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). We next generated XOR knock-out chondrocyte cell lines with undetectable XOR expression and XO activity. XOR knock-out chondrocyte cells showed decreased mineralization and reduced alkaline phosphatase (Alp) activity. To assess the precise form of XOR involved, primary chondrocytes of XOR mutant mice expressing either the XDH form (XDH ki) or the XO form (XO ki) were studied. We found that XO ki chondrocytes exhibited increased mineralization compared to XDH ki chondrocytes, and this was associated with enhanced Alp activity, ROS generation and IL-6 secretion. Finally, we found increased XOR expression in damaged vs. undamaged cartilage obtained from OA patients and XOR expression partially co-localized with areas showing pathologic calcification. Altogether, our results suggest that XOR, via its XO form, contribute to chondrocyte mineralization and pathological calcification in OA cartilage.
Project description:Accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria is one of the hallmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitophagy, a selective autophagy for eliminating damaged mitochondria, constitutes a key cellular pathway in mitochondrial quality control. Recent studies established that acute depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) using ??m dissipation reagents in vitro induces Parkin-mediated mitophagy in many non-neuronal cell types or neuronal cell lines. However, neuronal pathways inducing mitophagy, particularly under pathophysiological relevant context in AD mouse models and patient brains, are largely unknown. Here, we reveal, for the first time, that Parkin-mediated mitophagy is robustly induced in mutant hAPP neurons and AD patient brains. In the absence of ??m dissipation reagents, hAPP neurons exhibit increased recruitment of cytosolic Parkin to depolarized mitochondria. Under AD-linked pathophysiological conditions, Parkin translocation predominantly occurs in the somatodendritic regions; such distribution is associated with reduced anterograde and increased retrograde transport of axonal mitochondria. Enhanced mitophagy was further confirmed in AD patient brains, accompanied with depletion of cytosolic Parkin over disease progression. Thus, aberrant accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in AD-affected neurons is likely attributable to inadequate mitophagy capacity in eliminating increased numbers of damaged mitochondria. Altogether, our study provides the first line of evidence that AD-linked chronic mitochondrial stress under in vitro and in vivo pathophysiological conditions effectively triggers Parkin-dependent mitophagy, thus establishing a foundation for further investigations into cellular pathways in regulating mitophagy to ameliorate mitochondrial pathology in AD.
Project description:Mitochondria are essential for neuronal survival and function. Proper degradation of aged and damaged mitochondria through mitophagy is a key cellular pathway for mitochondrial quality control. Recent studies have indicated that PINK1/Parkin-mediated pathways ensure mitochondrial integrity and function. Translocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria induces mitophagy in many nonneuronal cell types. However, evidence showing Parkin translocation in primary neurons is controversial, leaving unanswered questions as to how and where Parkin-mediated mitophagy occurs in neurons. Here, we report the unique process of dissipating mitochondrial ??(m)-induced and Parkin-mediated mitophagy in mature cortical neurons. Compared with nonneuronal cells, neuronal mitophagy is a much slower and compartmentally restricted process, coupled with reduced anterograde mitochondrial transport. Parkin-targeted mitochondria are accumulated in the somatodendritic regions where mature lysosomes are predominantly located. Time-lapse imaging shows dynamic formation and elimination of Parkin- and LC3-ring-like structures surrounding depolarized mitochondria through the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in the soma. Knocking down Parkin in neurons impairs the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. Thus, our study provides neuronal evidence for dynamic and spatial Parkin-mediated mitophagy, which will help us understand whether altered mitophagy contributes to pathogenesis of several major neurodegenerative diseases characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired transport.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The PINK1:Parkin pathway regulates the autophagic removal of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria. While the response of this pathway to complete loss of ΔΨm, as caused by high concentrations of mitochondrial ionophores, has been well characterized, it remains unclear how the pathway makes coherent decisions about whether to keep or purge mitochondria in situations where ΔΨm is only partially lost or exhibits fluctuations, as has been observed in response to certain types of cellular stress. RESULTS:To investigate the responses of the PINK1:Parkin pathway to mitochondrial insults of different magnitude and duration, controlled titration of the mitochondrial protonophore, CCCP, was used to manipulate ΔΨm in live cells, and the dynamics of PINK1 and Parkin recruitment was measured by fluorescence microscopy. In contrast to the stable accumulation of PINK1 and Parkin seen at completely depolarized mitochondria, partial depolarization produced a transient pulse of PINK1 stabilization and rapid loss, which was driven by small fluctuations in ΔΨm. As the rate of Parkin dissociation from the mitochondria and phospho-polyubiquitin chain removal was comparatively slow, repetitive pulses of PINK1 were able to drive a slow step-wise accumulation of Parkin and phospho-polyubiquitin leading to deferred mitophagy. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that the PINK1:Parkin mitophagy pathway is able to exhibit distinct dynamic responses to complete and partial mitochondrial depolarization. In this way, the pathway is able to differentiate between irretrievably damaged mitochondria and those showing signs of dysfunction, promoting either rapid or delayed autophagy, respectively.
