Cardiovascular Risk Factors After Adolescent Bariatric Surgery.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Severely obese adolescents harbor numerous cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RFs), which improve after metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS). However, predictors of change in CVD-RFs among adolescents have not yet been reported. METHODS:The Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study (NCT00474318) prospectively collected anthropometric and health status data on 242 adolescents undergoing MBS at 5 centers. Predictors of change in CVD-RFs (blood pressure, lipids, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation) 3 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy were examined. RESULTS:The mean (±SD) age of participants at baseline was 17 ± 1.6 years; 76% were girls, and 72% were white, with a median BMI of 51. Participants underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 161), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n = 67), or adjustable gastric banding (n = 14). Increasing weight loss was an independent predictor of normalization in dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure (EBP), hyperinsulinemia, diabetes, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Older participants at time of surgery were less likely to resolve dyslipidemia compared with younger participants, whereas girls were more likely than boys to demonstrate improvements in EBP. Even those participants without frank dyslipidemia or EBP at baseline showed significant improvements in lipid and blood pressure values over time. CONCLUSIONS:Numerous CVD-RFs improve among adolescents undergoing MBS. Increased weight loss, female sex, and younger age predict a higher probability of resolution of specific CVD-RFs. The elucidation of predictors of change in CVD-RFs may lead to refinements in patient selection and optimal timing of adolescent bariatric surgery designed to improve clinical outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Quantifying risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among adolescents is difficult owing to the long latent period between risk factor development and disease outcomes. This study examined the 30-year CVD event risk among adolescents with severe obesity treated with and without metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS), compared with youths with moderate obesity, overweight, or normal weight. METHODS:Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of five frequency-matched (age and diabetes status) groups were performed: normal weight (n?=?247), overweight (n?=?54), obesity (n?=?131), severe obesity without MBS (n?=?302), and severe obesity undergoing MBS (n?=?215). A 30-year CVD event score developed by the Framingham Heart Study was the primary outcome. Data are mean (SD) with differences between time points for MBS examined using linear mixed models. RESULTS:Preoperatively, the likelihood of CVD events was higher among adolescents undergoing MBS (7.9% [6.7%]) compared with adolescents with severe obesity not referred for MBS (5.5% [4.0%]), obesity (3.9% [3.0%]), overweight (3.1% [2.4%]), and normal weight (1.8% [0.8%]; all P?<?0.001). At 1 year after MBS, event risk was significantly reduced (7.9% [6.7%] to 4.0% [3.4%], P?<?0.0001) and was sustained for up to 5 years after MBS (P?<?0.0001, all years vs. baseline). CONCLUSIONS:Adolescents with severe obesity are at elevated risk for future CVD events. Following MBS, the predicted risk of CVD events was substantially and sustainably reduced.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bariatric surgery is increasingly considered for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity, but few prospective adolescent-specific studies examining the efficacy and safety of weight-loss surgery are available to support clinical decision making. METHODS:We prospectively enrolled 242 adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery at five U.S. centers. Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (161 participants) or sleeve gastrectomy (67) were included in the analysis. Changes in body weight, coexisting conditions, cardiometabolic risk factors, and weight-related quality of life and postoperative complications were evaluated through 3 years after the procedure. RESULTS:The mean (±SD) baseline age of the participants was 17±1.6 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 53; 75% of the participants were female, and 72% were white. At 3 years after the procedure, the mean weight had decreased by 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 29) in the total cohort, by 28% (95% CI, 25 to 30) among participants who underwent gastric bypass, and by 26% (95% CI, 22 to 30) among those who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. By 3 years after the procedure, remission of type 2 diabetes occurred in 95% (95% CI, 85 to 100) of participants who had had the condition at baseline, remission of abnormal kidney function occurred in 86% (95% CI, 72 to 100), remission of prediabetes in 76% (95% CI, 56 to 97), remission of elevated blood pressure in 74% (95% CI, 64 to 84), and remission of dyslipidemia in 66% (95% CI, 57 to 74). Weight-related quality of life also improved significantly. However, at 3 years after the bariatric procedure, hypoferritinemia was found in 57% (95% CI, 50 to 65) of the participants, and 13% (95% CI, 9 to 18) of the participants had undergone one or more additional intraabdominal procedures. CONCLUSIONS:In this multicenter, prospective study of bariatric surgery in adolescents, we found significant improvements in weight, cardiometabolic health, and weight-related quality of life at 3 years after the procedure. Risks associated with surgery included specific micronutrient deficiencies and the need for additional abdominal procedures. