Characterization of subgroup J avian Leukosis virus isolated from Chinese indigenous chickens.
ABSTRACT: In spite of the purification of the laying hens and broilers of avian leukosis virus (ALV) has made remarkable achievements, the infection of ALV was still serious in Chinese indigenous chickens.In order to assess the epidemic state of avian leukosis virus in indigenous chickens in China, 10 novel strains of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J), named JS16JH01 to JS16JH10, were isolated and identified by virus isolation and immunofluorescence antibody assays from a Chinese local breed farm with a sporadic incidence of tumors. To understand their virological characteristics further, the proviral genome of ENV-LTR was sequenced and compared with the reference strains.The homology of the gp85 gene between the ten ALV-J strains and NX0101 was in the range from 89.7-94.8% at the nuclear acid level. In addition, their gp85 genes were quite varied, with identities of 92-98% with themselves at the nuclear acid level. There were several snp and indel sites in the amino acid sequence of gp85 genes after comparison with other reference strains of ALV. Interestingly, a novel insertion in the gp85 region was found in two strains, JS16JH01 and JS16JH07, compared with NX0101 and HPRS-103.At present, owing to the large-scale purification of ALV in China, laying hens and broiler chickens with ALV infection are rarely detected, but ALVs are still frequently detected in the local chickens, which suggests that more efforts should be applied to the purification of ALV from indigenous chickens.
Project description:In this study, a novel oral vaccine of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) containing the gp85 protein was explored, and the effects of this vaccine on the prevention of subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV-J) infection were assessed. In the current study, the gp85 protein of ALV-J was expressed on the surface of L. plantarum with the surface-display motif, pgsA, by constructing a shuttle vector pMG36e:pgsA:gp85. Surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by western blotting and flow cytometry. Subsequently, Specific Pathogen Free Hy-Line Brown layer chickens were orally vaccinated with the recombinant L. plantarum and presented with high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) titers in bile and duodenal-mucosal fluid. After challenged with ALV-J of a 3 × 103 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50), serum samples of the chickens were collected and viremia was analyzed. Results showed that, compared to the L. plantarum and PBS control group, the recombinant L. plantarum group showed a significant rise in antibody levels after inoculation, and provide improved protection against ALV-J according to viremia detection. These results indicate that oral immunization with the recombinant L. plantarum provided an effective means for eliciting protective immune response against early ALV-J infection.
Project description:A novel avian leukosis viruses (ALV) subgroup named ALV-K was recently isolated from Chinese indigenous chickens which is different from the subgroups (A to E and J) that have previously been reported to infect chickens. More and more ALV-K strains have recently been isolated from local breeds of Chinese chickens. However, there are no more effective diagnostic methods for ALV-K other than virus isolation followed by envelope gene sequencing and comparison. Viral infection can be blocked through expression of the viral receptor-binding protein. In this study, we have engineered a cell line, DF-1/K, that expresses ALV-K env protein and thereby confers resistance to ALV-K infection. DF-1/K can be used in combination with the ALV-K susceptible cell line DF-1 as a specific diagnostic tool for ALV-K and provides a good tool for further research into the molecular mechanisms of interaction between ALV-K env protein and the host cell receptor.
Project description:In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag, pol, long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97.8%). However, the gp85 genes displayed high variability with any known chicken ALV strains. Growth kinetics of DF-1 cells infected with the isolated ALV showed viral titers that were lower than those infected with the GD13 (ALV-A), CD08 (ALV-B), and CHN06 (ALV-J) on day 7 post-infection. The infected Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens could produce continuous viremia, atrophy of immune organs, growth retardation and no tumors were observed. These subgroup ALVs are unique and may be common in south China. The results suggested that updating the control and eradication program of exogenous ALV for yellow feather broiler breeders in south China needs to be considered because of the emergence of the new subgroup viruses.
