Efficacy and safety of rotigotine in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease in comparison with the non-elderly: a post hoc analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
ABSTRACT: Rotigotine-a non-ergot dopamine agonist-has two advantages; it can stimulate all dopamine receptors (D1-D5) like innate dopamine, and its transdermal administration provides continuous dopaminergic stimulation. The age of the patient impacts the effect and adverse events of anti-parkinsonian treatment. We conducted a post hoc analysis on three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials performed in Japan to clarify the difference of anti-parkinsonian treatment in elderly and non-elderly patients. Data from two combination therapy trials (with levodopa) in advanced stage Parkinson's disease patients and one monotherapy trial in early stage patients were pooled and grouped by age (non-elderly aged < 70, elderly aged 70 +). In each age group, efficacy of rotigotine was compared to placebo. In the combination therapy, total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III scores and some subtotal scores, including those for tremor, akinesia and gait disturbance, significantly improved in both elderly and non-elderly patients. Regarding safety, the incidence of total adverse event tended to be lower in elderly patients than non-elderly patients, although it was not significant. No difference was observed in maintenance dosage of rotigotine between the two groups. In conclusion, the improvement in motor symptoms and frequency of adverse events were shown to be similar in elderly and non-elderly patients with rotigotine-levodopa combination therapy. Further, there was no major difference in maintenance dosage of rotigotine between the age groups. These results suggest good tolerability of rotigotine among elderly patients.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>'Dropped head sign' relates to a severe disproportionate antecollis in parkinsonism. We present the first report of a rotigotine-induced dropped head sign in a patient with suspected idiopathic Parkinson's disease, which was later defined as multiple system atrophy. The 'dropped head sign' is considered a rare symptom of unknown etiology in parkinsonian disorders, though a disproportionate antecollis is frequently observed in multiple system atrophy. It has also been described as a side effect of dopamine agonist medication with cabergoline and pramipexole. Rotigotine is a transdermally applied, non-ergot dopamine agonist, resulting in a continuous stimulation of dopamine receptors, which is widely used in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease.<h4>Case presentation</h4>We report a case of a 64-year-old Caucasian woman with a rapidly progressive two-and-a-half-year history of a hypokinetic Parkinson's syndrome with asymmetric development of symptoms and an initially good response to levodopa medication. Due to side effects of other dopamimetic medications the patient was switched to rotigotine medication five weeks before clinical admission. Progressive antecollis without muscle weakness and prominent paraspinal muscle contraction developed within two weeks of treatment and resolved within a week after discontinuation of rotigotine and initiation of levodopa/cabergoline medication.<h4>Conclusion</h4>While the pathophysiology still remains unresolved, this case supports the concept of a dopaminergic imbalance as a cause of certain axial dystonias like disproportionate antecollis including the 'dropped head sign'. We believe this case is specifically useful for neurologists and general practitioners, as the easily recognizable symptom should prompt a thorough reevaluation of diagnosis and medication in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the comparative effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase type-B (MAO-B) inhibitors available for treatment of Parkinson's disease. METHODS:We performed a systematic literature search identifying randomized controlled trials investigating 4 dopamine agonists (cabergoline, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) and 3 MAO-B inhibitors (selegiline, rasagiline, safinamide) for Parkinson's disease. We extracted and pooled data from included clinical trials in a joint model allowing both direct and indirect comparison of the seven drugs. We considered dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors given as monotherapy or in combination with levodopa. Selected endpoints were change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score, serious adverse events and withdrawals. We estimated the relative effectiveness of each dopamine agonist and MAO-B inhibitor versus comparator drug. RESULTS:Altogether, 79 publications were included in the analysis. We found all the investigated drugs to be effective compared with placebo when given as monotherapy except safinamide. When considering combination treatment, the estimated relative effects of selegiline, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, cabergoline, rasagiline and safinamide were 2.316 (1.819, 2.951), 2.091 (1.889, 2.317), 2.037 (1.804, 2.294), 1.912 (1.716, 2.129), 1.664 (1.113, 2.418), 1.584 (1.379, 1.820) and 1.179 (1.031, 1.352), respectively, compared with joint placebo and levodopa treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Dopamine agonists were found to be effective as treatment for Parkinson's disease, both when given as monotherapy and in combination with levodopa. Selegiline and rasagiline were also found to be effective for treating Parkinson's disease, and selegiline was the best option in combination with levodopa among all the drugs investigated.
