Adiponectin aggravates bone erosion by promoting osteopontin production in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that adiponectin (AD), an adipokine that is secreted by adipocytes, correlates well with progressive bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The exact mechanism of AD in promoting joint destruction remains unclear. Osteopontin (OPN) is required for osteoclast recruitment. We hypothesized that AD exacerbates bone erosion by inducing OPN expression in synovial tissue. This study aimed to evaluate a novel role for AD in RA.The serum levels of AD and OPN were determined in 38 patients with RA, 40 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and 20 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AD and OPN production were measured by double immunofluorescence in RA and OA synovial tissue. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression levels of OPN in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) and OA synovial fibroblasts after pre-incubation with AD, respectively. Migration of the RAW264.7 osteoclast precursor cell line was assessed using the Transwell migration assay and co-culture system. Bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis were assessed by immunohistochemical staining, microcomputed tomography and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining in AD-treated collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice with or without OPN silencing. The expression levels of OPN and integrin ?v?3 in the ankle joint tissues of the mice were examined by double immunofluorescence.Our results indicated that the AD and OPN expression levels increased noticeably and were associated with each other in the RA serum. The AD distribution was coincident with that of OPN in the RA synovial tissue. AD stimulation of RASFs increased OPN production in a dose-dependent manner. AD-treated RASFs promoted RAW264.7 cell migration, and the effect was blocked with a specific antibody against OPN. Silencing of OPN using lentiviral-OPN short hairpin RNA reduced the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and the extent of bone erosion in the AD-treated CIA mice. When bound to integrin ?v?3, OPN functions as a mediator of AD and osteoclasts.Our study provides new evidence of AD involvement in bone erosion. AD induces the expression of OPN, which recruits osteoclasts and initiates bone erosion. These data highlight AD as a novel target for RA treatment.
Project description:Hypoxia stimulates synovial hypoperfusion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TXNDC5 stimulates cellular proliferation in hypoxic conditions. We previously detected increased TXNDC5 expression in synovial tissues and blood from RA patients and demonstrated that the gene encoding TXNDC5 increased RA risk. The present study investigated the pathogenic roles of TXNDC5 in RA. Transgenic mice that over-expressed TXNDC5 (TXNDC5-Tg) were generated using C57BL/6J mice and treated with bovine collagen II to induce arthritis (CIA). Synovial fibroblasts from RA patients (RASFs) were cultured and incubated with TXNDC5-siRNA or CoCl(2), a chemical that induces hypoxia. CIA was observed in 80% of the TXNDC5-Tg, but only 20% of the wild-type mice (WT) developed CIA. The clinical arthritis scores reached 5 in the TXNDC5-Tg, but this index only reached 2 in the control mice. CIA TXNDC5-Tg exhibited clear pannus proliferation and bone erosion in joint tissues. A significant increase in CD4 T cells was observed in the thymus and spleen of TXNDC5-Tg during CIA. Serum levels of anti-collagen II IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were significantly elevated in the mice. Increased cell proliferation, cell migration and TXNDC5 expression were observed in RASFs following incubation with 1 µM CoCl(2). However, this effect was diminished when TXNDC5 expression was inhibited with 100 nM siRNA. TNF-alpha, IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-17 levels were significantly increased in the blood of TXNDC5-Tg mice, but the levels of these cytokines declined in the supernatant of RASFs that were treated with TXNDC5 siRNA. The expression of adiponectin, a cytokine-like mediator, decreased significantly in RASFs following TXNDC5 siRNA treatment. These results suggest that TXNDC5-over-expressing mice were susceptible to CIA. This study also suggests that hypoxia induced TXCNDC5 expression, which contributed to adiponectin expression, cytokine production and the cellular proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in RA.
