Drug burden index to define the burden of medicines in older adults with intellectual disabilities: An observational cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:The drug burden index (DBI) is a dose-related measure of anticholinergic and sedative drug exposure. This cross-sectional study described DBI in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and the most frequently reported therapeutic classes contributing to DBI and examined associations between higher DBI scores and potential adverse effects as well as physical function. METHODS:This study analysed data from Wave 2 (2013/2014) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA), a representative study on the ageing of people with ID in Ireland. Self- and objectively-reported data were collected on medication use and physical health, including health conditions. The Barthel index was the physical function measure. RESULTS:The study examined 677 individuals with ID, of whom 644 (95.1%) reported taking medication and 78.6% (n = 532) were exposed to medication with anticholinergic and/or sedative activity. 54.2% (n = 367) were exposed to high DBI score (≥1). Adjusted multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant association between DBI score and daytime dozing, constipation or falls. After adjusting for confounders (sex, age, level of ID, comorbidities, behaviours that challenge, history of falls), DBI was associated with significantly higher dependence in the Barthel index (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first time DBI has been described in older adults with ID. Scores were much higher than those observed in the general population and higher scores were associated with higher dependence in Barthel index activities of daily living.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drug Burden Index (DBI), a measure of exposure to medications with anticholinergic and sedative activity, has been associated with poorer physical function in older adults in the general population. While extensive study has been conducted on associations between DBI and physical function in older adults in the general population, little is known about associations in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This is the first study which aims to examine the association between DBI score and its two sub-scores, anticholinergic and sedative burden, with two objective measures of physical performance, grip strength and timed up and go, and a measure of dependency, Barthel Index activities of daily living, in older adults with ID. METHODS:Data from Wave 2 (2013/2014) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) was analysed. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to detect associations and produce adjusted means for the physical function and dependency measures with respect to categorical DBI scores and the anticholinergic and sedative sub-scores (DBA and DBS). RESULTS:After adjusting for confounders (age, level of ID, history of falls, comorbidities and number of non-DBI medications, Down syndrome (grip strength only) and gender (timed up and go and Barthel Index)), neither grip strength nor timed up and go were significantly associated with DBI, DBA or DBS score > 0 (p > 0.05). Higher dependency in Barthel Index was associated with DBS exposure (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:DBI, DBA or DBS scores were not significantly associated with grip strength or timed up and go. This could be as a result of established limitations in physical function in this cohort, long-term exposure to these types of medications or lifelong sedentary lifestyles. Higher dependency in Barthel Index activities of daily living was associated with sedative drug burden, which is an area which can be examined further for review.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Older people often use medications with anticholinergic or sedative side effects which increase the risk of falling and worsen cognitive impairment. The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a measure of the burden of anticholinergic and sedative medications. Medication reviews are typically done by a pharmacist in collaboration with a general practitioner to optimise the medication use and reduce these adverse drug events. We will evaluate whether a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review (3MR) is an effective intervention to reduce a patient's DBI. METHODS:A randomised controlled trial including 160 patients from 15 community pharmacies will be conducted. Per pharmacy, 1 pharmacist will perform a structured 3MR in close collaboration with the general practitioner, including the objective to reduce the DBI. ANALYSIS:Primary outcome--the difference in proportion of patients having a decrease in DBI ? 0.5 in the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Secondary outcomes--anticholinergic and sedative side effects, falls, cognitive function, activities of daily living, quality of life, hospital admission, and mortality. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The burden of patients will be kept at a minimum. The 3MR can be considered as usual care by the pharmacist and general practitioner. Medical specialists will be consulted, if necessary. The intervention is specifically aimed at older community-dwelling patients in an attempt to optimise prescribing, in particular, to reduce medication with anticholinergic and sedative properties. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be distributed through information channels targeting professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02317666; Pre-results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate if a pharmacist-led medication review is effective at reducing the anticholinergic/sedative load, as measured by the Drug Burden Index (DBI). DESIGN:Randomised controlled single blind trial. SETTING:15 community pharmacies in the Northern Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS:157 community-dwelling patients aged ?65 years who used ?5 medicines for ?3 months, including at least one psycholeptic/psychoanaleptic medication and who had a DBI?1. INTERVENTION:A medication review by the community pharmacist in collaboration with the patient's general practitioner and patient. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURES:The primary outcome was the proportion of patients whose DBI decreased by at least 0.5. Secondary outcomes were the presence of anticholinergic/sedative side effects, falls, cognitive function, activities of daily living, quality of life, hospital admission and mortality. Data were collected at baseline and 3?months follow-up. RESULTS:Mean participant age was 75.7 (SD, 6.9) years in the intervention arm and 76.6 (SD, 6.7) years in the control arm, the majority were female (respectively 69.3% and 72.0%). Logistic regression analysis showed no difference in the proportion of patients with a?0.5?decrease in DBI between intervention arm (17.3%) and control arm (15.9%), (OR 1.04, CI 0.47 to 2.64, p=0.927). Intervention patients scored higher on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, measure of cognitive function (OR 2.02, CI 1.11 to 3.67, p=0.021) and reported fewer sedative side effects (OR 0.61, CI 0.40 to 0.94, p=0.024) at follow-up. No significant difference was found for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Pharmacist-led medication review as currently performed in the Netherlands was not effective in reducing the anticholinergic/sedative load, measured with the DBI, within the time frame of 3 months. Preventive strategies, signalling a rising load and taking action before chronic use of anticholinergic/sedative medication is established may be more successful. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02317666.