Project description:Aim:This study aimed to determine the prevalence of layer flock tumor disease in Lower Egypt during the period of 2018-2019 and to undertake molecular characterization and determine the genetic diversity of all identified viruses. Materials and Methods:Forty samples were collected from layer chicken located in six governorates of Lower Egypt during the period of 2018-2019. Samples were taken from tumors in different organs. Tumor tissues were identified by histopathological sectioning and then further confirmed by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Finally, genetic evolution of Avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) gp85 gene was studied. Results:All the study samples were negative for Marek's disease virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, ALV (A,B,C and D) and 20 samples were positive for ALV-J in backyard in six governrates. Sequencing of ALV-J gp85 gene was performed for six representative samples (one from each governorate), and they were found to be genetically related to prototype virus HPRS-1003 (identity percentage: 91.2-91.8%), but they were from a different group that was similar to the AF88-USA strain (first detected in 2000) with specific mutations, and they differed from a strain that was previously isolated in Egypt in 2005, forming two different subgroups (I and II) that had mutations in the hr1domain (V128F, R136A) and hr2 domain (S197G, E202K). Conclusion:The ALV-J virus was the main cause of neoplastic disease in layer chickens from Lower Egypt in the period of 2018-2019. We found that the genetic evolution of ALV-J gp85 gene was related to prototype virus HPRS-1003 but in a different group with a specific mutation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the antigenicity and pathogenicity of recently detected ALV-J strains.
Project description:One natural recombinant avian leukosis virus (ALV) strain GX14DJ3-18 was isolated from a native gamecock by DF-1 cell culture and identified with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence assay and the viral genome's nucleotide sequencing. This strain was revealed as a novel recombinant virus with nucleotide sequence similarities of 95.4% Long Terminal Repeated (LTR), 95.8% 5', UTR, 97.9% gag, and 92.9% 3'untranslated regions (UTR) in ALV-J. Also we found sequence similarities of 99.3% pol and 99.0% gp37 in ALV-E, and 89.9% gp85 in ALV-A. The simulated congenital infection with GX14DJ3-18 in Three-Yellow chickens exhibited a significant negative effect on the development of immune organs (P < 0.05). Also, lower antibody responses were found to vaccinations with the commercial vaccines of Newcastle disease virus and with subtypes H5 and H9 of avian influenza virus (P < 0.05). The incidence of tumor or tumor-like lesions in the challenged birds was 14.28% (5/35), while none were observed in the un-challenged control group (0/35). These results suggested that GX14DJ3-18 is a novel recombinant ALV that can induce pathogenicity in the commercial Three-Yellow chickens. We speculated that cross-provincial sales of gamecocks in which ALVs have not been eradicated thoroughly might be a potential route for the transmission of ALVs to commercial chickens.
Project description:CCCH type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of viruses in mammals. However, little is known about its antiviral activity on avian tumor virus. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces myelocytomas and various other tumors in meat and egg type chickens. Here, we identified a chicken ZAP (chZAP) that increased at early stage, and subsequently decreased after infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, indicating the inducible feature of the endogenous chZAP. To demonstrate the inhibitory effect on ALV-J replication by chZAP, we expressed exogenous chZAP by lentivirus based vectors in DF-1 cells that infected by ALV-J. The result showed that overexpression of chZAP significantly inhibited ALV-J replication at both mRNA level and protein level. Consequently, knockdown of endogenous chZAP by RNAi facilitated ALV-J replication in DF-1 cells. Further, we demonstrated that chZAP interacts with SU protein (encode by gp85 gene) of ALV-J in cytoplasm. Taken together, our results demonstrated that chZAP inhibits ALV-J by both mRNA and protein pathway and it may shed light on a novel antiviral approach in poultry.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), a typical retrovirus, is characterized of existence of a cloud of diverse variants and considerable genetic diversity. Previous studies describing the evolutionary dynamics of ALV-J genetic variants mainly focused on the early infection period or few randomly selected clones. Here, we inoculated 30 specific-pathogen-free chickens with the same founder ALV-J stock of known genetic background. Six (three antibody positive and three antibody negative) chickens were selected among 15 chickens with viremia. Viruses were serially isolated in 36 weeks and then sequenced using MiSeq high-throughput sequencing platform. This produced the largest ALV-J dataset to date, composed of more than three million clean reads. Our results showed that host humoral immunity could greatly enhance the genetic diversity of ALV-J genetic variants. In particular, selection pressures promoted a dynamic proportional changes in ALV-J genetic variants frequency. Cross-neutralization experiment showed that along with the change of the dominant variant, the antibody titers specific to infectious clones corresponding to the most dominant variants in weeks 12 and 28 have also changed significantly in sera collected in weeks 16 and 32. In contrast, no shift of dominant variant was observed in antibody-negative chickens. Moreover, we identified a novel hypervariable region in the gp85 gene. Our study reveals the interaction between ALV-J and the host, which could facilitate the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs.
