Endothelial Cell Focal Adhesion Regulates Transendothelial Migration and Subendothelial Crawling of T Cells.
ABSTRACT: Leukocytes circulating in the blood stream leave out of blood vessels and infiltrate into inflamed tissues to perform immune responses. Endothelial cells (ECs) lining interior of the post-capillary venules regulate various steps of leukocyte extravasation. In response to inflammatory signals, ECs upregulate adhesion molecules and produce/present chemokines to support firm adhesion and intraluminal crawling of leukocytes. They also remodel junctions to facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM). While roles of apical/lateral components of EC layers in regulating leukocyte extravasation have been extensively investigated, relatively little attention has been paid to the basal part of EC layers comprising subendothelial spaces. In this study, we employed interference reflection microscopy (IRM), a microscopy technique specialized for label-free visualization of cell-substrate contact, to study detailed dynamic interactions between basal part of ECs and T cells underneath EC monolayer. For TEM, T cells on EC monolayer extended protrusions through junctions to explore subendothelial spaces, and EC focal adhesions (EC-FAs) acted as physical barrier for the protrusion. Therefore, preferential TEM occurred through junctions where near-junction focal adhesion (NJ-FA) density of ECs was low. After TEM, T cells performed subendothelial crawling (SEC) with flattened morphology and reduced migration velocity due to tight confinement. T cell SEC mostly occurred through gaps formed in between EC-FAs with minimally breaking EC-FAs. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) treatment significantly loosened confinement in subendothelial spaces and reduced NJ-FA density of ECs, thus remodeled basal part of EC layer to facilitate leukocyte extravasation.
Project description:Intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM-2) is expressed on endothelial cells (ECs) and supports neutrophil extravasation. However, the full details of its role remain unknown, and the present study investigates the functional mechanisms of ICAM-2 in neutrophil-endothelial-cell interactions. Our initial studies showed expression of ICAM-2 at both EC junctions and on the EC body. In line with the observed expression profile analysis of neutrophil-vessel-wall interactions using real-time in vivo confocal microscopy identified numerous functional roles for ICAM-2 within the vascular lumen and at the stage of neutrophil extravasation. Functional or genetic blockade of ICAM-2 significantly reduced neutrophil crawling velocity, increased frequency of crawling with a disrupted stop-start profile, and prolonged interaction of neutrophils with EC junctions prior to transendothelial cell migration (TEM), collectively resulting in significantly reduced extravasation. Pharmacological blockade of the leukocyte integrin MAC-1 indicated that some ICAM-2-dependent functions might be mediated through ligation of this integrin. These findings highlight novel roles for ICAM-2 in mediating luminal neutrophil crawling and the effect on subsequent levels of extravasation.
Project description:Lymphocyte extravasation requires that emigrating cells process chemoattractant signals, typically mediated by chemokines, encountered on endothelial surface (apical) and subendothelial (basal) compartments. These signals are delivered under conditions of hemodynamic shear, a fundamental feature of all physiologic leukocyte-endothelial interactions. To analyze lymphocyte responsiveness to spatially distributed chemokines and their effects on transendothelial migration (TEM) under hydrodynamic shear, we constructed a transwell-based flow assay. We observed that the inflammatory chemokine CCL5 (RANTES) induces negligible human T-cell migration across inflamed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) when displayed alone in the subendothelial compartment under static or hemodynamic shear conditions or when combined with apical CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) under static conditions. However, under shear stress, T cells encountering apically presented CXCL12 were primed to undergo robust LFA-1-dependent TEM toward subendothelial CCL5. Notably, locomotive T cells arriving at endothelial junctions were retained and extended pseudopodia into and through the junctions, thereby increasing sensitivity to subendothelial CCL5. These findings provide the first evidence that lymphocytes integrate, conditional to shear forces, permissive apical chemokine deposits, and integrin engagement signals, resulting in morphologic changes and amplified chemotaxis to an otherwise weak subendothelial chemokine signal.
