Particulate matter, the newborn methylome, and cardio-respiratory health outcomes in childhood.
ABSTRACT: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes including cardio-respiratory diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation may play a role in driving such associations. We investigated the effects of prenatal particulate matter (PM) exposure on DNA methylation of 178,309 promoter regions in 240 newborns using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, using a generalized linear regression model with a quasi-binomial link family, adjusted for gender, plate, and cell types. PM-associated CpG loci were then investigated for their associations with childhood asthma, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and blood pressure (BP) using logistic or linear regression. Thirty-one loci were associated with either PM10 or PM2.5 using FDR-corrected p-values of less than 0.15. Two loci were evaluated for replication in a separate population of 280 Children's Health Study (CHS) subjects using Pyrosequencing, of which one successfully replicated (COLEC11 cg03579365). Three of the 31 loci were also associated with physician-diagnosed asthma at 6 years old, two were associated with CIMT and one with systolic BP at 10 years old. A higher methylation level in TM9SF2 (cg02015529) and UBE2S (cg00035623), respectively, was associated with a 2SD increase in prenatal PM and was also associated with 36% and 98% increased odds of asthma; whereas methylation of TDRD6 (cg22329831) was negatively associated with PM and a 24% decreased odds of asthma. Prenatal PM exposure was associated with altered DNA methylation in newborn blood in a small number of gene promoters, some of which were also associated with cardio-respiratory health outcomes later in childhood. Keywords: methylation, particulate matter, air pollution, asthma, cardiovascular.
Project description:Studies on the association between atherosclerosis and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution suggest that carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is positively associated with particulate matter (PM) exposure. However, there is heterogeneity between the different studies concerning the magnitude of this association. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the strength of the association between CIMT and particulate air pollution.We queried PubMed citation database and Web of Knowledge up to March 2015 in order to identify studies on CIMT and particulate air pollution. Two investigators selected and computerized all relevant information, independently. Eight of the reviewed epidemiological publications provided sufficient details and met our inclusion criteria. Descriptive and quantitative information was extracted from each selected study. The meta-analysis included 18,349 participants from eight cohorts for the cross-sectional association between CIMT and PM and 7,268 participants from three cohorts for the longitudinal analysis on CIMT progression and PM exposure.The average exposure to PM2.5 in the different study populations ranged from 4.1 to 20.8 µg/m3 and CIMT averaged (SD) 0.73 (0.14) mm. We computed a pooled estimate from a random-effects model. In the combined cross-sectional studies, an increase of 5 µg/m3 PM2.5 was associated with a 1.66% (95% CI: 0.86 to 2.46; P<0.0001) thicker CIMT, which corresponds to an average increase of 12.1 µm. None of the studies moved the combined estimate outside the confidence interval of the overall estimate. A funnel plot suggested absence of publication bias. The combined longitudinal estimate showed for each 5 µg/m3 higher PM2.5 exposure, a 1.04 µm per year (95% CI: 0.01 to 2.07; P=0.048) greater CIMT progression.Our meta-analysis supports the evidence of a positive association between CIMT, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS:We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS:Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS:Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.
Project description:Although exposure to ambient air pollutants increases cardiovascular disease risk in adults little is known about the effects of prenatal exposure. Genetic variation and epigenetic alterations are two mechanisms that may influence the effects of early-life exposures on cardiovascular phenotypes.We investigated whether genetic and epigenetic variation modify associations between prenatal air pollution on markers of cardiovascular risk in childhood.We used linear regression analysis to investigate the associations between prenatal pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE1) and AluYb8 DNA methylation levels measured in newborn blood spot tests, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and blood pressure (BP) in 459 participants as part of the Children's Health Study. Interaction terms were also included to test for effect modification of these associations by genetic variation in methylation reprogramming genes.Prenatal exposure to NO2 in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with higher systolic BP in 11-year-old children. Prenatal exposure to multiple air pollutants in the first trimester was associated with lower DNA methylation in LINE1, whereas later exposure to O3 was associated with higher LINE1 methylation levels in newborn blood spots. The magnitude of associations with prenatal air pollution varied according to genotype for 11 SNPs within DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNA methyltransferase 3 Beta (DNMT3B), Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), and Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) genes. Although first-trimester O3 exposure was not associated with CIMT and systolic BP overall, associations within strata of DNMT1 or DNMT3B were observed, and the magnitude and the direction of these associations depended on DNMT1 genotypes.Genetic and epigenetic variation in DNA methylation reprogramming genes and in LINE1 retrotransposons may play important roles in downstream cardiovascular consequences of prenatal air pollution exposure. Citation: Breton CV, Yao J, Millstein J, Gao L, Siegmund KD, Mack W, Whitfield-Maxwell L, Lurmann F, Hodis H, Avol E, Gilliland FD. 2016. Prenatal air pollution exposures, DNA methyl transferase genotypes, and associations with newborn LINE1 and Alu methylation and childhood blood pressure and carotid intima-media thickness in the Children's Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1905-1912;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP181.