Project description:The Drug Burden Index (DBI) tool quantifies individual exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications. The DBI has been internationally validated against adverse health outcomes in older people. DBI exposure has not been reported in the Irish older population. This study aimed to: (1) develop a list of drugs with clinically significant anticholinergic and/or sedative effects (DBI medications) relevant to Ireland; (2) examine, using the DBI formula, the prevalence of exposure to DBI medications in Irish older people and (3) explore patient factors associated DBI exposure.A cross-sectional national pharmacy claims database study.Community setting using the General Medical Services (GMS) scheme pharmacy claims database maintained by the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Services.Irish older individuals (aged ?65 years) enrolled in the GMS scheme and dispensed at least one prescription item in 2016 (n=428?516).Prevalence of exposure to DBI medications and patient factors associated with DBI exposure.282?874 (66%) of the GMS population aged ?65 years were exposed to at least one DBI medication in 2016. Prevalence of exposure to DBI medications was significantly higher in females than males (females 71.6% vs males 58.7%, adjusted OR 1.65, 95%?CI 1.63 to 1.68). Prevalence of DBI exposure increased progressively with the number of chronic drugs used, rising from 42.7% of those prescribed 0-4 chronic drugs to 95.4% of those on ?12?chronic drugs (adjusted OR 27.8, 95%?CI 26.7 to 29.0). The most frequently used DBI medications were codeine/paracetamol combination products (20.1% of patients), tramadol (11.5%), zopiclone (9.5%), zolpidem (8.5%), pregabalin (7.9%) and alprazolam (7.8%).The majority of older people in Ireland are exposed to medications with anticholinergic and/or sedative effects, particularly females and those with multiple comorbidities. The high use of low-dose codeine/paracetamol combination products, Z-drugs and benzodiazepines, suggests there are opportunities for deprescribing.
Project description:PURPOSE:To identify the proportion of older adults with a high anticholinergic/sedative load and to identify patient subgroups based on type of central nervous system (CNS)-active medication used. METHODS:A cross-sectional study of a nationwide sample of patients with anticholinergic/sedative medications dispensed by 1779 community pharmacies in the Netherlands (90% of all community pharmacies) in November 2016 was conducted. Patients aged older than 65 years with a high anticholinergic/sedative load defined as having a drug burden index (DBI) greater than 1 were included. Proportion of patients with a high anticholinergic/sedative load was calculated by dividing the number of individuals in our study population by the 2.4 million older patients using medications dispensed from study pharmacies. Patient subgroups based on type of CNS-active medications used were identified with latent class analysis. RESULTS:Overall, 8.7% (209 472 individuals) of older adults using medications had a DBI greater than 1. Latent class analysis identified four patient subgroups (classes) based on the following types of CNS-active medications used: "combined psycholeptic/psychoanaleptic medication" (class 1, 57.9%), "analgesics" (class 2, 17.9%), "antiepileptic medication" (class 3, 17.8%), and "anti-Parkinson medication" (class 4, 6.3%). CONCLUSIONS:A large proportion of older adults in the Netherlands had a high anticholinergic/sedative load. Four distinct subgroups using specific CNS-active medication were identified. Interventions aiming at reducing the overall anticholinergic/sedative load should be tailored to these subgroups.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Targeted deprescribing of anticholinergic and sedative medicines can lead to positive health outcomes in older people; as they have been associated with cognitive and physical functioning decline. This study will examine whether the proposed intervention is feasible at reducing the prescription of anticholinergic and sedative medicines in older people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional trials (SPIRIT checklist) was used to develop and report the protocol. Single group (precomparison and postcomparison) feasibility study design. STUDY POPULATION:3 residential care homes have been recruited. INTERVENTION:This will involve a New Zealand registered pharmacist using peer-reviewed deprescribing guidelines, to recommend to general practitioners (GPs), sedative and anticholinergic medicines that can be deprescribed. The cumulative use of anticholinergic and sedative medicines for each participant will be quantified, using the Drug Burden Index (DBI). OUTCOMES:The primary outcome will be the change in the participants' DBI total and DBI PRN 3 and 6?months after implementing the deprescribing intervention. Secondary outcomes will include the number of recommendations taken up by the GP, participants' cognitive functioning, depression, quality of life, activities of daily living and number of falls. DATA COLLECTION POINTS:Participants' demographic and clinical data will be collected at the time of enrolment, along with the DBI. Outcome measures will be collected at the time of enrolment, 3 and 6?months' postenrolment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval has been granted by the Human Disability and Ethics Committee. Ethical approval number (16/NTA/61). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:Pre-results; ACTRN12616000721404.