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; Teen-LABS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00474318.).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data from a US multicenter longitudinal study of bariatric surgery were used to compare weight change (primary outcome) and comorbidities (secondary outcome) in patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS:This study includes participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy and matched participants who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study. Adults undergoing initial bariatric surgical procedures between 2006 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy were high-risk or superobese and intended to have a second-stage procedure. Mixed models were used to evaluate percent weight change from baseline through 7 years, and diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension prevalence through 5 years. RESULTS:Fifty-seven of 59 participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy were matched one to one. Most were female (68%) and white (81%), and had a median age of 49 (37-56) years and median body mass index of 56.4 (35.5-76.8) kg/m2 presurgery. Weight loss was significantly less 1 to 7 years after sleeve gastrectomy versus matched Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (eg, year 7 mean weight loss was 23.6% vs 30.4%, respectively; P?=?.001). For both surgical groups, prevalence of diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein, and hypertension were significantly (P < .05) lower 5 years postsurgery versus baseline. CONCLUSION:Higher-risk or super-obese participants after sleeve gastrectomy lost less weight than did matched Roux-en-Y gastric bypass counterparts throughout 7 years. Both groups exhibited improvements in comorbidities from presurgery through 5 years.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> We sought to compare the short and long-term outcomes of MBS in adolescents vs. adults who have undergone a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or Sleeve gastrectomy (SG). <b>Design:</b> Retrospective cohort study. <b>Setting:</b> Single tertiary care academic referral center. <b>Participants:</b> One hundred fifty adolescent (? 21-years) and adult (>21-years) subjects with severe obesity between 15 and 70 years of age who underwent RYGB or SG. <b>Outcomes:</b> Metabolic parameters, weight and height measures were obtained pre-and post-surgery (at 3 and 6 months, and then annually for 4 years). <b>Results:</b> Median pre-surgical body mass index (BMI) was higher in adolescents (<i>n</i> = 76) vs. adults (<i>n</i> = 74): 50 (45-57) vs. 44 (40-51) kg/m<sup>2</sup> (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). However, obesity related complications were greater in adults vs. adolescents: 66 vs. 21% had hypertension, 68 vs. 28% had dyslipidemia, and 42 vs. 21% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (all <i>p</i> < 0.010). % BMI reduction and % weight loss (WL) were greater in adolescents vs. adults at all time points (<i>p</i> < 0.050). %WL was higher in adolescents who underwent SG at each time point (<i>p</i> < 0.050), and trended higher among adolescents who underwent RYGB (<i>p</i> = 0.060), compared to adults with the respective procedure. Follow-up data showed greater resolution of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in adolescents than adults (87.5 vs. 54.8%; <i>p</i> = 0.04, and 68.7 vs. 35.4%; <i>p</i> = 0.040). <b>Conclusion:</b> Adolescents compared to adults had greater reductions in BMI and weight, even at 4 years, and greater resolution of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Earlier intervention in the treatment of severe obesity with MBS may lead to better outcomes.
Project description:PURPOSE:Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) is increasingly performed in patients with previous solid organ transplantation (PSOT). In addition, controversy remains about whether racial disparity in outcomes following MBS exists. Therefore, the aim of this analysis was to determine if race independently predicts outcomes in MBS patients with PSOT. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Patients with PSOT undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were identified in the 2017 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation Quality and Improvement Project (MBSAQIP) database. Patients were stratified by race (Black and White). Propensity score matching was utilized to adjust for multiple demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for overall and bariatric-related morbidity. RESULTS:Of 335 MBS patients with PSOT, 250 (75%) were white and 85 (25%) were black patents. Procedure-type and surgical approach (p?