Project description:Apremilast is a novel phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor suppressing immune and inflammatory responses. We assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of Apremilast in type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. To determine whether Apremilast can ameliorate arthritis onset in this model, Apremilast was given orally at day 14 after CII immunization. Bone erosion was measured by histological and micro-computed tomographic analysis. Anti-mouse CII antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Th17, Th1?cells, and CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells were assessed by flow cytometry in the lymph nodes. Human cartilage and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) implantation in the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model of RA were used to study the role of Apremilast in the suppression of RASF-mediated cartilage destruction in vivo. Compared with untreated and vehicle control groups, we found that Apremilast therapy delayed arthritis onset and reduced arthritis scores in the CIA model. Total serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all decreased in the Apremilast treatment groups. Moreover, Apremilast markedly prevented the development of bone erosions in CIA mice by CT analysis. Furthermore, in the Apremilast treated group, the frequency of Th17?cells and Th1?cells was significantly decreased while Treg cells' frequency was significantly increased. The high dose of Apremilast (25?mg/kg) was superior to low dose (5?mg/kg) in treating CIA. Apremilast treatment reduced the migratory ability of RASFs and their destructive effect on cartilage. Compared with the model group, Apremilast treatment significantly reduced the RASFs invasion cartilage scores in both primary implant and contralateral implant models. Our data suggest that Apremilast is effective in treating autoimmune arthritis and preventing the bone erosion in the CIA model, implicating its therapeutic potential in patients with RA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Osteopontin (OPN) is an immunoregulatory protein which production increases in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Phosphorylated osteopontin (Phospho-OPN) is known to increase macrophage and osteoclast activation, this process is controlled by extracellular tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP), also a biomarker for RA. Here, we evaluated the phosphorylation status of OPN in RA and OA synovia, as well as its correlation with TRAcP isoforms.<h4>Methods</h4>Synovial tissue and fluid were obtained from 24 RA (14 seropositive and 10 seronegative) and 24 OA patients. Western blotting was used to analyze the extent of OPN phosphorylation. TRAcP isoforms were measured in synovial fluid using ELISA; immunohistochemistry assessed the distribution of OPN and TRAcP expressing cells in the synovial tissue, especially distinguishing between the TRAcP isoforms.<h4>Results</h4>Full-length OPN was more phosphorylated in RA than in OA (p<0.05). The thrombin cleaved C-terminal end of OPN was also more phosphorylated in RA (p<0.05). RA patients had a lower concentration of TRAcP 5B and higher concentration of less active 5A in their synovial fluid compared to OA patients. The TRAcP 5B/5A ratio was decreased in RA and correlated negatively with the amount of phospho-OPN (p<0.05). TRAcP positive cells for both isoforms were found all along the synovial lining; OPN antibody staining was localized in the extracellular matrix.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data suggests that in RA the synovial fluid contains insufficient amounts of TRAcP 5B which increase levels of the proinflammatory phospho-OPN. This may lead to increased macrophage and osteoclast activation, resulting in the increased local inflammation and bone resorption present in RA joints.
Project description:We previously reported adiponectin (AD) is highly expressed in the inflamed synovial joint tissue and correlates closely with progressive bone erosion in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Here, we investigate the role of adiponectin in regulating Th17 response and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) in mice with CIA mice by intraarticularly injection of adiponectin into knee joints on day 17, day 20 and day 23 post first collagen immunization. The increased adiponectin expression was found in inflamed joint tissue of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Adiponectin injection resulted in an earlier onset of arthritis, an aggravated arthritic progression, more severe synovial hyperplasia, bone erosion and osteoporosis in CIA mice. CD4(+)IL-17(+) Th17 cells, IL-17 mRNA and RANKL mRNA expression were markedly increased in the joint tissue of adiponectin treated CIA mice. Moreover, adiponectin treatment markedly enhanced Th17 cell generation from naive CD4(+) T cells in vitro, which accompanied by the high expression of Th17 transcription factor ROR-?t, and Th17 cytokine genes included IL-22 and IL-23. This study reveals a novel effect of adiponectin in exacerbating CIA progression by enhancing Th17 cell response and RANKL expression.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the profile of histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression in the synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with that of normal control and osteoarthritis (OA), and to examine whether there is a link between HDAC activity and synovial inflammation. METHODS: HDAC activity and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity were determined in nuclear extracts of total synovial tissue surgically obtained from normal, OA and RA joints. The level of cytoplasmic tumor necrosis factor a (TNF?) fraction was measured by ELISA. Total RNA of synovial tissue was used for RT-PCR of HDAC1-8. In synovial fibroblasts from RA (RASFs), the effects of TNF? on nuclear HDAC activity and class I HDACs (1, 2, 3, 8) mRNA expressions were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression and distribution of class I HDACs were examined by Western blotting. RESULTS: Nuclear HDAC activity was significantly higher in RA than in OA and normal controls and correlated with the amount of cytoplasmic TNF?. The mRNA expression of HDAC1 in RA synovial tissue was higher than in OA and normal controls, and showed positive correlation with TNF? mRNA expression. The protein level of nuclear HDAC1 was higher in RA synovial tissue compared with OA synovial tissue. Stimulation with TNF? significantly increased the nuclear HDAC activity and HDAC1 mRNA expression at 24 hours and HDAC1 protein expression at 48 hours in RASFs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed nuclear HDAC activity and expression of HDAC1 were significantly higher in RA than in OA synovial tissues, and they were upregulated by TNF? stimulation in RASFs. These data might provide important clues for the development of specific small molecule HDAC inhibitors.
