Cross-sectional association between physical activity and serum testosterone levels in US men: results from NHANES 1999-2004.
ABSTRACT: Testosterone levels and physical activity each play important roles in men's health, but the relationship between the two remains unclear. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between self-reported total physical activity and serum testosterone levels in 738 men (mean age 42.4 years, range 20-?85 years) who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. We compared geometric mean testosterone concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and calculated the odds ratio (OR) of having low or low normal testosterone (?3.46 ng/mL) across tertiles of total physical activity in all men, and men stratified by age (20-49, ?50 years), and obesity status (BMI < 30, ?30 kg/m(2) ). The geometric mean testosterone concentration was 5.31 ng/mL; 18.6% of the men had low or low normal serum testosterone levels. Physical activity tertiles were not associated with testosterone levels overall, or when stratified by age or obesity status. Similarly, there was no association between physical activity tertiles and the odds of low or low normal testosterone, overall or by age. However, among non-obese men, those in the highest physical activity tertile were significantly less likely to have low or low normal testosterone than those in the lowest tertile (OR 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.95); there was no association among obese men. Greater physical activity was not associated with testosterone levels, but may be associated with a reduced odds of low or low normal testosterone in non-obese men, but not in obese men.
Project description:PURPOSE:Research examining the relationship between physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among kidney transplant recipients (KTR) is limited. Accordingly, we sought to 1) describe the levels of PA in KTR and 2) analyze the associations between PA levels and CVD risk factors in KTR. METHODS:Baseline data from KTR participants in a large multiethnic, multicenter trial (the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation) were examined. PA was categorized in tertiles (low, moderate, and high) derived from a modified PA summary score from the Yale Physical Activity Survey. CVD risk factors were examined across levels of PA by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis rank test, and hierarchical multiple regression. RESULTS:The 4034 participants were 37% female (mean ± SD = 51.9 ± 9.4 yr of age, 75% White, 97% with stage 2T-4T chronic kidney disease, and 20% with prevalent CVD. Participants in the "high" PA tertile reported more vigorous PA and walking, compared with participants in moderate and low tertiles (both P < 0.001). No differences were observed in daily household, occupational, or sedentary activities across PA tertiles. More participants in the "low" PA tertile were overweight/obese, had a history of prevalent diabetes, and/or had CVD compared with more active participants (all P < 0.001). Hierarchical modeling revealed that younger age (P = 0.002), cadaveric donor source (P = 0.006), shorter transplant vintage (P = 0.025), lower pulse pressure (P < 0.001), and no history of diabetes (P < 0.001) were associated with higher PA scores. CONCLUSION:The most active KTR engaged in more intentional exercise. Lower levels of PA were positively associated with more CVD risk factors. Higher PA levels were associated with younger age and with more positive KTR outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), characterized by an impaired kidney function, is associated with low testosterone levels. This study investigated the association between dietary patterns, testosterone levels, and severity of impaired kidney function among middle-aged and elderly men. METHODS:This cross-sectional study used the database from a private health-screening institute in Taiwan between 2008 and 2010. Men aged 40 years old and older (n = 21,376) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and proteinuria were selected. Among 21,376 men, 256 men had available measurements of testosterone levels. Dietary assessment was conducted using a food frequency questionnaire and three dietary patterns (fried-processed, vege-seafood, and dairy-grain dietary patterns) were identified using principal component analysis. RESULTS:Men in the lower tertiles (T1 and T2) of eGFR had significantly decreased testosterone levels by 0.8 (95% CI: - 1.40, - 0.20) and 0.9 nmol/L (95% CI: - 1.43, - 0.33). Furthermore, serum triglycerides (TG) levels were inversely associated with testosterone levels (β = - 0.51, 95% CI: - 0.77, - 0.24). Men in the higher tertile of fried-processed dietary pattern scores were associated with decreased testosterone levels by 0.8 nmol/L (95% CI: - 1.40, - 0.16), reduced testosterone-to-TG (T/TG) ratio by 1.8 units (95% CI: - 2.99, - 0.53), and increased risk of moderate/severe impaired kidney function (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and proteinuria severity by 1.35 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.58) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.37) times respectively. In contrast, the vege-seafood dietary pattern was negatively associated with severity of impaired kidney function and proteinuria after multivariable adjustment, but had no association with testosterone levels and T/TG ratio. CONCLUSIONS:The fried-processed dietary pattern is negatively associated with testosterone levels but positively associated with the severity of impaired kidney function. However, the vege-seafood and dairy-grain dietary patterns appear to have beneficial effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Despite the consistent relationship between serum ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), one unsolved issue is the role of serum GGT in the well-known association between obesity and T2D. This study was performed to investigate whether the association between body mass index (BMI) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) differed depending on serum GGT levels within the normal range. METHODS: Study subjects were 2,424 men and 3,652 women aged???40, participating in the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum GGT levels within the normal range were classified into gender-specific tertiles. RESULTS: Among men and women belonging to the lowest tertile of serum GGT, BMI showed statistically non-significant weak associations with the risk of IFG. However, among persons in the highest tertile of serum GGT, the risk of IFG was 3?