Project description:Liver cirrhosis is a leading cause of death in Hispanics and Hispanics who live in South Texas have the highest incidence of liver cancer in the United States. We aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of cirrhosis in this population. Clinical and demographic variables were extracted for 2466 participants in the community-based Cameron County Hispanic Cohort in South Texas. Aspartate transaminase to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) was used to predict cirrhosis in Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. The prevalence of cirrhosis using APRI?2 was 0.94%, which is nearly 4-fold higher than the national prevalence. Using APRI?1, the overall prevalence of cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis was 3.54%. In both analyses, highest prevalence was observed in males, specifically in the 25-34 age group. Risk factors independently associated with APRI?2 and APRI?1 included hepatitis C, diabetes and central obesity with a remarkable population attributable fraction of 52.5% and 65.3% from central obesity, respectively. Excess alcohol consumption was also independently associated with APRI?2. The presence of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing-3 gene variants was independently associated with APRI?1 in participants >50 years old. Males with both central obesity and excess alcohol consumption presented with cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis at a young age. Alarmingly high prevalence of cirrhosis and advanced fibrosis was identified in Hispanics in South Texas, affecting young males in particular. Central obesity was identified as the major risk factor. Public health efforts are urgently needed to increase awareness and diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis in Hispanics.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic fibrosis is a primary risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which affect a disproportionate number of Hispanics in the United States. We aimed to determine the prevalence of significant fibrosis, measured by point shear-wave elastography (pSWE), and determine characteristics of hepatic fibrosis and simple steatosis in a population-based study of Mexican American Hispanics in south Texas. METHODS:Liver stiffness was measured by pSWE, performed by 2 separate operators, for 406 participants in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort from 2015 through 2017. Significant fibrosis (F2-F4) was defined as median stiffness > 1.34 m/s. Steatosis was determined by ultrasound. All participants underwent a clinical examination that included a comprehensive laboratory analysis and standardized interview about their medical and social history. We calculated weighted prevalence of fibrosis and determined clinical and demographic associations with significant fibrosis (with or without steatosis) and simple steatosis with no/minimal fibrosis using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS:Fifty-nine participants were excluded due to unreliable pSWE findings or inconclusive ultrasound results, for a final analysis of 347 participants. The prevalence of significant fibrosis was 13.8%; most of these participants (37/42, 88.1%) had no evidence of viral hepatitis or heavy drinking. Levels of liver enzymes were associated with fibrosis and simple steatosis. Indicators of metabolic health (insulin resistance, triglycerides, and cholesterol) were significantly associated with simple steatosis. Fibrosis, but not simple steatosis, was significantly associated with of antibodies against HCV in plasma (odds ratio, 18.9; P = .0138) and non-significantly associated with reduced platelet count (odds ratio, 0.8 per 50x103/?L; 95% CI, 0.5-1.1). Multivariable analyses, as well as sensitivity analyses removing F4 fibrosis and viral or alcoholic etiologies, confirmed our results. CONCLUSION:We estimated the prevalence of fibrosis in a large population of Mexican American Hispanics using pSWE measurements. We found Mexican American Hispanics to have a higher prevalence of fibrosis compared to European and Asian populations, primarily attributable to metabolic disease.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Genetic factors may play a role in fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). A cirrhosis risk score (CRS7) with seven single nucleotide polymorphisms was previously shown to correlate with cirrhosis in patients with CHC. This study aimed to assess the validity of CRS7 as a marker of fibrosis progression and cirrhosis and as a predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with CHC. METHODS:A total of 938 patients (677 Caucasians, 165 African-Americans, and 96 Hispanic/Other) in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis Trial were studied. CRS7 was categorized a priori as high risk (n=440), medium risk (n=310), or low risk (n=188). Patients were assessed for four possible outcomes: fibrosis progression, cirrhosis, clinical outcomes [decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)], or HCC alone. RESULTS:Twenty-nine percent (142/493) developed an increase in fibrosis score by greater than or equal to 2 points on follow-up biopsies, 58% had cirrhosis on one or more biopsies, 35% developed at least one clinical outcome, and 13% developed HCC. CRS7 (trend test) was associated with risk for fibrosis progression (P=0.04) with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.58) and with cirrhosis (P=0.05) with adjusted odds ratio of 1.19 (1.00-1.41). Rates of HCC and clinical outcomes were increased in patients with higher CRS7 scores, but were not statistically significant (P=0.12 clinical outcomes, and P=0.07 HCC). A single nucleotide polymorphism in AZIN1 was significantly associated with fibrosis progression. CONCLUSION:CRS7 was validated as a predictor of fibrosis progression and cirrhosis among Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis patients, who all had advanced fibrosis. CRS7 was not predictive of clinical outcome.
