Comprehensive genomic analysis identifies pathogenic variants in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients in South India.
ABSTRACT: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is an early-onset, autosomal dominant form of non-insulin dependent diabetes. Genetic diagnosis of MODY can transform patient management. Earlier data on the genetic predisposition to MODY have come primarily from familial studies in populations of European origin.In this study, we carried out a comprehensive genomic analysis of 289 individuals from India that included 152 clinically diagnosed MODY cases to identify variants in known MODY genes. Further, we have analyzed exome data to identify putative MODY relevant variants in genes previously not implicated in MODY. Functional validation of MODY relevant variants was also performed.We found MODY 3 (HNF1A; 7.2%) to be most frequently mutated followed by MODY 12 (ABCC8; 3.3%). They together account for ~?11% of the cases. In addition to known MODY genes, we report the identification of variants in RFX6, WFS1, AKT2, NKX6-1 that may contribute to development of MODY. Functional assessment of the NKX6-1 variants showed that they are functionally impaired.Our findings showed HNF1A and ABCC8 to be the most frequently mutated MODY genes in south India. Further we provide evidence for additional MODY relevant genes, such as NKX6-1, and these require further validation.
Project description:Finding new causes of monogenic diabetes helps understand glycaemic regulation in humans. To find novel genetic causes of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), we sequenced MODY cases with unknown aetiology and compared variant frequencies to large public databases. From 36 European patients, we identify two probands with novel RFX6 heterozygous nonsense variants. RFX6 protein truncating variants are enriched in the MODY discovery cohort compared to the European control population within ExAC (odds ratio = 131, P = 1 × 10-4). We find similar results in non-Finnish European (n = 348, odds ratio = 43, P = 5 × 10-5) and Finnish (n = 80, odds ratio = 22, P = 1 × 10-6) replication cohorts. RFX6 heterozygotes have reduced penetrance of diabetes compared to common HNF1A and HNF4A-MODY mutations (27, 70 and 55% at 25 years of age, respectively). The hyperglycaemia results from beta-cell dysfunction and is associated with lower fasting and stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels. Our study demonstrates that heterozygous RFX6 protein truncating variants are associated with MODY with reduced penetrance.Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is the most common subtype of familial diabetes. Here, Patel et al. use targeted DNA sequencing of MODY patients and large-scale publically available data to show that RFX6 heterozygous protein truncating variants cause reduced penetrance MODY.
Project description:Pregnant women with diabetes may have underlying beta cell dysfunction due to mutations/rare variants in genes associated with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). MODY gene screening would reveal those women genetically predisposed and previously unrecognized with a monogenic form of diabetes for further clinical management, family screening and genetic counselling. However, there are minimal data available on MODY gene variants in pregnant women with diabetes from India. In this study, utilizing the Next generation sequencing (NGS) based protocol fifty subjects were screened for variants in a panel of thirteen MODY genes. Of these subjects 18% (9/50) were positive for definite or likely pathogenic or uncertain MODY variants. The majority of these variants was identified in subjects with autosomal dominant family history, of whom five were in women with pre-GDM and four with overt-GDM. The identified variants included one patient with HNF1A Ser3Cys, two PDX1 Glu224Lys, His94Gln, two NEUROD1 Glu59Gln, Phe318Ser, one INS Gly44Arg, one GCK, one ABCC8 Arg620Cys and one BLK Val418Met variants. In addition, three of the seven offspring screened were positive for the identified variant. These identified variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, these findings in pregnant women with diabetes, imply that a proportion of GDM patients with autosomal dominant family history may have MODY. Further NGS based comprehensive studies with larger samples are required to confirm these finding.
Project description:The present study reports on the frequency and the spectrum of genetic variants causative of monogenic diabetes in Russian children with non?type 1 diabetes mellitus. The present study included 60 unrelated Russian children with non?type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnosed before the age of 18 years. Genetic variants were screened using whole?exome sequencing (WES) in a panel of 35 genes causative of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and transient or permanent neonatal diabetes. Verification of the WES results was performed using PCR?direct sequencing. A total of 38 genetic variants were identified in 33 out of 60 patients (55%). The majority of patients (27/33, 81.8%) had variants in MODY?related genes: GCK (n=19), HNF1A (n=2), PAX4 (n=1), ABCC8 (n=1), KCNJ11 (n=1), GCK+HNF1A (n=1), GCK+BLK (n=1) and GCK+BLK+WFS1 (n=1). A total of 6 patients (6/33, 18.2%) had variants in MODY?unrelated genes: GATA6 (n=1), WFS1 (n=3), EIF2AK3 (n=1) and SLC19A2 (n=1). A total of 15 out of 38 variants were novel, including GCK, HNF1A, BLK, WFS1, EIF2AK3 and SLC19A2. To summarize, the present study demonstrates a high frequency and a wide spectrum of genetic variants causative of monogenic diabetes in Russian children with non?type 1 diabetes mellitus. The spectrum includes previously known and novel variants in MODY?related and unrelated genes, with multiple variants in a number of patients. The prevalence of GCK variants indicates that diagnostics of monogenic diabetes in Russian children may begin with testing for MODY2. However, the remaining variants are present at low frequencies in 9 different genes, altogether amounting to ~50% of the cases and highlighting the efficiency of using WES in non?GCK?MODY cases.