Project description:To evaluate concordance of five commonly used anticholinergic scales.Cross-sectional secondary analysis.Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee.Community-dwelling adults aged 70 to 79 with baseline medication data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (N = 3,055).Any anticholinergic use, weighted scores, and total standardized daily dosage were calculated using five anticholinergic measures (Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) Scale, Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS), Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), Drug Burden Index anticholinergic component (DBI-ACh), and Summated Anticholinergic Medications Scale (SAMS)). Concordance was evaluated using kappa statistics and Spearman rank correlations.Any anticholinergic use in rank order was 51% for the ACB, 43% for the ADS, 29% for the DBI-ACh, 23% for the ARS, and 16% for the SAMS. Kappa statistics for all pairwise use comparisons ranged from 0.33 to 0.68. Similarly, concordance as measured using weighted kappa statistics ranged from 0.54 to 0.70 for the three scales not incorporating dosage (ADS, ARS, ACB). Spearman rank correlation between the DBI-ACh and SAMS was 0.50.Only low to moderate concordance was found between the five anticholinergic scales. Future research is needed to examine how these differences in measurement affect their predictive validity with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, such as cognitive impairment.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a tool to quantify the anticholinergic and sedative load of drugs. Establishing functional correlates of the DBI could optimize drug prescribing in patients with dementia. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the relationship between DBI and cognitive and physical functions in a sample of patients with dementia.<h4>Methods</h4>Using performance-based tests, we measured physical and cognitive functions in 140 nursing home patients aged over 70 with all-cause dementia. We also determined anticholinergic DBI (AChDBI) and sedative DBI (SDBI) separately and in combination as total drug burden (TDB).<h4>Results</h4>Nearly one half of patients (48%) used at least one DBI-contributing drug. In 33% of the patients, drug burden was moderate (0 < TDB < 1) whereas in 15%, drug burden was high (TDB ??1). Multivariate models yielded no associations between TDB, AChDBI, and SDBI, and physical or cognitive function (all p >?0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>A lack of association between drug burden and physical or cognitive function in this sample of patients with dementia could imply that drug prescribing is more optimal for patients with dementia compared with healthy older populations. However, such an interpretation of the data warrants scrutiny as several dementia-related factors may confound the results of the study.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a non-invasive method to quantify patients' anticholinergic and sedative drug burden from their prescriptions. This systematic review aimed to summarise the evidence on the associations between the DBI and clinical outcomes and methodological quality of studies.<h4>Methods</h4>A search in PubMed and Embase (search terms: 'drug', 'burden', and 'index') was performed and experts were contacted. We excluded publications that did not report empirical results or clinical outcomes. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Potential omissions of relevant clinical outcomes and populations were studied.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 2998 identified publications, 21 were eligible. Overall, methodological quality of studies was good. In all but one study, adjustment was made for prevalent co-morbidity. The DBI was examined in diverse older individuals, i.e. both males and females from different settings and countries. However, no studies were conducted in other relevant patient groups, e.g. psychiatric patients. Exposure to anticholinergic and sedative drugs was thoroughly ascertained, though the specific calculation of the DBI differed across studies. Outcomes were assessed from medical records, record linkage or validated objective tests or questionnaires. Many studies found associations between the DBI and outcomes including hospitalisation, physical and cognitive function. Cognitive function and quality of life were understudied and the number and scope of longitudinal studies was limited.<h4>Conclusions</h4>An accumulating body of evidence supports the validity of the DBI. Longitudinal studies of cognitive function and quality of life and in other patient groups, e.g. psychiatric patients, are warranted.