The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture.
ABSTRACT: Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome was similar to the HHV-6B HST strain. FISH analysis using a HHV-6 DNA probe showed one signal in each cell, detected at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 9. This was consistent with a digital PCR assay, validating one copy of the viral DNA. Because exposure of HUV-EC-C to chemicals did not cause viral reactivation, long term cell culture of HUV-EC-C was carried out to assess the stability of viral integration. The growth rate was altered depending on passage numbers, and morphology also changed during culture. SNP microarray profiles showed some differences between low and high passages, implying that the HUV-EC-C genome had changed during culture. However, no detectable change was observed in chromosome 9, where HHV-6B integration and the viral copy number remained unchanged. Our results suggest that integrated HHV-6B is stable in HUV-EC-C despite genome instability.
Project description:Human betaherpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are highly prevalent in human populations. The genomes of these viruses can be stably integrated at the telomeres of human chromosomes and be vertically transmitted (inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/HHV-6B, iciHHV-6A/iciHHV-6B). We reconstructed the population structures of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, showing that HHV-6A diverged less than HHV-6B genomes from the projected common ancestral population. Thus, HHV-6B genomes experienced stronger drift, as also supported by calculation of nucleotide diversity and Tajima's D. Analysis of ancestry proportions indicated that HHV-6A exogenous viruses and iciHHV-6A derived most of their genomes from distinct ancestral sources. Conversely, ancestry proportions were similar in exogenous HHV-6B viruses and iciHHV-6B. In line with previous indications, this suggests the distinct exogenous viral populations that originated iciHHV-6B in subjects with European and Asian ancestry are still causing infections in the corresponding geographic areas. Notably, for both iciHHV-6A and iciHHV-6B, we found that European and American sequences tend to have high proportions of ancestry from viral populations that experienced considerable drift, suggesting that they underwent one or more bottlenecks followed by population expansion. Finally, analysis of HHV-6B exogenous viruses sampled in Japan indicated that proportions of ancestry components of most of these viruses are different from the majority of those sampled in the USA. More generally, we show that, in both viral species, both integrated and exogenous viral genomes have different ancestry components, partially depending on geographic location. It would be extremely important to determine whether such differences account for the diversity of HHV-6A/HHV-6B-associated clinical symptoms and epidemiology. Also, the sequencing of additional exogenous and integrated viral genomes will be instrumental to confirm and expand our conclusions, which are based on a relatively small number of genomes, sequenced with variable quality, and with unequal sampling in terms of geographic origin.
Project description:Human betaherpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are highly prevalent in human populations. The genomes of these viruses can be stably integrated at the telomeres of human chromosomes and be vertically transmitted (inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6, iciHHV6). We reconstructed the population structure of HHV-6 and we show that HHV-6A genomes diverged less than HHV-6B genomes from the ancestral common HHV-6A/B population. Analysis of ancestry proportions indicated that HHV-6A exogenous viruses and iciHHV-6A derived most of their genomes from distinct ancestral sources. Conversely, exogenous viral and iciHHV-6B populations were similar in terms of ancestry components, with no evident geographic structuring. Most HHV-6B genomes sampled to date derive from viral populations that experienced considerable drift. However, a population of HHV-6 exogenous viruses, currently classified as HHV-6B and sampled in New York state, formed a separate cluster (NY cluster) and harbored a considerable portion of HHV-6A-like ancestry. Recombination detection methods identified these viruses as interspecies recombinants, but phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the recombination signals are due to shared ancestry. In analogy to iciHHV-6A, NY cluster viruses have high nucleotide diversity and constant population size. We propose that HHV-6A sequences and the NY cluster population diverged from an ancestral HHV-6A-like population. A relatively recent bottleneck of the NY (or a related) population with subsequent expansion originated most HHV-6B genomes currently sampled. Our findings indicate that the distinction between HHV-6A and -6B is not as clear-cut as previously thought. More generally, epidemiological and clinical surveys would benefit from taking HHV-6 genetic diversity into account.