Project description:Achieving optimal symptom control with minimal side effects is a major goal in clinical practice. Dual-agent dopamine receptor agonist (DA) therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) may represent a promising approach to treatment, as the combination of different pharmacokinetic/pharmacological profiles may result in a lesser need for high dosages and, accordingly, may be well tolerated. The objective of the current study was to investigate safety and efficacy of rotigotine transdermal system as add-on to oral DA in patients with advanced PD inadequately controlled with levodopa and low-dose oral DA.PD0015 was an open-label, multinational study in patients with advanced-PD and sleep disturbance or early-morning motor impairment. Patients were titrated to optimal dose rotigotine (?8 mg/24 h) over 1-4 weeks and maintained for 4-7 weeks (8-week treatment). Dosage of levodopa and oral DA (pramipexole ?1.5 mg/day, ropinirole ?6.0 mg/day) was stable. Primary variable was Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) item 4: side effects, assessing safety. Other variables included adverse events (AEs), Patient Global Impressions of Change (PGIC), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II and III, Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and "off" time.Of 90 patients who received rotigotine, 79 (88%) completed the study; 5 (6%) withdrew due to AEs. Most (83/89; 93%) had a CGI-4 score <3 indicating that rotigotine add-on therapy did not interfere with functioning; 6 (7%) experienced drug-related AEs that interfered with functioning (score ?3). AEs occurring in ?5% were application site pruritus (13%), dizziness (10%), orthostatic hypotension (10%), nausea (8%), dyskinesia (8%), and nasopharyngitis (6%). Numerical improvements in motor function (UPDRS III), activities of daily living (UPDRS II), sleep disturbances (PDSS-2, PSQI), and reduction in "off" time were observed. The majority (71/88; 81%) improved on PGIC.Addition of rotigotine transdermal system to low-dose oral DA in patients with advanced-PD was feasible and may be associated with clinical benefit.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01723904 . Trial registration date: November 6, 2012.
Project description:This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch on apathy and motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).Patients with PD-associated apathy (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] I item 4 [motivation] ?2 and patient-rated Apathy Scale [AS] ?14) were randomized 1:1:1 to "low-dose" rotigotine (?6 mg/24 h for early PD [those not receiving levodopa] or ?8 mg/24 h for advanced PD [those receiving levodopa]), "high-dose" rotigotine (?8 mg/24 h for early PD or ?16 mg/24 h for advanced PD), or placebo, and maintained at optimal/maximal dose for 12 weeks. Coprimary efficacy variables were: change from baseline to End of Maintenance in patient-rated AS and UPDRS II?+?III total score. Recruitment was stopped after an interim futility analysis; therefore, all p values are exploratory.Of 122 patients randomized, 81.1 % completed the study (placebo, n?=?32/40 [80.0 %]; low-dose rotigotine, n?=?30/41 [73.2 %]; high-dose rotigotine, n?=?37/41 [90.2 %]). No treatment difference was observed in the change in patient-rated AS (least squares mean [95 % confidence interval (CI)] difference: low-dose, 0.04 [-2.42, 2.50], p =0.977; high-dose, -0.22 [-2.61, 2.18], p?=?0.859). Rotigotine improved UPDRS II?+?III total scores versus placebo (least squares mean [95 % CI] treatment difference: low-dose, -7.29 [-12.30, -2.28], p?=?0.005; high-dose, -6.06 [-10.90, -1.21], p?=?0.015), and the "mood/apathy" domain of the Non-Motor Symptom Scale as rated by the investigator (secondary outcome). The most frequent adverse events in rotigotine-treated patients were application site reactions, somnolence, and nausea.Rotigotine did not improve PD-associated apathy as rated by the patient but provided clinically relevant improvement in motor control and activities of daily living.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01782222 . Trial registration date: January 30, 2013.