>?0.1) were similarly distributed. Black patients were more likely (p?<?0.05) to have hypertension dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, and be on chronic steroids). Mortality and morbidity were similar. Black patients had significantly (p?<?0.05) higher rates of renal failure, pulmonary complications, and emergency department visits in unmatched analysis. After propensity score matching, 82 patients in each cohort were identified and were similar at baseline (p?>?0.5). In the matched analysis, black patients had higher overall (17% vs. 10%, p?=?0.12) and bariatric-related morbidity (14% vs. 7.2%, p?=?0.05). In addition, black patients had significantly (p?<?0.05) higher rates of postoperative pneumonias, progressive renal insufficiency, and emergency department visits. On multivariable regression analysis, black race did not independently predict overall or bariatric-related morbidity. CONCLUSION:MBS in racial cohorts with PSOT is safe, with very low rates of overall morbidity and mortality. Black race trended toward increased postoperative morbidity. Larger cohort studies are needed to validate our findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity is recognized as a classic risk factor for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Weight loss after bariatric surgery has been associated with reduced CV mortality and total mortality in obese patients. Our aim was to study the impact of bariatric surgery on CV risk profile, cardiac structure, and function postoperatively. RESULTS:This prospective longitudinal study included 100 morbidly obese patients at final analysis. All patients were subjected to full clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic examination at baseline and 6?months after bariatric surgery. The mean age of study population was 37.2 ± 10.49 with BMI of 47 ± 6.82. Females represented 84%. Sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were performed in 79% and 21%, respectively. Surgery-related mortality and morbidity were 0.94% and 4.7%, respectively. After 6?months, there were significant decreases in BMI, heart rate, SBP, DBP, and Framingham risk score (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of risk factors decreased as follows: hypertension 24% vs. 12%, P = 0.0005; DM 21% vs. 11%, P = 0.002; dyslipidemia 32% vs. 7%, P < 0.0001; and metabolic syndrome 54% vs. 26%, P < 0.0001. Highly significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in fasting PG and 2?h PP-PG, HbA1c, ASL, ALT, fasting total cholesterol, LDL, TG, and increase in HDL were observed after bariatric surgery. There were significant shortening in QTc interval (P = 0.009), decrease in LV dimensions and LV mass index (P < 0.0001), and increase in LV EF% (P = 0.0003). BMI at follow-up showed significant positive correlation with age, Framingham risk score, and preoperative BMI (r = 0.289, P = 0.0036; r = 0.37, P = 0.0054; and r = 0.31, P = 0.0081, respectively). CONCLUSION:In addition to enabling patients to achieve a substantial weight loss, bariatric surgery provides a myriad of health benefits. Weight reduction was associated with a favorable improvement in cardiovascular risk profile, cardiac structure, and function.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:We hypothesized that physical activity (PA) improves insulin sensitivity in adolescents with severe obesity beyond that attributable to metabolic bariatric surgery (MBS). SUBJECTS/METHODS:StepWatchTM monitors objectively measured PA in 88 participants in the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) study. Primary outcomes included absolute change in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and fasting glucose from pre-surgery (baseline) to 6, 12, 24, and 36 months post-MBS. SAS PROC TRAJ generated activity trajectories based on probability and individual participant step count trajectories. Linear regression models were used, adjusted for baseline value, visit, surgical procedure, sex, and percent change in BMI. Additional models adjusted for percent change in iliac waist circumference (IWC) or percent body fat (BF), measured by bio-impedance. RESULTS:Two activity trajectories were identified: more active (MA, n = 13) and less active (LA, n = 75). MA baseline mean daily step count was >6000, increasing to >9000 at 2 years. LA mean daily step count remained at ~4000. Few participants recorded moderate step activity (cadence >80 steps/minute). Still, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR differed in association with activity trajectoy. MA was associated with a greater absolute decrease in fasting insulin (-7.8 ?U/ml [95% CI: (-11.8, -3.7)], p???0.001) and a greater decrease in HOMA-IR (-1.9 [95% CI: (-3.0, -0.7)], p = 0.001), when adjusted for percent change in BMI. The significant independent effect of MA remained when adjusted for percent change in IWC or percent BF. Clinically, 100% of MA trajectory participants normalized fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and fasting glucose by 6 months and normalization remained throughout the 36 months follow up. In contrast, 76.3 and 65.8% of LA trajectory participants normalized fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, respectively, by 12 months with 28.6% of both remaining normalized at 36 months. CONCLUSIONS:PA is independently associated with improved insulin sensitivity beyond that attributable to MBS in adolescents with severe obesity.
