Galectin-1 is required for the regulatory function of B cells.
ABSTRACT: Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is required for the development of B cells in the bone marrow (BM), however very little is known about the contribution of Gal-1 to the development of B cell regulatory function. Here, we report an important role for Gal-1 in the induction of B cells regulatory function. Mice deficient of Gal-1 (Gal-1-/-) showed significant loss of Transitional-2 (T2) B cells, previously reported to include IL-10+ regulatory B cells. Gal-1-/- B cells stimulated in vitro via CD40 molecules have impaired IL-10 and Tim-1 expression, the latter reported to be required for IL-10 production in regulatory B cells, and increased TNF-? expression compared to wild type (WT) B cells. Unlike their WT counterparts, T2 and T1 Gal-1-/- B cells did not suppress TNF-? expression by CD4+ T cells activated in vitro with allogenic DCs (allo-DCs), nor were they suppressive in vivo, being unable to delay MHC-class I mismatched skin allograft rejection following adoptive transfer. Moreover, T cells stimulated with allo-DCs show an increase in their survival when co-cultured with Gal-1-/- T2 and MZ B cells compared to WT T2 and MZ B cells. Collectively, these data suggest that Gal-1 contributes to the induction of B cells regulatory function.
Project description:Strategies targeting cross-talk between immunosuppressive renal dendritic cells (DCs) and T regulatory cells (Tregs) may be effective in treating cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Galectin 3 (Gal-3), expressed on renal DCs, is known as a crucial regulator of immune response in the kidneys. In this study, we investigated the role of Gal-3 for DCs-mediated expansion of Tregs in the attenuation of CDDP-induced AKI.Methods: AKI was induced in CDDP-treated wild type (WT) C57BL/6 and Gal-3 deficient (Gal-3) mice. Biochemical, histological analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, magnetic cell sorting, flow cytometry and intracellular staining of renal-infiltrated immune cells were used to determine the differences between CDDP-treated WT and Gal-3 mice. Newly synthesized selective inhibitor of Gal-3 (Davanat) was used for pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3. Recombinant Gal-3 was used to demonstrate the effects of exogenously administered soluble Gal-3 on AKI progression. Pam3CSK4 was used for activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 in DCs. Cyclophosphamide or anti-CD25 antibody were used for the depletion of Tregs. 1-Methyl Tryptophan (1-MT) was used for pharmacological inhibition of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in TLR-2-primed DCs which were afterwards used in passive transfer experiments.Results: CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity was significantly more aggravated in Gal-3 mice. Significantly reduced number of immunosuppressive TLR-2 and IDO1-expressing renal DCs, lower serum levels of KYN, decreased presence of IL-10-producing Tregs and significantly higher number of inflammatory IFN-γ and IL-17-producing neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 cells were observed in the CDDP-injured kidneys of Gal-3 mice. Pharmacological inhibitor of Gal-3 aggravated CDDP-induced AKI in WT animals while recombinant Gal-3 attenuated renal injury and inflammation in CDDP-treated Gal-3 mice. CDDP-induced apoptosis, driven by Bax and caspase-3, was aggravated in Gal-3 animals and in WT mice that received Gal-3 inhibitor (CDDP+Davanat-treated mice). Recombinant Gal-3 managed to completely attenuate CDDP-induced apoptosis in CDDP-injured kidneys of Gal-3 mice. Genetic deletion as well as pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 in renal DCs remarkably reduced TLR-2-dependent activation of IDO1/KYN pathway in these cells diminishing their capacity to prevent transdifferentiation of Tregs in inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells. Additionally, Tregs generated by Gal-3 deficient DCs were not able to suppress production of IFN-γ and IL-17 in activated neutrophils. TLR-2-primed DCs significantly enhanced capacity of Tregs for attenuation of CDDP-induced AKI and inflammation and expression of Gal-3 on TLR-2-primed DCs was crucially important for their capacity to enhance nephroprotective and immunosuppressive properties of Tregs. Adoptive transfer of TLR-2-primed WTDCs significantly expanded Tregs in the kidneys of CDDP-treated WT and Gal-3 recipients resulting in the suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17-driven inflammation and alleviation of AKI. Importantly, this phenomenon was not observed in CDDP-treated WT and Gal-3 recipients of TLR-2-primed Gal-3DCs. Gal-3-dependent nephroprotective and immunosuppressive effects of renal DCs was due to the IDO1-induced expansion of renal Tregs since either inhibition of IDO1 activity in TLR-2-primed DCs or depletion of Tregs completely diminished DCs-mediated attenuation of CDDP-induced AKI.Conclusions: Gal-3 protects from CDDP-induced AKI by promoting TLR-2-dependent activation of IDO1/KYN pathway in renal DCs resulting in increased expansion of immunosuppressive Tregs in injured kidneys. Activation of Gal-3:TLR-2:IDO1 pathway in renal DCs should be further explored as new therapeutic approach for DC-based immunosuppression of inflammatory renal diseases.