Project description:Metastasis is accountable for 90% of cancer deaths. During metastasis, tumor cells break away from the primary tumor, enter the blood and the lymph vessels, and use them as highways to travel to distant sites in the body to form secondary tumors. Cancer cell migration through the endothelium and into the basement membrane represents a critical step in the metastatic cascade, yet it is not well understood. This process is well characterized for immune cells that routinely transmigrate through the endothelium to sites of infection, inflammation, or injury. Previous studies with leukocytes have demonstrated that this step depends heavily on the activation status of the endothelium and subendothelial substrate stiffness. Here, we used a previously established in vitro model of the endothelium and live cell imaging, in order to observe cancer cell transmigration and compare this process to leukocytes. Interestingly, cancer cell transmigration includes an additional step, which we term 'incorporation', into the endothelial cell (EC) monolayer. During this phase, cancer cells physically displace ECs, leading to the dislocation of EC VE-cadherin away from EC junctions bordering cancer cells, and spread into the monolayer. In some cases, ECs completely detach from the matrix. Furthermore, cancer cell incorporation occurs independently of the activation status and the subendothelial substrate stiffness for breast cancer and melanoma cells, a notable difference from the process by which leukocytes transmigrate. Meanwhile, pancreatic cancer cell incorporation was dependent on the activation status of the endothelium and changed on very stiff subendothelial substrates. Collectively, our results provide mechanistic insights into tumor cell extravasation and demonstrate that incorporation is one of the earliest steps.
Project description:Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as "duro-repulsive" cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei.
Project description:The efficient trafficking of immune cells into peripheral nonlymphoid tissues is key to enact their protective functions. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of cell migration in secondary lymphoid organs, real-time leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues is not well characterized. The conventional multistep paradigm of leukocyte extravasation depends on CD18 integrin-mediated events such as rapid arrest and crawling on the surface of the endothelium and transmigration through the endothelial layer. Using enhanced three-dimensional detection of fluorescent CD18 fusion proteins in a newly developed knockin mouse, we report that extravasating leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells) show delayed uropod detachment and become extremely elongated before complete transmigration across the endothelium. Additionally, these cells deposit CD18(+) microparticles at the subendothelial layer before retracting the stretched uropod. Experiments with knockout mice and blocking antibodies reveal that the uropod elongation and microparticle formation are the result of LFA-1-mediated adhesion and VLA-3-mediated cell migration through the vascular basement membrane. These findings suggest that uropod elongation is a final step in the leukocyte extravasation cascade, which may be important for precise regulation of leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues.
Project description:Endothelial activation is a hallmark of the high-glucose (HG)-induced retinal inflammation associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, precisely how HG induces retinal endothelial activation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that HG-induced up-regulation of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a collagen-cross-linking enzyme, in retinal capillary endothelial cells (ECs) enhances subendothelial basement membrane (BM) stiffness, which, in turn, promotes retinal EC activation. Diabetic C57BL/6 mice exhibiting a 70 and 50% increase in retinal intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression and leukocyte accumulation, respectively, demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the levels of BM collagen IV and LOX, key determinants of capillary BM stiffness. Using atomic force microscopy, we confirmed that HG significantly enhances LOX-dependent subendothelial matrix stiffness in vitro, which correlated with an ?2.5-fold increase in endothelial ICAM-1 expression, a 4-fold greater monocyte-EC adhesion, and an ?2-fold alteration in endothelial NO (decrease) and NF-?B activation (increase). Inhibition of LOX-dependent subendothelial matrix stiffening alone suppressed HG-induced retinal EC activation. Finally, using synthetic matrices of tunable stiffness, we demonstrated that subendothelial matrix stiffening is necessary and sufficient to promote EC activation. These findings implicate BM stiffening as a critical determinant of HG-induced retinal EC activation and provide a rationale for examining BM stiffness and underlying mechanotransduction pathways as therapeutic targets for diabetic retinopathy.