Project description:Receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) is critically involved in bone erosion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We previously reported association between younger age at onset of RA and a RANKL promoter SNP that conferred an elevated promoter activity via binding to a transcription factor SOX5. Here we study the regulation of SOX5 levels in relation to RANKL expression in RA synovial fibroblasts (SF) and the development of bone erosion in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse. Our data indicated SOX5 levels were higher in synovium and synovial fluid from RA compared to osteoarthritis patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulated SOX5 and RANKL expression in both primary RA SF and the rheumatoid synovial fibroblast cell line, MH7A. Overexpression of SOX5 resulted in significantly increased RANKL levels, while knockdown of SOX5 resulted in diminished IL-6 mediated RANKL upregulation in MH7A cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed approximately 3-fold enrichment of RANKL-specific DNA in anti-SOX5 immunoprecipitate in IL-6 treated MH7A cells as compared to untreated cells. Locally silencing SOX5 gene significantly diminished RANKL positive cells and bone erosion in CIA mice. These findings suggest SOX5 is an important regulator of IL-6-induced RANKL expression in RA SF.
Project description:Rationale: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prototype of inflammatory arthritis in which synovial fibroblasts (SFs) play key roles in cartilage and bone destruction through tumor-like proliferation, migration, invasion and inflammation. This study aimed to research forkhead box protein C1 (FoxC1) and microRNA (miR)-141-3p, which modulate pathological changes in the synovial membrane, to find possible strategies for treating RA. Methods: FoxC1, ?-catenin and miR-141-3p gene expression in synovial tissues and SFs was quantified by real-time PCR; FoxC1 and ?-catenin protein levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. We transiently transfected human SFs with FoxC1 and ?-catenin overexpression and silencing vectors and assessed proliferation, migration, invasion and inflammation by cell function and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We also assessed downstream signaling activation using immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Double luciferase, coimmunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to verify miR-141-3p, FoxC1 and ?-catenin gene and protein combinations. Finally, the therapeutic effects of FoxC1 silencing and miR-141-3p overexpression were evaluated in type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Results: We found that FoxC1 expression was significantly upregulated in synovium and SFs in both RA patients and rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). FoxC1 overexpression increased ?-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels and upregulated cyclin D1, c-Myc, fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) mRNA and protein expression in RA SFs (RASFs). In contrast, FoxC1 knockdown reduced ?-catenin mRNA and protein levels as well as cyclin D1, c-Myc, and fibronectin mRNA and protein levels in RASFs. Furthermore, altering FoxC1 expression did not significantly change GSK3? and pGSK3? levels. FoxC1 overexpression promoted proliferation, migration, invasion and proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)) production and reduced anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) levels in RASFs. FoxC1 bound to the ?-catenin promoter, and ?-catenin mediated the FoxC1-induced pathological changes. We also observed downregulated microRNA (miR)-141-3p expression in SFs from both RA patients and CIA rats and further found that miR-141-3p bound to the FoxC1 3'UTR and suppressed FoxC1 expression. Intra-ankle miR-141-3p agomir or FoxC1-specific siRNA injection hindered CIA development in rats. Conclusions: FoxC1 and miR-141-3p participate in RA pathogenesis by mediating inflammation and SF proliferation, migration, and invasion and thus could be novel targets for RA therapy as a nonimmunosuppressive approach.