Project description:Chicken Na+/H+ exchanger type I (chNHE1), a multispan transmembrane protein, is a cellular receptor of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). To identify the functional determinants of chNHE1 responsible for the ALV-J receptor activity, a series of chimeric receptors was created by exchanging the extracellular loops (ECL) of human NHE1 (huNHE1) and chNHE1 and by ECL replacement with a hemagglutinin (HA) tag. These chimeric receptors then were used in binding and entry assays to map the minimal ALV-J gp85-binding domain of chNHE1. We show that ECL1 of chNHE1 (chECL1) is the critical functional ECL that interacts directly with ALV-J gp85; ECL3 is also involved in ALV-J gp85 binding. Amino acid residues 28 to 39 of the N-terminal membrane-proximal region of chECL1 constitute the minimal domain required for chNHE1 binding of ALV-J gp85. These residues are sufficient to mediate viral entry into ALV-J nonpermissive cells. Point mutation analysis revealed that A30, V33, W38, and E39 of chECL1 are the key residues mediating the binding between chNHE1 and ALV-J gp85. Further, the replacement of residues 28 to 39 of huNHE1 with the corresponding chNHE1 residues converted the nonfunctional ALV-J receptor huNHE1 to a functional one. Importantly, soluble chECL1 and huECL1 harboring chNHE1 residues 28 to 39 both could effectively block ALV-J infection. Collectively, our findings indicate that residues 28 to 39 of chNHE1 constitute a domain that is critical for receptor function and mediate ALV-J entry.IMPORTANCE chNHE1 is a cellular receptor of ALV-J, a retrovirus that causes infections in chickens and serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Until now, the domains determining the chNHE1 receptor function remained unknown. We demonstrate that chECL1 is critical for receptor function, with residues 28 to 39 constituting the minimal functional domain responsible for chNHE1 binding of ALV-J gp85 and efficiently mediating ALV-J cell entry. These residues are located in the membrane-proximal region of the N terminus of chECL1, suggesting that the binding site of ALV-J gp85 on chNHE1 is probably located on the apex of the molecule; the receptor-binding mode might be different from that of retroviruses. We also found that soluble chECL1, as well as huECL1 harboring chNHE1 residues 28 to 39, effectively blocked ALV-J infection. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the ALV-J infection mechanism and also provide new insights into the control strategies for ALV-J infection.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic virus causing hemangiomas and myeloid tumors in chickens. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory interleukin involved in many types of cancer. We previously demonstrated that IL-6 expression was induced following ALV-J infection in chickens. The aim of this study is to characterize the mechanism by which ALV-J induces IL-6 expression, and the role of IL-6 in tumor development. Our results demonstrate that ALV-J infection increases IL-6 expression in chicken splenocytes, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. IL-6 production is induced by the ALV-J envelope protein gp85 and capsid protein p27 via PI3K- and NF-κB-mediated signaling. IL-6 in turn induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and its receptor, VEGFR-2, in vascular endothelial cells and embryonic vascular tissues. Suppression of IL-6 using siRNA inhibited the ALV-J induced VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 expression in vascular endothelial cells, indicating that the ALV-J-induced VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 expression is mediated by IL-6. As VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 are important factors in oncogenesis, our findings suggest that ALV-J hijacks IL-6 to promote tumorigenesis, and indicate that IL-6 could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in ALV-J infections.
Project description:Hens of a commercial Hy-line brown layer flock in China exhibited increased mortality and decreased egg production at 47 wk of age. From 47 to 57 wk, average weekly mortality increased from 0.11 to 3.0%, and egg production decreased from 10 to 30%, with a peak mortality rate (3.0%) observed at 54 wk of age. Necropsy of 11 birds demonstrated tissue damage that included hepatitis, liver hemorrhage, rupture, and/or enlarged livers. Microscopic liver lesions exhibited hepatocytic necrosis, lymphocytic periphlebitis, and myeloid leukosis. While no bacteria were recovered from liver and spleen samples, avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA was detected in all 11 tested hens by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Of these, subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) proviral DNA was detected in 5 hens by PCR. Alignments of partial ORF2 gene sequences obtained here demonstrated shared identity (76 to 97%) with corresponding sequences of other known avian HEV isolates. Env sequences of ALV-J isolates obtained here shared 50.1 to 55% identity with other ALV subgroups and 91.8 to 95.5% identity with other known ALV-J isolates. Phylogenetic tree analysis of selected sequences obtained here grouped an avian HEV sequence with genotype 3 HEV and assigned an ALV-J sequence to a branch separate from known ALV-J subgroups. Immunohistochemical results confirmed the presence of avian HEV and ALV-J in livers. Therefore, these results suggest that avian HEV and ALV-J co-infection caused the outbreak of hepatitis and liver hemorrhagic syndrome observed in the layer hen flock analyzed in this study.