Project description:Sema4D (CD100), a member of the neuro-semaphorin family of proteins, has recently been shown to play a role in modulating certain immune responses. We tested the requirement of Sema4D expression on T cells in the induction of T cell allo-immune responses. Sema4D-/- T cells showed reduced expansion in vitro upon stimulation with allo-geneic antigen presenting cells (APCs) when compared to wild-type (wt) T cells. Similar in vitro results were observed using anti-Sema4D mAbs. Further studies demonstrated that the reduced proliferation was not due to intrinsic T cell defects, and that the cytotoxic functions were preserved. After allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT), recipients of Sema4D-/- T cells showed reduced mortality and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) target organ damage. Allo-geneic dendritic cells (DCs) cocultured with Sema4D-/- responder T cells secreted less TNF-alpha and IL-12p70 compared to wt T cells. Similar reduction of DC function was observed with anti-Sema4D mAbs. Given the preservation of CTL function we evaluated graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) responses. When BALB/c recipient mice were challenged with the P815 murine mastocytoma cell line (H2(d)) the recipients of allo-geneic Sema4D-/- B6 T cells showed a significant improvement in tumor free survival when compared to syngeneic recipients, thus demonstrating preservation of GVL, albeit of a lesser magnitude than allo-geneic wt T cells. In summary, Sema4D plays a significant role in mediating in vitro and in vivo allo-geneic responses by modulating T cell-APC interactions.
Project description:A flavonoid Astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, Ast) has several biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-HIV, and anti-allergic effects. Nonetheless, its insolubility in hydrophilic solvents imposes restrictions on its therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the effects of water-soluble astragalin-galactoside (kaempferol-3-O-?-d-isomaltotrioside, Ast-Gal) on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) maturation and T helper (Th) cell-mediated immune responses. Ast-Gal significantly increased maturation and activation of DCs through the upregulation of surface markers, such as cluster of differentiation (CD)80, CD86, and Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II in a dose-dependent manner, while Ast had little effects. Additionally, Ast-Gal-treated DCs markedly secreted immune-stimulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-12. Importantly, Ast-Gal strongly increased expression of IL-12, a polarizing cytokine of Th1 cells. In a co-culture system of DCs and CD4? T cells, Ast-Gal-treated DCs preferentially differentiates naïve CD4? T cells into Th1 cells. The addition of neutralizing IL-12 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to cultures of Ast-Gal-treated DCs and CD4? T cells significantly decreased interferon (IFN)-? production, thereby indicating that Ast-Gal-stimulated DCs enhance the Th1 response through IL-12 production by DCs. Injection with Ast-Gal-treated DCs in mice increased IFN-?-secreting Th1 cell population. Collectively, these findings indicate that hydrophilically modified astragalin can enhance Th1-mediated immune responses via DCs and point to a possible application of water-soluble astragalin-galactoside as an immune adjuvant.