Project description:Worldwide, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has reached epidemic proportions and in parallel, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become one of the fastest growing cancers. Despite the rise in these disease entities, detailed long-term outcomes of large NAFLD-associated HCC cohorts are lacking. In this report, we compared the overall and recurrence-free survival rates of NAFLD HCC cases to patients with HBV and HCV-associated HCC cases. Distinguishing features of NAFLD-associated HCC patients in the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis setting were also identified. We conducted a retrospective study of 125 NAFLD, 170 HBV and 159 HCV HCC patients, utilizing clinical, pathological and radiographic data. Multivariate regression models were used to study the overall and recurrence-free survival. The overall survival rates were significantly higher in the NAFLD-HCC cases compared to HBV-HCC (HR?=?0.35, 95% CI 0.15-0.80) and HCV-HCC (HR?=?0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.77) cases. The NAFLD-HCC patients had a trend for higher recurrence-free survival rates compared to HBV and HCV-HCC cases. Within the NAFLD group, 18% did not have cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis; Hispanic ethnicity (OR?=?12.34, 95% CI 2.59-58.82) and high BMI (OR?=?1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.33) were significantly associated with having cirrhosis. NAFLD-HCC cases were less likely to exhibit elevated serum AFP (p?<?0.0001). After treatments, NAFLD-related HCC patients had longer overall but not recurrence-free survival rates compared to patients with viral-associated HCC. Non-Hispanic ethnicity and normal BMI differentiated non-cirrhosis versus cirrhosis NAFLD HCC. Further studies are warranted to identify additional biomarkers to stratify NAFLD patients without cirrhosis who are at risk for HCC.
Project description:Population-level nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) death rate data are sparse. We described death rates for adults with NAFLD in the United States using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System multiple-cause mortality data (2007-2016). Decedents who had NAFLD were identified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes K75.81, K76.0, K74.0, K74.6, and K76.9. Among NAFLD decedents, cause-specific deaths (e.g., cardiovascular disease [CVD], cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], non-liver cancer, diabetes mellitus [DM]) were identified by underlying cause of death ICD-10 codes. Trends were evaluated by average annual percentage change (AAPC) in age-standardized death rate (ASDR) per 100,000 persons. Among the 25,129,960 decedents aged ≥20 years, 353,234 (1.4%) decedents had NAFLD (212,322 men; 260,765 non-Hispanic whites, 32,868 non-Hispanic blacks, 46,530 Hispanics, 5,025 non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Natives [AIANs], 7,023 non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islanders [APIs]), with a mean age at death of 64.47 ± 13.17 years. During the study period, the ASDR for NAFLD increased by 15% (12.94 to 14.90; AAPC, 1.98%; P < 0.001]), while women (AAPC, 2.99% vs. 1.16% men; P = 0.003), non-Hispanic whites (AAPC, 2.48%), non-Hispanic AIANs (AAPC, 2.31%), and Hispanics (AAPC, 0.74%) experienced the highest annual increases. Stable trends were noted for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic APIs. Among subgroups, Mexican (AAPC, 1.75%) and Asian Indians (AAPC, 6.94%) experienced annual increases. The top six underlying causes of death (155,894 cirrhosis, 38,444 CVD, 19,466 non-liver cancer, 10,867 HCC, 8,113 DM, and 5,683 lung disease) accounted for 67.5% of NAFLD-related deaths. For cause-specific deaths, ASDR increased for HCC (AAPC, 3.82%), DM (AAPC, 2.23%), non-liver cancer (AAPC, 2.14%), CVD (AAPC, 1.59%), and cirrhosis (AAPC, 0.96%). Conclusion: NAFLD-related deaths in U.S. adults are increasing. Cirrhosis is the top cause-specific