-?4 times higher among persons with BMI???25 kg/m2 than those with BMI?<?23 kg/m2 (Pinteraction?=?0.032 in men and 0.059 in women). CONCLUSIONS: The well-known strong association between BMI and IFG was observed mainly among persons with elevation of serum GGT to certain physiological levels, suggesting a critical role of serum GGT in the pathogenesis of IFG. This finding has an important clinical implication because serum GGT can be used to detect high-risk obese persons.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggested that high serum calcium may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Since calcium seems to affect specifically the cerebrovascular district, aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. METHODS: In our retrospective study we included 472 subjects (59% female) with body mass index equal to or more than 25?kg/m2. They underwent a physical examination, a biochemical assessment (including calcium evaluation) and a B-mode ultrasonography of the extracranial carotid arteries to detect carotid atherosclerosis presence and to measure intima-media thickness. RESULTS: Mean age of the population was 50 ±12?years. Prevalence of the Carotid atherosclerosis was 40%. Mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0,66?±?0,18?mm. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed an association between calcium and carotid intima-media thickness (p?=?0,035). We divided the population in serum calcium tertiles. We found an higher carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in the III tertile in comparison to that of the I tertile (p?=?0,039). CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found a positive relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. It is important to consider the impact of the serum calcium levels in the overall risk assessment of patients, at least in obese subjects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Women experience a steeper decline in aortic elasticity related to aging compared to men. We examined whether sex hormone levels were associated with ascending aortic distensibility (AAD) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS:We studied 1,345 postmenopausal women and 1,532 men aged 45-84 years, who had serum sex hormone levels, AAD measured by phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and ejection fraction>50% at baseline. Among these participants, 457 women and 548 men returned for follow-up magnetic resonance imaging 10-years later. Stratified by sex, and using mixed effects linear regression methods, we examined associations of sex hormones (as tertiles) with baseline and annual change in log-transformed AAD (mm Hg-110-3), adjusting for demographics, body size, lifestyle factors, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, hypertensive medication use (and in women, for hormone therapy use and years since menopause). RESULTS:The mean (SD) age was 65 (9) for women and 62 (10) years for men. AAD was lower in women than men (P < 0.001). In adjusted cross-sectional analysis, the highest tertile of free testosterone (compared to lowest) in women was significantly associated with lower AAD [-0.10 (-0.19, -0.01)] and the highest tertile of estradiol in men was associated with greater AAD [0.12 (0.04, 0.20)]. There were no associations of sex hormones with change in AAD over 10 years, albeit in a smaller sample size. CONCLUSIONS:Lower free testosterone in women and higher estradiol in men were associated with greater aortic distensibility at baseline, but not longitudinally. Sex hormone levels may account for differences in AAD between women and men.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increased levels of cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), reflect inflammation and have been shown to be predictive of therapeutic responses, fatigue, pain, and depression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but limited data exist on associations between IL-6 levels and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This post hoc analysis of MONARCH phase III randomized controlled trial data evaluated the potential of baseline IL-6 levels to differentially predict HRQoL improvements with sarilumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against both soluble and membrane-bound IL-6 receptor ? (anti-IL-6R?) versus adalimumab, a tumor necrosis factor ? inhibitor, both approved for treatment of active RA. METHODS:Baseline serum IL-6 levels in 300/369 randomized patients were categorized into low (1.6-7.1?pg/mL), medium (7.2-39.5?pg/mL), and high (39.6-692.3?pg/mL) tertiles. HRQoL was measured at baseline and week (W)24 and W52 by Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical/mental component summary (PCS/MCS) and domain scores, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy -fatigue, and duration of morning stiffness visual analog scale (AM-stiffness VAS). Linear regression of changes from baseline in HRQoL (IL-6 tertile, treatment, region as a stratification factor, and IL-6 tertile-by-treatment interaction as fixed effects) assessed predictivity of baseline IL-6 levels, with low tertile as reference. Pairwise comparisons of improvements between treatment groups were performed by tertile; least squares mean differences and 95% CIs were calculated. Similar analyses evaluated W24 patient-level response on minimum clinically important differences (MCID). RESULTS:At baseline, patients with high versus medium or low IL-6 levels (n?=?100, respectively) reported worse (nominal p?<?0.05) SF-36 MCS and role-physical, bodily pain, social functioning, role-emotional domain, and AM-stiffness VAS scores. There was a greater treatment effect with sarilumab versus adalimumab in high tertile versus low tertile groups in SF-36 PCS, physical functioning domain, and AM-stiffness VAS (nominal interaction p?<?0.05). PCS improvements ?MCID were higher in high (odds ratio [OR] 6.31 [2.37, 16.81]) versus low (OR 0.97 [0.43, 2.16]) tertiles with sarilumab versus adalimumab (nominal interaction p?<?0.05). Adverse events between IL-6 tertiles were similar. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with high baseline IL-6 levels reported better improvements in PCS, physical functioning domain, and AM-stiffness scores with sarilumab versus adalimumab and safety consistent with IL-6R blockade. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02332590 . Registered on 5 January 2015.