Project description:Fasciolosis, caused by <i>Fasciola hepatica</i> and <i>Fasciola gigantica</i>, is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health and livestock production. Like other helminths, <i>F. hepatica</i> modulates the host immune response by inducing potent polarized Th2 and regulatory T cell immune responses and by downregulating the production of Th1 cytokines. In this work, we show that <i>F. hepatica</i> glycans increase Th2 immune responses by immunomodulating TLR-induced maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). This process was mediated by the macrophage Gal/GalNAc lectin (MGL) expressed on DCs, which recognizes the Tn antigen (GalNAc-Ser/Thr) on parasite components. More interestingly, we identified MGL-expressing CD11c<sup>+</sup> cells in infected animals and showed that these cells are recruited both to the peritoneum and the liver upon <i>F. hepatica</i> infection. These cells express the regulatory cytokines IL-10, TNF? and TGF? and a variety of regulatory markers. Furthermore, MGL<sup>+</sup> CD11c<sup>+</sup> cells expand parasite-specific Th2/regulatory cells and suppress Th1 polarization. The results presented here suggest a potential role of MGL in the immunomodulation of DCs induced by <i>F. hepatica</i> and contribute to a better understanding of the molecular and immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by this parasite.
Project description:Development of host protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is critically dependent on the inflammatory cytokine TNF. TNF signals through 2 receptors, TNFRp55 and TNFRp75; however, the role of TNFRp75-dependent signaling in immune regulation is poorly defined. Here we found that mice lacking TNFRp75 exhibit greater control of M. tuberculosis infection compared with WT mice. TNFRp75-/- mice developed effective bactericidal granulomas and demonstrated increased pulmonary recruitment of activated DCs. Moreover, IL-12p40-dependent migration of DCs to lung draining LNs of infected TNFRp75-/- mice was substantially higher than that observed in WT M. tuberculosis-infected animals and was associated with enhanced frequencies of activated M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-?-expressing CD4+ T cells. In WT mice, TNFRp75 shedding correlated with markedly reduced bioactive TNF levels and IL-12p40 expression. Neutralization of TNFRp75 in M. tuberculosis-infected WT BM-derived DCs (BMDCs) increased production of bioactive TNF and IL-12p40 to a level equivalent to that produced by TNFRp75-/- BMDCs. Addition of exogenous TNFRp75 to TNFRp75-/- BMDCs infected with M. tuberculosis decreased IL-12p40 synthesis, demonstrating that TNFRp75 shedding regulates DC activation. These data indicate that TNFRp75 shedding downmodulates protective immune function and reduces host resistance and survival; therefore, targeting TNFRp75 may be beneficial for improving disease outcome.
Project description:Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is emerging as a therapy for graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), but the full mechanism of action and the impact on immunity have not been fully established. After murine minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched bone marrow (BM) transplantation (allo-BMT), coinfusion of ECP-treated splenocytes with T cell-replete BM attenuated GVHD irrespective of the donor strain of the ECP-treated splenocytes, and was associated with increased numbers of regulatory T cells. Coculture of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) with ECP-treated splenocytes resulted in increased interleukin (IL)-10 production after submaximal stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, male myeloid DCs exposed to ECP-treated splenocytes were less potent at inducing CD8(+) HY responses when used as a vaccine in vivo. The efficacy of ECP-treated splenocytes was enhanced when administered just before delayed donor lymphocyte infusion following T cell-depleted allo-BMT, allowing for the administration of sufficient numbers of T cells to respond to myeloid DC vaccination in the absence of a thymus. Finally, the therapeutic effect of ECP-treated splenocytes was lost in recipients of IL-10-deficient BM. We demonstrate that ECP-treated splenocytes attenuate GVHD irrespective of the source of ECP-treated cells via a mechanism that likely involves modulation of DCs and requires IL-10 produced by BM-derived cells. Importantly, the attenuation of GVHD by ECP-treated splenocytes permits donor lymphocyte infusion-dependent responses to DC vaccines after allo-BMT.
Project description:In mice, B1 and marginal zone (MZ) B-cells play an important role in prevention of autoimmunity through production of regulatory cytokines and natural antibodies. There is limited knowledge about the human counterparts of these cells. We therefore investigated functions of MZ-like B-cells and the frequency of circulating MZ-like and B1-like B-cells in healthy controls (HC), as well as in patients with autoimmune vasculitis to learn more about the role of these cells in autoimmune disease. After stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of class B in vitro, MZ-like B-cells were the main producers of IgM whereas switched memory B-cells primarily produced IgG and IgA. TNF and IL-10 were produced by both MZ-like and switched memory B-cells. Neither antibody nor TNF/IL-10 production by the B-cell subsets differed between patients and HC. Patients with autoimmune vasculitis, irrespective of disease activity, had lower percentage and absolute numbers of circulating MZ-like B-cells, and lower absolute numbers of B1-like B-cells. The percentage of B1-like B-cells was reduced during active disease. These findings remained significant when the analysis was confined to active treatment-naïve patients (disease onset).Our results suggest that human innate-like B-cells might have a physiological role in prevention of autoimmunity.