Project description:Lymphocyte trafficking and migration through vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for immune protection. In the present study, we investigate the role of nectin cell adhesion molecules for the migration of lymphocytes through ECs. Nectins are key players for the establishment of homotypic and heterotypic cell to cell contacts; they are required for cell to cell adherens junction formation and take part in the transendothelial migration of monocytes during the step of diapedesis, when monocytes migrate through EC junctions. We first show that Nectin-3 (CD113) is the only nectin expressed by T lymphocytes and since nectins are expressed on ECs we explored Nectin-3 potential functions in lymphocyte: EC interactions. We demonstrate that Nectin-2, expressed on ECs, is the major counter-receptor of Nectin-3. A soluble form of Nectin-3 binds to Nectin-2 localized at EC junctions and blocking Nectin-2 trans-interactions with monoclonal antibodies abolishes the binding of soluble Nectin-3 to ECs. Nectin-2 is expressed on High Endothelial venules (HEVs), where lymphocyte homing occurs in vivo. Finally, we show that Nectin-3 trans-interaction with Nectin-2 is essential for the process of lymphocyte transendothelial migration in vitro as targeting with blocking monoclonal antibodies either Nectin-3, expressed on lymphocytes, or Nectin-2, expressed on ECs, inhibits lymphocyte extravasation. The nectin family of CAMs is important for the regulation of endothelial barrier functions and transendothelial migration of immune cells. Our results demonstrate for the first time that Nectin-3 trans-interacts with Nectin-2 to promote lymphocyte and monocyte extravasation.
Project description:Pharmacological focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibition prevents tumor growth and metastasis, via actions on both tumor and stromal cells. In this paper, we show that vascular endothelial cadherin (VEC) tyrosine (Y) 658 is a target of FAK in tumor-associated endothelial cells (ECs). Conditional kinase-dead FAK knockin within ECs inhibited recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) and tumor-induced VEC-Y658 phosphorylation in vivo. Adherence of VEGF-expressing tumor cells to ECs triggered FAK-dependent VEC-Y658 phosphorylation. Both FAK inhibition and VEC-Y658F mutation within ECs prevented VEGF-initiated paracellular permeability and tumor cell transmigration across EC barriers. In mice, EC FAK inhibition prevented VEGF-dependent tumor cell extravasation and melanoma dermal to lung metastasis without affecting primary tumor growth. As pharmacological c-Src or FAK inhibition prevents VEGF-stimulated c-Src and FAK translocation to EC adherens junctions, but FAK inhibition does not alter c-Src activation, our experiments identify EC FAK as a key intermediate between c-Src and the regulation of EC barrier function controlling tumor metastasis.
Project description:Neutrophils require directional cues to navigate through the complex structure of venular walls and into inflamed tissues. Here we applied confocal intravital microscopy to analyze neutrophil emigration in cytokine-stimulated mouse cremaster muscles. We identified differential and non-redundant roles for the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, governed by their distinct cellular sources. CXCL1 was produced mainly by TNF-stimulated endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes and supported luminal and sub-EC neutrophil crawling. Conversely, neutrophils were the main producers of CXCL2, and this chemokine was critical for correct breaching of endothelial junctions. This pro-migratory activity of CXCL2 depended on the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1), which is enriched within endothelial junctions. Transmigrating neutrophils promoted a self-guided migration response through EC junctions, creating a junctional chemokine "depot" in the form of ACKR1-presented CXCL2 that enabled efficient unidirectional luminal-to-abluminal migration. Thus, CXCL1 and CXCL2 act in a sequential manner to guide neutrophils through venular walls as governed by their distinct cellular sources.
Project description:The migration of neutrophils into inflamed tissues is a fundamental component of innate immunity. A decisive step in this process is the polarized migration of blood neutrophils through endothelial cells (ECs) lining the venular lumen (transendothelial migration (TEM)) in a luminal-to-abluminal direction. By real-time confocal imaging, we found that neutrophils had disrupted polarized TEM ('hesitant' and 'reverse') in vivo. We noted these events in inflammation after ischemia-reperfusion injury, characterized by lower expression of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) at EC junctions, and they were enhanced by blockade or genetic deletion of JAM-C in ECs. Our results identify JAM-C as a key regulator of polarized neutrophil TEM in vivo and suggest that reverse TEM of neutrophils can contribute to the dissemination of systemic inflammation.