Project description:Transdermal delivery of rotigotine maintains stable plasma concentrations for 24 hours. Three phase 3 studies of rotigotine as add-on to levodopa in advanced Parkinson's disease showed a significant reduction in "off" time from baseline to end of maintenance (EoM). However, detailed analyses over the range of a day have not yet been performed. The objective was to examine the time course of the efficacy profile of rotigotine throughout the day.Post hoc analysis of diary data from 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of rotigotine in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease inadequately controlled with levodopa, with average "off" time of ?2.5 h/d (CLEOPATRA-PD [NCT00244387], 16-week maintenance; PREFER, 24-week maintenance; SP921 [NCT00522379], 12-week maintenance). Patients marked 30-minute intervals as "off," "on without troublesome dyskinesia," "on with troublesome dyskinesia," or "sleep." Diaries completed on the 3 days before EoM were analyzed. A 2-sample t test was performed for comparison of rotigotine + levodopa versus placebo + levodopa for mean percentage of time per status during four 6-hour periods: 12:00AM (midnight) to 6:00AM, 6:00AM to 12:00PM (noon), noon to 6:00PM, and 6:00PM to midnight.Data were available for 967 patients (placebo + levodopa, 260; rotigotine + levodopa, 707). During the 24-hour period at EoM, an advantage in mean percentage time spent "off" and "on without troublesome dyskinesia" was observed with rotigotine + levodopa versus placebo + levodopa during the three 6-hour periods from 6:00AM to midnight (P < 0.05; exploratory analysis).These exploratory analyses of patients with motor fluctuations suggest that the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch, as captured by diary data, in reducing "off" time and increasing "on time without troublesome dyskinesia" may cover the full waking day.
Project description:Background: Movement fluctuations are the main complication of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving long-term levodopa (L-dopa) treatment. We compared and ranked the efficacy and safety of dopamine agonists (DAs) with regard to motor fluctuations by using a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) to quantify information from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods and Findings: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis, and only RCTs comparing DAs for advanced PD were included. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were systematically searched for relevant studies published until January 2021. Two reviewers independently extracted individual study data and evaluated studies for risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Network meta-analyses using a Bayesian framework were used to calculate the related parameters. The pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were efficacy (“ON” time without troublesome dyskinesia, “OFF” time, “ON” time, “UPDRS-III,” and “UPDRS-II”) and safety [treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) and other adverse events] of DAs. The results are presented as the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve. A total of 20 RCTs assessing 6,560 patients were included. The general DA effects were ranked from high to low with respect to the amount of “ON” time without troublesome dyskinesia as follows: apomorphine (SUCRA = 97.08%), pramipexole_IR (probability = 79.00%), and ropinirole_PR (SUCRA = 63.92%). The general safety of DAs was ranked from high to low with respect to TEAE as follows: placebo (SUCRA = 74.49%), pramipexole_ER (SUCRA = 63.6%), sumanirole (SUCRA = 54.07%), and rotigotine (SUCRA = 53.84%). Conclusions: This network meta-analysis shows that apomorphine increased “ON” time without troublesome dyskinesia and decreased “OF” time for advanced PD patients. The addition of pramipexole, ropinirole, or rotigotine to levodopa treatment in advanced PD patients with motor fluctuations increased “ON” time without troublesome dyskinesia, improved the UPDRS III scores, and ultimately ameliorated the UPDRS II scores, thereby maximizing its benefit. This NMA of pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine represents an effective treatment option and has an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced PD.
Project description:Effective therapies for the so-called atypical parkinsonian syndrome (APS) such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) are not available. Dopamine agonists (DA) are not often used in APS because of inefficacy and in a minority of case, their side effects, like dyskinesias, impairment of extrapyramidal symptoms or the appearance of psychosis, and REM sleep behavioral disorders (RBD). Transdermal rotigotine (RTG) is a non-ergot dopamine agonist indicated for use in early and advanced Parkinson's disease with a good tolerability and safety. Moreover, its action on a wide range of dopamine receptors, D1, D2, D3, unlike other DA, could make it a good option in APS, where a massive dopamine cell loss is documented. In this pilot, observational open-label study we evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of RTG in patients affected by APS. Thirty-two subjects with diagnosis of APS were treated with transdermal RTG. APS diagnosis was: MSA parkinsonian type (MSA-P), MSA cerebellar type (MSA-C), PSP, and CBS. Patients were evaluated by UPDRS-III, neuropsychiatric inventory, mini mental state examination at baseline, and after 6, 12, and 18?months. The titration schedule was maintained very flexible, searching the major clinical effect and the minor possible adverse events (AEs) at each visit. AEs were recorded. APS patients treated with RTG show an overall decrease of UPDRS-III scores without increasing behavioral disturbances. Only three patients were dropped out of the study. Main AEs were hypotension, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, and tachycardia. The electroencephalographic recording power spectra analysis shows a decrease of theta and an increase of low alpha power. In conclusion, transdermal RTG seems to be effective and well tolerated in APS patients.