Project description:Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a ?-galactoside-binding lectin, serves as a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) of dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating proinflammatory cytokine production. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) siRNA downregulates expression of IL-6, IL-1? and IL-23 p19, while upregulates IL-10 and IL-12 p35 in TLR/NLR stimulated human MoDCs. Furthermore, Gal-3 siRNA-treated MoDCs enhanced IFN-? production in SEB-stimulated CD45RO CD4 T-cells, but attenuated IL-17A and IL-5 production by CD4 T-cells. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against Gal-3, or recombinant Gal-3 did not differentially modulate IL-23 p19 versus IL-12 p35. The data indicate that intracellular Gal-3 acts as cytokine hub of human DCs in responding to innate immunity signals. Gal-3 downregulation reprograms proinflammatory cytokine production by MoDCs that inhibit Th2/Th17 development.
Project description:Splenic transitional B-cells (T1 and T2) are selected to avoid self-reactivity and to safeguard against autoimmunity, then differentiate into mature follicular (FO-I and FO-II) and marginal zone (MZ) subsets. Transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq of the five B-cell subsets revealed T1 cell signature genes included RAG suggesting a potential for receptor revision. T1 to T2 B-cell differentiation was marked by a switch from Myb to Myc, increased expression of the PI3K adapter DAP10 and MHC class II. FO-II may be an intermediate in FO-I differentiation and may also become MZ B-cells as suggested by principle component analysis. MZ B-cells possessed the most distinct transcriptome including down-regulation of CD45 phosphatase-associated protein (CD45-AP/PTPRC-AP), as well as upregulation of IL-9R and innate molecules TLR3, TLR7, and bactericidal Perforin-2 (MPEG1). Among the endosomal TLRs, stimulation via TLR3 further enhanced Perforin-2 expression exclusively in MZ B-cells. Using gene-deleted and overexpressing transgenic mice we show that IL-9/IL-9R interaction resulted in rapid activation of STAT1, 3, and 5, primarily in MZ B-cells. Importantly, CD45-AP mutant mice had reduced transitional and increased mature MZ and FO B-cells, suggesting that it prevents premature entry of transitional B-cells to the mature B-cell pool or their survival and proliferation. Together, these findings suggest, developmental plasticity among splenic B-cell subsets, potential for receptor revision in peripheral tolerance whereas enhanced metabolism coincides with T2 to mature B-cell differentiation. Further, unique core transcriptional signatures in MZ B-cells may control their innate features.
Project description:Galectin-9 (Gal-9) exerts immunosuppressive effects by inducing apoptosis in T cells that produce interferon-? and interleukin (IL)-17. However, Gal-9 can be pro-inflammatory in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes. Using microarray analysis, we observed that Gal-9 was up-regulated in human dendritic cells (DCs) after dengue virus (DV) infection. The investigation into the immunomodulatory effects and mechanisms of Gal-9 in DCs exposed to DV revealed that DV infection specifically increased mRNA and protein levels of Gal-9 but not those of Gal-1 or Gal-3. Blocking p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), inhibited DV-induced expression of Gal-9. Reduction in Gal-9 by small interference RNA treatment suppressed DV-stimulated migration of DCs towards the chemoattractants CCL19 and CCL21. In addition, DV-induced IL-12p40 production was reduced after knockdown of Gal-9 in DCs. Furthermore, Gal-9 deficiency suppressed DV-induced activation of nuclear factor-?B. Inhibition of DV-induced DC migration under conditions of Gal-9 deficiency was mediated through suppressing ERK activation but not by regulating the expression of CCR7, the receptor for CCL19 and CCL21. Both the reduction in IL-12 production and the suppression of ERK activity might account for the inhibition of DV-induced DC migration after knockdown of Gal-9. In summary, this study reveals the roles of Gal-9 in DV-induced migration of DCs. The findings indicate that Gal-9 might be a therapeutic target for preventing immunopathogenesis induced by DV infection.