Project description:This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health, which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by nonsurgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the comorbidities, quality of life, and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea, and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors after weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality after weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed, and future research opportunities and summaries are stated.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:Severe obesity is associated with mobility limitations and higher incidence of multijoint musculoskeletal pain. It is unknown whether substantial weight loss improves these important outcomes in adolescents with severe obesity. OBJECTIVE:To examine the association of bariatric surgery with functional mobility and musculoskeletal pain in adolescents with severe obesity up to 2 years after surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:The Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery Study is a prospective, multicenter, observational study, which enrolled 242 adolescents (?19 years of age) who were undergoing bariatric surgery from March 2007 through February 2012 at 5 US adolescent bariatric surgery centers. This analysis was conducted in November 2015. INTERVENTIONS:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n?=?161), sleeve gastrectomy (n?=?67), or laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (n?=?14). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Participants completed a 400-m walk test prior to bariatric surgery (n?=?206) and at 6 months (n?=?195), 12 months (n?=?176), and 24 months (n?=?149) after surgery. Time to completion, resting heart rate (HR), immediate posttest HR, and HR difference (resting HR minus posttest HR) were measured and musculoskeletal pain concerns, during and after the test, were documented. Data were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, baseline body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and surgical center (posttest HR and HR difference were further adjusted for changes in time to completion). RESULTS:Of the 206 adolescents with severe obesity included in the study, 156 were female (75.7%), the mean (SD) age was 17.1 (1.6) years, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 51.7 (8.5). Compared with baseline, significant improvements were observed at 6 months for the walk test time to completion (mean, 376 seconds; 95% CI, 365-388 to 347 seconds; 95% CI, 340-358; P?<?.01), resting HR (mean, 84 beats per minute [bpm]; 95% CI, 82-86 to 74 bpm; 95% CI, 72-76), posttest HR (mean, 128 bpm; 95% CI, 125-131 to 113 bpm; 95% CI, 110-116), and HR difference (mean, 40 bpm; 95% CI, 36-42 to 34 bpm; 95% CI, 31-37). These changes in time to completion, resting HR, and HR difference persisted at 12 months and 24 months. Posttest HR further improved from 6 months to 12 months (mean, 113 bpm; 95% CI, 110-116 to 108 bpm; 95% CI, 105-111). There were statistically significant reductions in musculoskeletal pain concerns at all points. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:These data provide evidence that bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity is associated with significant improvement in functional mobility and in the reduction of walking-related musculoskeletal pain up to 2 years after surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Despite the potential for improving health status or increasing access to transplantation, national practice patterns for bariatric surgery in obese patients with ESKD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to describe current trends in surgical care for this population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:Using 100% Medicare data, we identified all beneficiaries undergoing bariatric surgery in the United States between 2006 and 2016. We evaluated longitudinal practice patterns using linear regression models. We also estimated risk-adjusted complications, readmissions, and length of stay using Poisson regression for patients with and without ESKD. RESULTS:The number of patients with ESKD undergoing bariatric surgery increased ninefold between 2006 and 2016. The proportional use of sleeve gastrectomy increased from <1% in 2006 to 84% in 2016. For sleeve gastrectomy, complication rates were similar between patients with and without ESKD (3.4% versus 3.6%, respectively; difference, -0.3%; 95% confidence interval, -1.3% to 0.1%; P=0.57). However, patients with ESKD had more readmissions (8.6% versus 5.4%, respectively; difference, 3.2%; 95% confidence interval, 1.9% to 4.6%; P<0.001) and slightly longer hospitals stays (2.2 versus 1.9 days, respectively; difference, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.1 to 0.4; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has replaced Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as the most common bariatric surgical procedure in patients with ESKD. The data also demonstrate a favorable complication profile in patients with sleeve gastrectomy.