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Abnormal glycolytic metabolism contributes to joint inflammation and destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examine the expression and function of hexokinases in RA and evaluate the potential of their specific inhibitor for clinical treatment. METHODS:Detection of HKs was assessed in synovial tissue by immunohistology and Western blot. SiRNA and a specific hexokinases inhibitor, lonidamine (LND), were used to evaluate the role of hexokinase-I/II (HK-I/II). Pro-inflammatory and glycolysis factors, cell viability, and apoptosis were assessed by ELISA, RT-qPCR, MTS, and flow cytometry. The clinical effects of LND on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA-/1 mouse model was evaluated by scoring their clinical responses, synovitis, and cartilage destructions, and ELISA was employed to analyze the concentrations of antibody in the serum of CIA model. RESULTS:HK-I/II expression and their activities increased in the synovium of RA compared with osteoarthritis (OA). Silencing HK-I/II (siHK-I/II) or LND treatment decreased the production of pro-inflammatory factors, such as IL-6, IL-8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, and cell viability, but induced cell apoptosis of RASFs. The expression of TNF-α and IL-1β of macrophage in response to LPS stimulation were depressed as well after treatment with siHK-I/II or LND. Furthermore, leucocyte infiltration co-cultured with RASFs was also suppressed after inhibiting the expression or activity of HK-I/II. These anti-inflammatory effects overlapped with their anti-glycolytic activities. Treatment with LND in mice with CIA decreased the production of antibodies against IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b and consequently attenuated joint inflammation and destruction. CONCLUSIONS:HK-I/II contribute to shape the inflammatory phenotype of RASFs and macrophages. LND may be a potential drug in treating patients with RA.
Project description:CONTEXT:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic auto-immune disease, which is characterized by chronic and symmetry synovial inflammation. Crocin has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in animal models. OBJECTIVE:This study investigates the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of crocin on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The CIA rat model was established and randomly divided into five groups with or without crocin treatment (10, 20 or 40?mg/kg), which was started on day 21 after arthritis induction and persisted for 36 days. The symptoms and molecular mechanisms of CIA and crocin-treated CIA rats were compared and investigated. RESULTS:CIA rats presented severe RA symptoms, including high arthritis score, paw swelling, joint inflammation, bone erosion, chondrocyte death, cartilage destruction, enhanced expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, crocin could mitigate these symptoms. Crocin (40?mg/kg) exhibited the most efficient therapeutic function on CIA rats: the histological scores of joint inflammation, bone erosion, chondrocyte death, cartilage surface erosion, and bone erosion of CIA rats receiving 40?mg/kg crocin treatment were comparable to the normal rats. MMP-1, -3 and -13 protein expression levels of CIA rats with 40?mg/kg crocin treatment were decreased to levels similar to normal rats. Moreover, crocin could also inhibit the expression of TNF-?, IL-17, IL-6 and CXCL8 in serum and ankle tissues of CIA rats. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, crocin exhibits therapeutic potential for RA, by mitigating the symptoms and inhibiting the pro-inflammatory factor expression.
Project description:This study was performed to elucidate the molecular function of the synoviocyte proliferation-associated in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) 1/serum amyloid A-like 1 (SPACIA1/SAAL1) in mice CIA, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and human RA-synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). SPACIA1/SAAL1-deficient mice were generated and used to create mouse models of CIA in mild or severe disease conditions. Cell cycle-related genes, whose expression levels were affected by SPACIA1/SAAL1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), were screened. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects of SPACIA1/SAAL1 siRNA on cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 6 gene expression were investigated in human RASFs. SPACIA1/SAAL1-deficient mice showed later onset and slower progression of CIA than wild-type mice in severe disease conditions, but not in mild conditions. Expression levels of cdk6, but not cdk4, which are D-type cyclin partners, were downregulated by SPACIA1/SAAL1 siRNA at the post-transcriptional level. The exacerbation of CIA depends on SPACIA1/SAAL1 expression, although CIA also progresses slowly in the absence of SPACIA1/SAAL1. The CDK6, expression of which is up-regulated by the SPACIA1/SAAL1 expression, might be a critical factor in the exacerbation of CIA.