Project description:Quantitative PCR is a diagnostic pillar for clinical virology testing, and reference materials are necessary for accurate, comparable quantitation between clinical laboratories. Accurate quantitation of human herpesvirus 6A/B (HHV-6A/B) is important for detection of viral reactivation and inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B in immunocompromised patients. Reference materials in clinical virology commonly consist of laboratory-adapted viral strains that may be affected by the culture process. We performed next-generation sequencing to make relative copy number measurements at single nucleotide resolution of eight candidate HHV-6A and seven HHV-6B reference strains and DNA materials from the HHV-6 Foundation and Advanced Biotechnologies Inc. Eleven of 17 (65%) HHV-6A/B candidate reference materials showed multiple copies of the origin of replication upstream of the U41 gene by next-generation sequencing. These large tandem repeats arose independently in culture-adapted HHV-6A and HHV-6B strains, measuring 1,254 bp and 983 bp, respectively. The average copy number measured was between 5 and 10 times the number of copies of the rest of the genome. We also report the first interspecies recombinant HHV-6A/B strain with a HHV-6A backbone and a >5.5-kb region from HHV-6B, from U41 to U43, that covered the origin tandem repeat. Specific HHV-6A reference strains demonstrated duplication of regions at U1/U2, U87, and U89, as well as deletion in the U12-to-U24 region and the U94/U95 genes. HHV-6A/B strains derived from cord blood mononuclear cells from different laboratories on different continents with fewer passages revealed no copy number differences throughout the viral genome. These data indicate that large origin tandem duplications are an adaptation of both HHV-6A and HHV-6B in culture and show interspecies recombination is possible within the Betaherpesvirinae.IMPORTANCE Anything in science that needs to be quantitated requires a standard unit of measurement. This includes viruses, for which quantitation increasingly determines definitions of pathology and guidelines for treatment. However, the act of making standard or reference material in virology can alter its very accuracy through genomic duplications, insertions, and rearrangements. We used deep sequencing to examine candidate reference strains for HHV-6, a ubiquitous human virus that can reactivate in the immunocompromised population and is integrated into the human genome in every cell of the body for 1% of people worldwide. We found large tandem repeats in the origin of replication for both HHV-6A and HHV-6B that are selected for in culture. We also found the first interspecies recombinant between HHV-6A and HHV-6B, a phenomenon that is well known in alphaherpesviruses but to date has not been seen in betaherpesviruses. These data critically inform HHV-6A/B biology and the standard selection process.
Project description:Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are two different species of betaherpesviruses that integrate into sub-telomeric ends of human chromosomes, for which different prevalence rates of integration have been reported. It has been demonstrated that integrated viral genome is stable and is fully retained. However, study of chromosomally integrated viral genome in individuals carrying inherited HHV-6 (iciHHV-6) showed unexpected number of viral DR copies. Hence, we created an in vitro infection model and studied retention of full or partial viral genome over a period of time. We observed an exceptional event where cells retained viral direct repeats (DRs) alone in the absence of the full viral genome. Finally, we found evidence for non-telomeric integration of HHV-6A DR in both cultured cells and in an iciHHV-6 individual. Our results shed light on several novel features of HHV-6A chromosomal integration and provide valuable information for future screening techniques.
Project description:The human herpesviruses HHV-6A and HHV-6B have been associated with various neurologic disorders partly due to the detection of elevated viral DNA levels in patients compared to controls. However the reported frequency of these viruses varies widely, likely reflecting differences in PCR methodologies used for detection. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) is a third generation PCR technology that enables the absolute quantification of target DNA molecules. Mounting evidence of the biological differences between HHV-6A and HHV-6B has led to their recent reclassification as separate species. As it is now especially relevant to investigate each virus, our objectives were to first design a multiplex HHV-6A and HHV-6B ddPCR assay and then to investigate the incidence of HHV-6A and HHV-6B coinfection in samples from healthy donors and patients with MS, a disease in which HHV-6 is thought to play a role. In our assessment of healthy donors, we observed a heretofore-underappreciated high frequency of coinfection in PBMC and serum, and found that our assay precisely detects both HHV-6A and HHV-6B chromosomally integrated virus, which has important implications in clinical settings. Interestingly, upon comparing the saliva from MS patients and healthy donors, we detected a significantly elevated frequency of coinfection in MS saliva; increased detection of HHV-6A in MS patients is consistent with other studies suggesting that this viral species (thought to be more neurotropic than HHV-6B) is more prevalent among MS patients compared to healthy donors. As the biology and disease associations between these two viral species differ, identifying and quantifying both species of HHV-6 may provide clinically relevant information, as well as enhance our understanding of the roles of each in health and disease.
Project description:A unique feature of both human herpesvirus 6A and B (HHV-6A and B) among human herpesviruses is their ability to integrate into chromosomal telomeres. In some individuals integrated viral genomes are present in the germ-line and result in the vertical transmission of HHV-6; however, little is known about the disease associations of germ-line transmitted, chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). Recent publications suggest that HHV-6 is associated with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here we examine the prevalence of ciHHV-6 in 936 cases of cHL and 563 controls by screening with a duplex TaqMan assay and confirming with droplet digital PCR. ciHHV-6 was detected in 10/563 (1.8%) controls and in all but one individual the virus was HHV-6B. Amongst cases 16/936 (1.7%) harboured ciHHV-6, thus demonstrating no association between ciHHV-6 and risk of cHL.