Project description:Genetic testing for monogenic diabetes is important for patient care. Given the extensive genetic and clinical heterogeneity of diabetes, exome sequencing might provide additional diagnostic potential when standard Sanger sequencing-based diagnostics is inconclusive.The aim of the study was to examine the performance of exome sequencing for a molecular diagnosis of MODY in patients who have undergone conventional diagnostic sequencing of candidate genes with negative results.We performed exome enrichment followed by high-throughput sequencing in nine patients with suspected MODY. They were Sanger sequencing-negative for mutations in the HNF1A, HNF4A, GCK, HNF1B and INS genes. We excluded common, non-coding and synonymous gene variants, and performed in-depth analysis on filtered sequence variants in a pre-defined set of 111 genes implicated in glucose metabolism.On average, we obtained 45 X median coverage of the entire targeted exome and found 199 rare coding variants per individual. We identified 0-4 rare non-synonymous and nonsense variants per individual in our a priori list of 111 candidate genes. Three of the variants were considered pathogenic (in ABCC8, HNF4A and PPARG, respectively), thus exome sequencing led to a genetic diagnosis in at least three of the nine patients. Approximately 91% of known heterozygous SNPs in the target exomes were detected, but we also found low coverage in some key diabetes genes using our current exome sequencing approach. Novel variants in the genes ARAP1, GLIS3, MADD, NOTCH2 and WFS1 need further investigation to reveal their possible role in diabetes.Our results demonstrate that exome sequencing can improve molecular diagnostics of MODY when used as a complement to Sanger sequencing. However, improvements will be needed, especially concerning coverage, before the full potential of exome sequencing can be realized.
Project description:Maturity-onset Diabetes of the young (MODY) is an early-onset, autosomal dominant form of non-insulin dependent diabetes. Genetic diagnosis of MODY can transform patient management. Earlier data on the genetic predisposition to MODY have come primarily from familial studies in populations of European origin. Using next generation sequencing, we carried out a comprehensive genomic analysis of 289 individuals from India that included 152 clinically diagnosed MODY cases to identify variants in known MODY genes. Our findings report that HNF1A and ABCC8 are among the most frequently mutated MODY genes in south India.
Project description:There is wide variation in the age at diagnosis of diabetes in individuals with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) due to a mutation in the HNF1A gene. We hypothesized that common variants at the HNF1A locus (rs1169288 [I27L], rs1800574 [A98V]), which are associated with type 2 diabetes susceptibility, may modify age at diabetes diagnosis in individuals with HNF1A-MODY. Meta-analysis of two independent cohorts, comprising 781 individuals with HNF1A-MODY, found no significant associations between genotype and age at diagnosis. However after stratifying according to type of mutation (protein-truncating variant [PTV] or missense), we found each 27L allele to be associated with a 1.6-year decrease (95% CI -2.6, -0.7) in age at diagnosis, specifically in the subset (n = 444) of individuals with a PTV. The effect size was similar and significant across the two independent cohorts of individuals with HNF1A-MODY. We report a robust genetic modifier of HNF1A-MODY age at diagnosis that further illustrates the strong effect of genetic variation within HNF1A upon diabetes phenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a form of monogenic diabetes with autosomal dominant inheritance. To date, mutations in 11 genes have been frequently associated with this phenotype. In Brazil, few cohorts have been screened for MODY, all using a candidate gene approach, with a high prevalence of undiagnosed cases (MODY-X). METHODS:We conducted a next-generation sequencing target panel (tNGS) study to investigate, for the first time, a Brazilian cohort of MODY patients with a negative prior genetic analysis. One hundred and two patients were selected, of which 26 had an initial clinical suspicion of MODY-GCK and 76 were non-GCK MODY. RESULTS:After excluding all benign and likely benign variants and variants of uncertain significance, we were able to assign a genetic cause for 12.7% (13/102) of the probands. Three rare MODY subtypes were identified (PDX1/NEUROD1/ABCC8), and eight variants had not been previously described/mapped in genomic databases. Important clinical findings were evidenced in some cases after genetic diagnosis, such as MODY-PDX1/HNF1B. CONCLUSION:A multiloci genetic approach allowed the identification of rare MODY subtypes, reducing the large percentage of MODY-X in Brazilian cases and contributing to a better clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic characterization of these rare phenotypes.