death, followed by CVD. Women, non-Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic AIANs (subgroups Mexicans and Asian Indians) experienced the highest increases in deaths. Policies addressing the societal burden of NAFLD are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With its increasing incidence, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is of particular concern in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). AIMS:To evaluate risk factors for advanced fibrosis in biopsy-proven NAFLD in the VHA, to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes. METHODS:In randomly selected cases from VHA databases (2005-2015), we performed a retrospective case-control study in adults with biopsy-defined NAFLD or normal liver. RESULTS:Of 2091 patients reviewed, 399 met inclusion criteria. Normal controls (n = 65) had normal liver function. The four NAFLD cohorts included: NAFL steatosis (n = 76), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without fibrosis (n = 68), NAFLD/NASH stage 1-3 fibrosis (n = 82), and NAFLD/NASH cirrhosis (n = 70). NAFLD with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was separately identified (n = 38). Most patients were older White men. NAFLD patients with any fibrosis were on average severely obese (BMI>35 kg/m2 ). Diabetes (54.4%-79.6%) and hypertension (85.8%-100%) were more common in NAFLD with fibrosis or HCC. Across NAFLD, 12.3%-19.5% were enrolled in diet/exercise programs and 0%-2.6% had bariatric surgery. Hispanics exhibited higher rates of NASH (20.6%), while Blacks had low NAFLD rates (1.4%-11.8%), particularly NAFLD cirrhosis and HCC (1.4%-2.6%). Diabetes (OR 11.8, P < .001) and BMI (OR 1.4, P < .001) were the most significant predictors of advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS:In the VHA, diabetes and severe obesity increased risk for advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. Of these patients, only a small proportion (~20%) had enrolled in diet/exercise programs or had bariatric surgery (~2%). These results suggest that providers should focus/tailor interventions to improve outcomes, particularly in those with diabetes and severe obesity.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has limited treatment options when diagnosed at advanced stages; therefore, early detection is critical to reduce mortality. There is disagreement about the value of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) in HCC surveillance. We aim to improve the sensitivity of AFP in HCC surveillance by using an algorithm that incorporates screening history to define patient-specific thresholds for positive a screen.De-identified data from the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) trial, which enrolled 1050 patients with hepatitis C and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis who were prospectively followed every 3-6 months, were analyzed. AFP was assayed at each visit, and ultrasonography was performed every 6-12 months. A panel adjudicated the diagnosis of HCC. A parametric empirical Bayes (PEB) screening algorithm, which incorporates screening history, was compared with a single threshold approach for interpreting AFP results.During a median follow-up of 80 months, 88 patients (48 of 427 with cirrhosis and 40 of 621 with advanced fibrosis) were diagnosed with HCC. PEB improved the sensitivity of AFP for detecting all HCC from 60.4% to 77.1% (P < .0005) in patients with cirrhosis and from 72.5% to 87.5% (P = .0015) in patients with advanced fibrosis, when the false-positive rate among all screenings was set at 10%. PEB algorithm detected HCC 1.7-1.9 years earlier in the cirrhosis group and 1.4-1.7 years earlier in the advanced fibrosis group, compared with single threshold approach.PEB increases the sensitivity of AFP testing and detects HCC earlier among hepatitis C patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. These data should prompt a reevaluation of how AFP is used in combination with ultrasound in HCC surveillance.