Project description:Human herpesviruses 6-A and -B (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) are ubiquitous in human populations worldwide. These viruses have been associated with several diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Hodgkin's lymphoma or encephalitis. Despite of the need to understand the genetic diversity and geographic stratification of these viruses, the availability of complete viral sequences from different populations is still limited. Here, we present nine new inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 sequences from diverse geographical origin which were generated through target DNA enrichment on lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from healthy individuals. Integration with available HHV-6 sequences allowed the assessment of HHV-6A and -6B phylogeny, patterns of recombination and signatures of natural selection. Analysis of the intra-species variability showed differences between A and B diversity levels and revealed that the HHV-6B reference (Z29) is an uncommon sequence, suggesting the need for an alternative reference sequence. Signs of geographical variation are present and more defined in HHV-6A, while they appear partly masked by recombination in HHV-6B. Finally, we conducted a scan for signatures of selection in protein coding genes that yielded at least 6 genes (4 and 2 respectively for the A and B species) showing significant evidence for accelerated evolution, and 1 gene showing evidence of positive selection in HHV-6A.
Project description:Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B frequently acquires latency. HHV-6 activation has been associated with various human diseases. Germ line inheritance of chromosomally integrated HHV-6 makes viral DNA-based analysis difficult for determination of early stages of viral activation. We characterized early stages of HHV-6 activation using high throughput transcriptomics studies and applied the results to understand virus activation under clinical conditions. Using a latent HHV-6A cell culture model in U2OS cells, we identified an early stage of viral reactivation, which we define as transactivation that is marked by transcription of several viral small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) in the absence of detectable increase in viral replication and proteome. Using deep sequencing approaches, we detected previously known as well as a new viral sncRNAs that characterized viral transactivation and differentiated it from latency. Here we show changes in human transcriptome upon viral transactivation that reflect multiple alterations in mitochondria-associated pathways, which was supported by observation of increased mitochondrial fragmentation in virus reactivated cells. Furthermore, we present here a unique clinical case of DIHS/DRESS associated death where HHV-6 sncRNA-U14 was abundantly detected throughout the body of the patient in the presence of low viral DNA. In this study, we have identified a unique and early stage of viral activation that is characterized by abundant transcription of viral sncRNAs, which can serve as an ideal biomarker under clinical conditions.
Project description:Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) exists in latent form either as a nuclear episome or integrated into human chromosomes in more than 90% of healthy individuals without causing clinical symptoms. Immunosuppression and stress conditions can reactivate HHV-6 replication, associated with clinical complications and even death. We have previously shown that co-infection of Chlamydia trachomatis and HHV-6 promotes chlamydial persistence and increases viral uptake in an in vitro cell culture model. Here we investigated C. trachomatis-induced HHV-6 activation in cell lines and fresh blood samples from patients having Chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CiHHV-6). We observed activation of latent HHV-6 DNA replication in CiHHV-6 cell lines and fresh blood cells without formation of viral particles. Interestingly, we detected HHV-6 DNA in blood as well as cervical swabs from C. trachomatis-infected women. Low virus titers correlated with high C. trachomatis load and vice versa, demonstrating a potentially significant interaction of these pathogens in blood cells and in the cervix of infected patients. Our data suggest a thus far underestimated interference of HHV-6 and C. trachomatis with a likely impact on the disease outcome as consequence of co-infection.
Project description:Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) DNA is frequently detected in human samples. Diagnostic assays distinguishing HHV-6B reactivation from latency are limited. This has impaired strategies to diagnose and treat HHV-6B-associated diseases. We used RNA sequencing to characterize and compare the HHV-6B transcriptome in multiple sample types, including (i) whole blood from hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients with and without HHV-6B plasma viremia, (ii) tumor tissue samples from subjects with large B cell lymphoma infected with HHV-6B, (iii) lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from subjects with inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6B or latent infection with HHV-6B, and (iv) HHV-6B Z29 infected SupT1 CD4+ T cells. We demonstrated substantial overlap in the HHV-6B transcriptome observed in in vivo and in vitro samples, although there was variability in the breadth and quantity of gene expression across samples. The HHV-6B viral polymerase gene U38 was the only HHV-6B transcript detected in all next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data sets and was one of the most highly expressed genes. We developed a novel reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting HHV-6B U38, which identified U38 mRNA in all tested whole-blood samples from patients with concurrent HHV-6B viremia. No HHV-6B U38 transcripts were detected by RNA-seq or reverse transcription-real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in whole-blood samples from subjects without HHV-6B plasma detection or from latently infected LCLs. A RT-qPCR assay for HHV-6B U38 may be useful to identify lytic HHV-6B infection in nonplasma samples and samples from individuals with inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6B. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of transcriptomic analyses for HCT recipients.IMPORTANCE Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a DNA virus that infects most children within the first few years of life. After primary infection, HHV-6B persists as a chronic, latent infection in many cell types. Additionally, HHV-6B can integrate into germ line chromosomes, resulting in individuals with viral DNA in every nucleated cell. Given that PCR to detect viral DNA is the mainstay for diagnosing HHV-6B infection, the characteristics of HHV-6B infection complicate efforts to distinguish between latent and active viral infection, particularly in immunocompromised patients who have frequent HHV-6B reactivation. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to characterize the HHV-6B gene expression profile in multiple sample types, and our findings identified evidence-based targets for diagnostic tests that distinguish between latent and active viral infection.