Project description:Air pollutants have been associated with childhood asthma and wheeze. Epigenetic regulation of nitric oxide synthase--the gene responsible for nitric oxide production--may be affected by air pollutants and contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and wheeze.Our goal was to investigate the association between air pollutants, DNA methylation, and respiratory outcomes in children.Given residential address and buccal sample collection date, we estimated 7-day, 1-month, 6-month, and 1-year cumulative average PM?.? and PM?? (particulate matter ? 2.5 and ? 10 µm aerodynamic diameter, respectively) exposures for 940 participants in the Children's Health Study. Methylation of 12 CpG sites in three NOS (nitric oxide synthase) genes was measured using a bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction Pyrosequencing assay. Beta regression models were used to estimate associations between air pollutants, percent DNA methylation, and respiratory outcomes.A 5-µg/m³ increase in PM?.? was associated with a 0.20% [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.32, -0.07] to 1.0% (95% CI: -1.61, -0.56) lower DNA methylation at NOS2A position 1, 0.06% (95% CI: -0.18, 0.06) to 0.58% (95% CI: -1.13, -0.02) lower methylation at position 2, and 0.34% (95% CI: -0.57, -0.11) to 0.89% (95% CI: -1.57, -0.21) lower methylation at position 3, depending on the length of exposure and CpG locus. One-year PM2.5 exposure was associated with 0.33% (95% CI: 0.01, 0.65) higher in average DNA methylation of 4 loci in the NOS2A CpG island. A 5-µg/m³ increase in 7-day and 1-year PM?.? was associated with 0.6% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.99) and 2.8% (95% CI: 1.77, 3.75) higher NOS3 DNA methylation. No associations were observed for NOS1. PM?? showed similar but weaker associations with DNA methylation in these genes.PM?.? exposure was associated with percent DNA methylation of several CpG loci in NOS genes, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism through which these pollutants may alter production of nitric oxide.
Project description:There is now a large body of literature supporting a linkage between exposure to air pollutants and asthma morbidity. However, the extent and significance of this relationship varies considerably between pollutants, location, scale of analysis, and analysis methods. Our primary goal is to evaluate the relationship between asthma hospitalizations, levels of ambient air pollution, and weather conditions in Los Angeles (LA) County, California, an area with a historical record of heavy air pollution. County-wide measures of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), particulate matter<10 ?m (PM(10)), particulate matter<2.5 ?m (PM(2.5)), maximum temperature, and relative humidity were collected for all months from 2001 to 2008. We then related these variables to monthly asthma hospitalization rates using Bayesian regression models with temporal random effects. We evaluated model performance using a goodness of fit criterion and predictive ability. Asthma hospitalization rates in LA County decreased between 2001 and 2008. Traffic-related pollutants, CO and NO(2), were significant and positively correlated with asthma hospitalizations. PM(2.5) also had a positive, significant association with asthma hospitalizations. PM(10), relative humidity, and maximum temperature produced mixed results, whereas O(3) was non-significant in all models. Inclusion of temporal random effects satisfies statistical model assumptions, improves model fit, and yields increased predictive accuracy and precision compared to their non-temporal counterparts. Generally, pollution levels and asthma hospitalizations decreased during the 9 year study period. Our findings also indicate that after accounting for seasonality in the data, asthma hospitalization rate has a significant positive relationship with ambient levels of CO, NO(2), and PM(2.5).
Project description:DNA methylation is a potential pathway linking air pollution to disease. Studies indicate that psychological functioning modifies the association between pollution and morbidity. The authors estimated the association of DNA methylation with ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM(2.5)) and black carbon, using mixed models. DNA methylation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene, iNOS, and the glucocorticoid receptor gene, GCR, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing of 1,377 blood samples from 699 elderly male participants in the VA Normative Aging Study (1999-2009). The authors also investigated whether this association was modified by psychological factors including optimism or pessimism, anxiety, and depression. iNOS methylation was decreased after acute exposure to both black carbon and PM(2.5). A 1-?g/m(3) increase in exposure to black carbon in the 4 hours preceding the clinical examination was associated with a 0.9% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4) in iNOS, and a 10-?g/m(3) increase in exposure to PM(2.5) was associated with a 0.6% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.03, 1.1) in iNOS. Participants with low optimism and high anxiety had associations that were 3-4 times larger than those with high optimism or low anxiety. GCR methylation was not associated with particulate air pollution exposure.