Project description:GOALS:To investigate trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and survival among Hispanics in Texas. BACKGROUND:The incidence of CRC is rising among young adults in the United States. Given Texas' large Hispanic population, investigating CRC trends in Texas may provide valuable insight into the future of CRC epidemiology in an ever-diversifying US population. STUDY:Data from the Texas Cancer Registry (1995 to 2010) were used to calculate age-adjusted CRC rates based on the 2000 US standard population. Annual percentage change (APC) and 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were reported by age, race/ethnicity, stage, and anatomic location. RESULTS:Of 123,083 CRC cases, 11% occurred in individuals below 50 years old, 26% of whom were Hispanic. Incidence was highest among African Americans (AAs; 76.3/100,000), followed by non-Hispanic whites (NHWs; 60.2/100,000) and Hispanics (50.8/100,000). Although overall CRC incidence declined between 1995 and 2010 (APC, -1.8%; P<0.01), trends differed by age and race/ethnicity. Among individuals 50 years and above, the rate of decline was statistically significant among NHWs (APC, -2.4%; P<0.01) and AAs (APC, -1.3%; P<0.01) but not among Hispanics (APC, -0.6%; P=0.13). In persons aged 20 to 39 years, CRC incidence rose significantly among Hispanics (APC, 2.6%; P<0.01) and NHWs (APC, 2.4%; P<0.01), but not AAs (APC, 0.3%; P=0.75). CSS rates among Hispanics and NHWs were comparable across most age groups and cancer stages, whereas CSS rates among AAs were generally inferior to those observed among NHWs and Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS:Although CRC incidence has declined in Texas, it is rising among young Hispanics and NHWs while declining more slowly among older Hispanics than among older NHWs and AAs.
Project description:Unintended birth is associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. In 2006, US Hispanics had the highest unintended birth rate (45 births/1,000 women) compared to other groups. One-fifth of US Hispanic women reside in Texas, yet unintended birth among Texas Hispanics has not been studied. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of unintended birth in this population. Using data from Hispanic participants in the Texas Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2010, we studied unintended birth in relation to demographic, lifestyle and partner characteristics. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) were computed for each characteristic and the analysis was stratified by maternal nativity (US vs foreign born). The weighted proportion of unintended birth was 49.5 % (CI = 45.9-52.6). In adjusted analyses, women aged 12-19 had a higher prevalence of unintended birth compared to ?20 years (POR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.7). Unmarried (POR = 1.5, CI = 1.1-2.1), uninsured (POR = 1.7, CI = 1.2-2.3), and US-born (POR = 1.6, CI = 1.0-2.6) women had higher prevalence compared to married, insured and foreign-born women, respectively. Among US-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence of unintended birth was associated with being young, unmarried and experiencing psychological stressors within 12 months of giving birth; among foreign-born Hispanic women, higher prevalence was associated with lack of insurance. Efforts to reduce unintended birth in Texas might focus on young, single, uninsured and US-born Hispanic women. Analyses of other pre-pregnancy factors and health outcomes among Texas Hispanics could increase understanding of the differences we observed in unintended birth between US and foreign-born Hispanics.
Project description:Disparities in cancer risk exist between ethnic groups in the United States. These disparities often result from differential access to healthcare, differences in socioeconomic status and differential exposure to carcinogens. This study uses cancer incidence data from the population based Texas Cancer Registry to investigate the disparities in digestive and respiratory cancers from 2000 to 2008. A Bayesian hierarchical regression approach is used. All models are fit using the INLA method of Bayesian model estimation. Specifically, a spatially varying coefficient model of the disparity between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic incidence is used. Results suggest that a spatio-temporal heterogeneity model best accounts for the observed Hispanic disparity in cancer risk. Overall, there is a significant disadvantage for the Hispanic population of Texas with respect to both of these cancers, and this disparity varies significantly over space. The greatest disparities between Hispanics and Non-Hispanics in digestive and respiratory cancers occur in eastern Texas, with patterns emerging as early as 2000 and continuing until 2008.