Project description:Dysfunctional Parkin-mediated mitophagic culling of senescent or damaged mitochondria is a major pathological process underlying Parkinson disease and a potential genetic mechanism of cardiomyopathy. Despite epidemiological associations between Parkinson disease and heart failure, the role of Parkin and mitophagic quality control in maintaining normal cardiac homeostasis is poorly understood.We used germline mutants and cardiac-specific RNA interference to interrogate Parkin regulation of cardiomyocyte mitochondria and examine functional crosstalk between mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila heart tubes. 5 wild-type mouse hearts; 4 germline Parkin knockout mouse hearts Please note that the mouse cardiac examples were an adjunct to the Drosophila studies that comprised most of the associated publication. However, mRNA-sequencing was only performed on the mouse samples, not the Drosophila heart tubes.
Project description:15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) is involved in many pathological processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential role of 15-LO-1 in osteoarthritis (OA). The levels of 15-LO-1 expression were measured by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR in articular cartilage from the OA rat models and OA patients. To further investigate the effects of 15-LO-1 on chondrocyte functions, such as extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, the release of matrix-degrading enzymes, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell proliferation and apoptosis, we decreased or increased 15-LO-1 expression in chondrocytes by means of transfecting with siRNA targeting 15-LO-1 and plasmid encoding 15-LO-1, respectively. The results showed that 15-LO-1 expression was obviously increased in articular cartilage from OA rats and OA patients. It was also found that many factor-related OA, such as mechanical loading, ROS, SNP and inflammatory factor, significantly promoted 15-LO-1 expression and activity in chondrocytes. Silencing 15-LO-1 was able to markedly alleviate mechanical loading-induced cartilage ECM secretion, cartilage-degrading enzyme secretion and ROS production. Overexpression of 15-LO-1 could inhibit chondrocyte proliferation and induce chondrocyte apoptosis. In addition, reduction of 15-LO-1 in vivo significantly alleviated OA. Taken together, these results indicate that 15-LO-1 has an important role in the disease progression of OA. Thus 15-LO-1 may be a good target for developing drugs in the treatment of OA.
Project description:Clearance of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy is critical for maintaining mitochondrial fidelity and the prevention of neurodegeneration. Here, we report on the UBX domain-containing, p97/VCP cofactor UBXD1/UBXN6/UBXDC2 and its role in mitophagy. Recognizing depolarized mitochondria via its C-terminal UBX domain, UBXD1 translocates to mitochondria in a Parkin-dependent manner. During Parkin-independent mitophagy, UBXD1 shows no mitochondrial translocation. Once translocated, UBXD1 recruits p97 to mitochondria via a bipartite binding motif consisting of its N-terminal VIM and PUB domains. Recruitment of p97 by UBXD1 only depends on the presence of UBXD1 on mitochondria without the need for further mitochondrial signals. Following translocation of UBXD1 to CCCP-depolarized mitochondria and p97 recruitment, formation of LC3-positive autolysosomes is strongly enhanced and autophagic degradation of mitochondria is significantly accelerated. Diminished levels of UBXD1 negatively impact mitophagic flux in Parkin-expressing cells after CCCP treatment. Thus, our data supports a model, whereby the p97 cofactor UBXD1 promotes Parkin-dependent mitophagy by specifically recognizing damaged mitochondria undergoing autophagic clearance.
Project description:PINK1 selectively recruits Parkin to depolarized mitochondria for quarantine and removal of damaged mitochondria via ubiquitylation. Dysfunction of this process predisposes development of familial recessive Parkinson's disease. Although various models for the recruitment process have been proposed, none of them adequately explain the accumulated data, and thus the molecular basis for PINK1 recruitment of Parkin remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we show that a linear ubiquitin chain of phosphomimetic tetra-ubiquitin(S65D) recruits Parkin to energized mitochondria in the absence of PINK1, whereas a wild-type tetra-ubiquitin chain does not. Under more physiologically relevant conditions, a lysosomal phosphorylated polyubiquitin chain recruited phosphomimetic Parkin to the lysosome. A cellular ubiquitin replacement system confirmed that ubiquitin phosphorylation is indeed essential for Parkin translocation. Furthermore, physical interactions between phosphomimetic Parkin and phosphorylated polyubiquitin chain were detected by immunoprecipitation from cells and in vitro reconstitution using recombinant proteins. We thus propose that the phosphorylated ubiquitin chain functions as the genuine Parkin receptor for recruitment to depolarized mitochondria.
Project description:PINK1 and Parkin were first identified as the causal genes responsible for familial forms of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine protein kinase, whereas Parkin encodes an ubiquitin-protein ligase. PINK1 and Parkin cooperate to maintain mitochondrial integrity; however, the detailed molecular mechanism of how Parkin-catalyzed ubiquitylation results in mitochondrial integrity remains an enigma. In this study, we show that Parkin-catalyzed K63-linked polyubiquitylation of depolarized mitochondria resulted in ubiquitylated mitochondria being transported along microtubules to cluster in the perinuclear region, which was interfered by pathogenic mutations of Parkin. In addition, p62/SQSTM1 (hereafter referred to as p62) was recruited to depolarized mitochondria after Parkin-directed ubiquitylation. Intriguingly, deletion of p62 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in a gross loss of mitochondrial perinuclear clustering but did not hinder mitochondrial degradation. Thus, p62 is required for ubiquitylation-dependent clustering of damaged mitochondria, which resembles p62-mediated 'aggresome' formation of misfolded/unfolded proteins after ubiquitylation.