Project description:Objectives: Due to inconsistent epidemiological evidence on health effects of air pollution on progression of atherosclerosis, we investigated several air pollutants and their effects on progression of atherosclerosis, using carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), coronary calcification (CAC), and thoracic aortic calcification (TAC). Methods: We used baseline (2000–2003) and 5-y follow-up (2006–2008) data from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study, including 4,814 middle-aged adults. Residence-based long-term air pollution exposure, including particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter Results: While no clear associations were observed in the full study sample (mean age 59.1 ( Conclusion: Our study suggests that development and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis is associated with long-term air pollution in middle-aged participants with no or minor atherosclerotic burden at baseline, while overall no consistent associations are observed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7077
Project description:Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; encoded by nitric oxide synthase isoform 2 [NOS2]) is the major enzyme for nitric oxide synthesis in airways. As such, measurement of fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) provides an in vivo assessment of iNOS activity. Short-term exposure to air pollution, haplotypes, and DNA methylation in the NOS2 promoter has been associated independently with iNOS expression, Feno levels, or both.We aimed to examine the effects of ambient air pollutants, NOS2 promoter haplotypes, and NOS2 promoter methylation on Feno levels in children.We selected 940 participants in the Children's Health Study who provided buccal samples and had undergone Feno measurement on the same day. DNA methylation was measured with a bisulfite-PCR Pyrosequencing assay. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms captured the haplotype diversity in the NOS2 promoter. Average particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 ?m or less (PM(2.5)) and 10 ?m (PM(10)) or less and ozone and nitrogen dioxide levels 7 days before Feno measurement were estimated based on air pollution data obtained at central monitoring sites.We found interrelated effects of PM(2.5), NOS2 promoter haplotypes, and iNOS methylation on Feno levels. Increased 7-day average PM(2.5) exposure was associated with lower iNOS methylation (P = .01). NOS2 promoter haplotypes were globally associated with NOS2 promoter methylation (P = 6.2 × 10(-8)). There was interaction among 1 common promoter haplotype, iNOS methylation level, and PM(2.5) exposure on Feno levels (P(interaction) = .00007).Promoter variants in NOS2 and short-term PM(2.5) exposure affect iNOS methylation. This is one of the first studies showing contributions of genetic and epigenetic variations in air pollution-mediated phenotype expression.
Project description:Particulate matter (PM) exposure is associated with the development of cardiopulmonary disease. Our group has studied the adverse health effects of World Trade Center particulate matter (WTC-PM) exposure on firefighters. To fully understand the complex interplay between exposure, organism, and resultant disease phenotype, it is vital to analyze the underlying role of genomics in mediating this relationship. A PubMed search was performed focused on environmental exposure, genomics, and cardiopulmonary disease. We included original research published within 10 years, on epigenetic modifications and specific genetic or allelic variants. The initial search resulted in 95 studies. We excluded manuscripts that focused on work-related chemicals, heavy metals and tobacco smoke as primary sources of exposure, as well as reviews, prenatal research, and secondary research studies. Seven full-text articles met pre-determined inclusion criteria, and were reviewed. The effects of air pollution were evaluated in terms of methylation (n = 3), oxidative stress (n = 2), and genetic variants (n = 2). There is evidence to suggest that genomics plays a meditating role in the formation of adverse cardiopulmonary symptoms and diseases that surface after exposure events. Genomic modifications and variations affect the association between environmental exposure and cardiopulmonary disease, but additional research is needed to further define this relationship.
Project description:Air pollution exposure is estimated to contribute to approximately seven million early deaths every year worldwide and more than 3% of disability-adjusted life years lost. Air pollution has numerous harmful effects on health and contributes to the development and morbidity of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and a number of lung pathologies, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Emerging data indicate that air pollution exposure modulates the epigenetic mark, DNA methylation (DNAm), and that these changes might in turn influence inflammation, disease development, and exacerbation risk. Several traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) components, including particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been associated with changes in DNAm; typically lowering DNAm after exposure. Effects of air pollution on DNAm have been observed across the human lifespan, but it is not yet clear whether early life developmental sensitivity or the accumulation of exposures have the most significant effects on health. Air pollution exposure-associated DNAm patterns are often correlated with long-term negative respiratory health outcomes, including the development of lung diseases, a focus in this review. Recently, interventions such as exercise and B vitamins have been proposed to reduce the impact of air pollution on DNAm and health. Ultimately, improved knowledge of how exposure-induced change in DNAm impacts health, both acutely and chronically, may enable preventative and remedial strategies to reduce morbidity in polluted environments.