Project description:Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly.Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status.Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese.Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P < 0.05). In overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P < 0.05). The direction and magnitude of associations did not vary regardless of adjustment for total energy intake.Snacking in China, dominated by fruit consumption, is associated with decreased BMI in overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum testosterone concentrations decrease as men age, but benefits of raising testosterone levels in older men have not been established. METHODS:We assigned 790 men 65 years of age or older with a serum testosterone concentration of less than 275 ng per deciliter and symptoms suggesting hypoandrogenism to receive either testosterone gel or placebo gel for 1 year. Each man participated in one or more of three trials--the Sexual Function Trial, the Physical Function Trial, and the Vitality Trial. The primary outcome of each of the individual trials was also evaluated in all participants. RESULTS:Testosterone treatment increased serum testosterone levels to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age. The increase in testosterone levels was associated with significantly increased sexual activity, as assessed by the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire (P<0.001), as well as significantly increased sexual desire and erectile function. The percentage of men who had an increase of at least 50 m in the 6-minute walking distance did not differ significantly between the two study groups in the Physical Function Trial but did differ significantly when men in all three trials were included (20.5% of men who received testosterone vs. 12.6% of men who received placebo, P=0.003). Testosterone had no significant benefit with respect to vitality, as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, but men who received testosterone reported slightly better mood and lower severity of depressive symptoms than those who received placebo. The rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:In symptomatic men 65 years of age or older, raising testosterone concentrations for 1 year from moderately low to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age had a moderate benefit with respect to sexual function and some benefit with respect to mood and depressive symptoms but no benefit with respect to vitality or walking distance. The number of participants was too few to draw conclusions about the risks of testosterone treatment. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00799617.).
Project description:Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (VitD), low sex hormones (SH), and high sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are common in older men. We tested the hypothesis that combinations of low VitD, low SH, and high SHBG would have a synergistic effect on bone mineral density (BMD), bone loss, and fracture risk in older men. Participants were a random subsample of 1468 men (mean age 74 years) from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) plus 278 MrOS men with incident nonspine fractures studied in a case-cohort design. "Abnormal" was defined as lowest quartile for VitD (<20 ng/mL), bioavailable testosterone (BioT, <163 ng/dL), and bioavailable estradiol (BioE, <11 pg/mL); and highest quartile for SHBG (>59 nM). Overall, 10% had isolated VitD deficiency; 40% had only low SH or high SHBG; 15% had both SH/SHBG and VitD abnormality; and 35% had no abnormality. Compared to men with all normal levels, those with both SH/SHBG and VitD abnormality tended to be older, more obese, and to report less physical activity. Isolated VitD deficiency, and low BioT with or without low VitD, was not significantly related to skeletal measures. The combination of VitD deficiency with low BioE and/or high SHBG was associated with significantly lower baseline BMD and higher annualized rates of hip bone loss than SH abnormalities alone or no abnormality. Compared to men with all normal levels, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident nonspine fracture during 4.6-year median follow-up was 1.2 (0.8-1.8) for low VitD alone; 1.3 (0.9-1.9) for low BioE and/or high SHBG alone; and 1.6 (1.1-2.5) for low BioE/high SHBG plus low VitD. In summary, adverse skeletal effects of low sex steroid levels were more pronounced in older men with low VitD levels. The presence of low VitD in the presence of low BioE/high SHBG may contribute substantially to poor skeletal health.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Low testosterone levels in men are associated with fatigue, limited physical performance and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, this relationship has never been assessed in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) -associated vasculitides (AAV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of androgen deficiency and to investigate the role of testosterone in fatigue, limited physical condition and reduced HRQOL in men with AAV. METHODS: Male patients with AAV in remission were included in this study. Fatigue and HRQOL were assessed by the multi-dimensional fatigue inventory (MFI)-20 and RAND-36 questionnaires. RESULTS: Seventy male patients with a mean age of 59 years (SD 12) were included. Scores of almost all subscales of both questionnaires were significantly worse in patients compared to controls. Mean total testosterone and free testosterone levels were 13.8 nmol/L (SD 5.6) and 256 pmol/L (SD 102), respectively. Androgen deficiency (defined according to Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines) was present in 47% of patients. Scores in the subscales of general health perception, physical functioning and reduced activity were significantly worse in patients with androgen deficiency compared to patients with normal androgen levels. Testosterone and age were predictors for the RAND-36 physical component summary in multiple linear regression analysis. Testosterone, age, vasculitis damage index (VDI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were associated with the MFI-20 subscale of general fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that androgen deficiency was present in a substantial number of patients with AAV. Testosterone was one of the predictors for physical functioning and fatigue. Testosterone may play a role in fatigue, reduced physical performance and HRQOL in male patients with AAV.