Project description:Transdermal rotigotine (RTG) is a non-ergot dopamine agonist (D3>D2>D1), and is indicated for use in early and advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). RTG patch has many potential advantages due to the immediacy of onset of the therapeutic effect. Of note, intestinal absorption is not necessary and drug delivery is constant, thereby avoiding drug peaks and helping patient compliance. In turn, transdermal RTG seems a suitable candidate in the treatment of atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APS). Fifty-one subjects with a diagnosis of APS were treated with transdermal RTG. The diagnoses were: Parkinson's disease with dementia, multiple system atrophy Parkinsonian type, multiple system atrophy cerebellar type, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism. Patients were evaluated by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS; part III), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and all adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Patients treated with RTG showed an overall decrease of UPDRS III scores without increasing behavioral disturbances. Main AEs were hypotension, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, tachycardia, and dystonia. On the whole, 15 patients were affected by AEs and seven patients suspended RTG treatment due to AEs. The results show that transdermal RTG is effective with a good tolerability profile. RTG patch could be a good therapeutic tool in patients with APS.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To clarify whether antiparkinsonian drugs contribute to nocturnal sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).<h4>Background</h4>Although the major antiparkinsonian drugs L-dopa and dopamine agonists (DAs) have been found to affect sleep, little is known about the effects of specific drugs on sleep in PD patients.<h4>Methods</h4>The study participants consisted of 112 PD patients (median age 72.5 years [inter-quartile range: IQR 65-79]; mean disease duration 8.44 years [standard deviation: 7.33]; median Hoehn and Yahr stage 3 [IQR 2-3.75]) taking one of three types of non-ergot extended-release DAs (rotigotine 32; pramipexole 44; ropinirole 36) with or without L-dopa (median daily total dosage of antiparkinsonian drugs 525.5 mg [IQR 376.25-658] levodopa equivalent dose [LED]). Participants were assessed using the PD Sleep Scale-2 (PDSS-2).<h4>Results</h4>For the whole PD patient cohort, the PDSS-2 sleep disturbance domain score and the scores for item 1 assessing sleep quality and item 8 assessing nocturia were positively correlated with daily total dosage of antiparkinsonian drugs and dosage of L-dopa, but not with the dosage of DAs. Sub-analysis according to DA treatment revealed that DA dosage was not correlated with item 1 or 8 score in any of the subgroups. The LED ratio of rotigotine to the total dosage of antiparkinsonian drugs was inversely correlated with the item 1 score.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data suggest that antiparkinsonian drugs, in particular L-dopa, adversely affect nocturnal sleep in PD patients, especially in terms of sleep quality and nocturia. Thus, adjusting both the total dosage of antiparkinsonian drugs and the dose-ratio of L-dopa might be key actions for alleviating poor sleep quality in patients with PD. Among DAs, we found a clear positive correlation between the dose-ratio of rotigotine and sleep quality. Thus, partial L-dopa replacement with rotigotine could improve sleep quality in patients with PD.
Project description:Dopamine has a significant role in retinal processing, and it has been demonstrated that retinal dopamine content is decreased in parkinsonian patients. We measured the latency of the evoked discharges in the optic tract (OT) to flash stimuli during stereotactic pallidal neurosurgery in 25 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) (13 women and 12 men, age 38-78 years, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) Motor Score in the Off state 11-54, Hoehn and Yahr stage in the Off state 1.5-5) and investigated the effects of age at surgery, disease duration, levodopa dose, and severity of parkinsonian symptoms on the latency. OT discharges were evoked by monocular flash stimuli delivered from a flashlight with a krypton bulb with a tungsten filament. The luminance at the eye measured ?4 × 10(4) cd/m(2). The light wavelength of the stimulus was composed of a wide spectrum with its peak at around 800 nm or longer. The latency of OT discharges ranged 49-79 msec, and there was a significant positive correlation between the latencies of evoked activities in the OT to a flashlight and age (r = 0.59, P < 0.001, by Pearson correlation), but no correlation between the latency and the severity of parkinsonian symptoms and between the latency and duration of illness. These results indicate that the delay in visual processing and conduction at the level of the retina and the OT are substantially derived from age-related degenerative changes in the retina and visual pathway which are apparently unrelated to the striatal dopamine deficiency in PD.