Project description:Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) as a result of mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-? (HNF1A) is often misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Recent work has shown that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are lower in HNF1A-MODY than type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or glucokinase (GCK)-MODY. We aim to replicate these findings in larger numbers and other MODY subtypes.hs-CRP levels were assessed in 750 patients (220 HNF1A, 245 GCK, 54 HNF4-? [HNF4A], 21 HNF1-? (HNF1B), 53 type 1 diabetes, and 157 type 2 diabetes).hs-CRP was lower in HNF1A-MODY (median [IQR] 0.3 [0.1-0.6] mg/L) than type 2 diabetes (1.40 [0.60-3.45] mg/L; P < 0.001) and type 1 diabetes (1.10 [0.50-1.85] mg/L; P < 0.001), HNF4A-MODY (1.45 [0.46-2.88] mg/L; P < 0.001), GCK-MODY (0.60 [0.30-1.80] mg/L; P < 0.001), and HNF1B-MODY (0.60 [0.10-2.8] mg/L; P = 0.07). hs-CRP discriminated HNF1A-MODY from type 2 diabetes with hs-CRP <0.75 mg/L showing 79% sensitivity and 70% specificity (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve = 0.84).hs-CRP levels are lower in HNF1A-MODY than other forms of diabetes and may be used as a biomarker to select patients for diagnostic HNF1A genetic testing.
Project description:Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a frequently misdiagnosed type of diabetes, which is characterized by early onset, autosomal dominant inheritance, and absence of insulin dependence. The most frequent subtypes are due to mutations of the GCK (MODY 2), HNF1A (MODY 3), and HNF4A (MODY 1) genes. We undertook the first multicenter genetic study of MODY in the Portuguese population. The GCK, HNF1A, and HNF4A genes were sequenced in 46 unrelated patients that had at least two of the three classical clinical criteria for MODY (age at diagnosis, family history, and clinical presentation). The functional consequences of the mutations were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Mutations were identified in 23 (50%) families. Twelve families had mutations in the GCK gene, eight in the HNF1A gene, and three in the HNF4A gene. These included seven novel mutations (GCK c.494T>C, GCK c.563C>G, HNF1A c.1623G>A, HNF1A c.1729C>G, HNF4A c.68delG, HNF4A c.422G>C, HNF4A c.602A>C). Mutation-positive patients were younger at the time of diagnosis when compared to mutation-negative patients (14.3 vs. 23.0 years, p = 0.011). This study further expands the spectrum of known mutations associated with MODY, and may contribute to a better understanding of this type of diabetes and a more personalized clinical management of affected individuals.
Project description:Genetic testing for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) may be relevant for treatment and prognosis in patients with usually early-onset, non-ketotic, insulin-sensitive diabetes and for monitoring strategies in non-diabetic mutation carriers. This study describes the first 10 years of genetic testing for MODY in The Netherlands in terms of volume and test positive rate, medical setting, purpose of the test and age of patients tested. Some analyses focus on the most prevalent subtype, HNF1A MODY. Data were retrospectively extracted from a laboratory database. In total, 502 individuals were identified with a pathogenic mutation in HNF4A, GCK or HNF1A between 2001 and 2010. Although mutation scanning for MODY was used at an increasing rate, cascade testing was only used for one relative, on average, per positive index patient. Testing for HNF1A MODY was mostly requested by internists and paediatricians, often from regional hospitals. Primary care physicians and clinical geneticists rarely requested genetic testing for HNF1A MODY. Clinical geneticists requested cascade testing relatively more often than other health professionals. A substantial proportion (currently 29%) of HNF1A MODY probands was at least 40 years old at the time of testing. In conclusion, the number of individuals genetically tested for MODY so far in The Netherlands is low compared with previously predicted numbers of patients. Doctors' valuation of the test and patients' and family members' response to (an offer of) genetic testing on the other hand need to be investigated. Efforts may be needed to develop and implement translational guidelines.